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After several months of almost uninterrupted labor, the History of 
Bartholomew County is completed. In issuing it to our patrons we 
do not claim for it perfection ; but that it contains that reasonable de- 
gree of accm-acj which onl}' could be expected of us, is confidently 
asserted. The difficulties that surround such an undertaking can 
scarcel}^ be realized by one who has never engaged in work of the 
kind. To reconcile the doubtful and often conflicting statements 
that are so frequently made by those who would seem to be best 
informed, is a task both perplexing and tedious. Yet we believe 
that we have been able to present a history of the coiuity that is as 
nearly complete as reason can demand, and the book exceeds our 
promises in almost every particular. We have endeavored to set 
forth the facts in as concise and unostentatious language as possible, 
believing it is for the facts and not for -rhetorical display that the 
book is desired. The mechanical execution and general appear- 
ance of the volume will recommend it, even to the fastidious. The 
arrangement of the matter is such as to render an index almost 
superfluous, as the subject under consideration is at the top of every 
right-hand page. For further details the italic subdivisions will 
enable the reader to refer with readiness to any topic. In the spelling 
of proper names there is such a wide difference, even among mem- 
bers of the same family, and it is a matter of so arbitrarj^ a nature, 
that our only guide was each man's desire. Every clew that gave 
promise of important facts connected with the count3''s historj' has 
been investigated by those engaged in the work. We believe the 
volume will be favorably received and highly appreciated by those 
for whom it was prepared. Our thanks are due to those who have 
rendered us assistance and to our patrons. 

Chicago, Ili.., September, 1888. 


• Past i-histoet of indiawa. 


PfiEHISTORIC Raci:s 17 

Antiquities 1^ 

Chinese, Tlio 18 

Discovery by CoUniitnis 33 

Exploralious by tlie Wliites 87 

Indians, The 31 

Immigration, The First 18 

Immigralion, Tlie Secona 20 

ryrauiids. etc. The 21 

Relics of the Mound-Builders 23 

Siivage Customs 34 

Tartars, The 23 

Vincennes 39 

Wabash Kiver, The 39 

AVhite Men, The First 37 


National Policies, etc 41 

American Policy, The 46 

Atrocity of the Savages 47 

Burningof Hinton 48 

British Policy, Tlie 46 

Clark's Expeditiou 52 

French Scheme, The 41 

Gilbault, Father 65 

Government of the Northwest 67 

Hamilton's Career 64 

Liquor and Gaming Laws 74 

Missionaries, The Catholic 42 

Ordinance of 1787 70 

Pontiac's War 46 

Kuse Against the Indians C4 

Vigo, Francis 6 


Operations Against the Indians 75 

Battle at Peoria Lake 104 

Campaign of Harrison 92 

Cession Treaties 93 

Defeat of St. Clair 79 

Defensive Operations 70 

Expedition of Harmer 75 

Expedition of Wayne 79 

Expedition of St. Clair 78 

Expedition of Williamson 78 

Fort Miami, Battle of 80 

Harrison and the Indians 87 

Hopkins' Campaign 105 

Kiekapoo Town, Burning of. 78 

Maumee, Battle of. 75 

Massacre at Pigeon Roost 103 

Mississiuewa Town, Battle at 106 

Oratory, Tecumseh's H4 

Prophet Town, Destruction of 100 

Peace with the Indians 100 

Siege of Fort Wayne 101 

Siege of Fort Harrison 103 

Tecumseh Ill 

Tippecanoe, Battle of. 98 

War of 1812 lol 

War of 1812, Close of the loS 


Obganization of Indiana Territory 82 

Bank, Establishment of 120 

Courts, Formation of 120 

County Offices, Appointmentof. 119 

Corydon,the Capital „ 117 

Gov. Posey 117 

Indiana in 1810 84 

Population in 1815 118 

Territorial Legislature, The First 84 

Weilem Sun, The 84 


Organization of tiik Statk, etc 121 

AmendiiRut, The Filteenth 147 

Black Hawk War UG 

Constitution, Formation of the 121 

Caiiipai',Mis Against the Indians 128 

Deloal of Black Hawk 130 

lOxodu.s of the Indians 131 

General Assembly, The First 122 

Guadaliii' -Hidalgo, Treaty of 142 

Harmony < omniunity 134 

Indian lilies 132 

Immigration 125 

Lafayette, Action at 127 

Land Sales 133 

Mexican War, The 136 

Slavery 144 


Indiana inthi^, Reheli.ion 148 

Batteries of Ijight Infantry 182 

Battle Record of States 188 

Call to Arms, The 149 

Colored Troops of Indiana 182 

Calls ol 18G4 177 

Field, In the 152 

Independent Cavalry Regiment 181 

Morgan's Raid 170 

Miuute-Men 170 

One Hundred Days' Men 176 

Regiments, Formation of 151 

Regiments, Sketch of 153 

Six Months' Regiments 172 


State Affairs After the Rebellion 189 

Agriculture 209 

Coal 207 

Divorce Laws 193 

Finances 194 

Geology 205 

Internal Improvements 199 

Indiana Horticultural Society 212 

Indiana Promological Society 213 

Special Laws 190 

State Rank „ 196 

State Board of Agrieulture 209 

State Expositions 210 

Wealth and Progress 197 


Education and Benevolence 215 

Blind Institute, The ; 232 

City School System 218 

Compensation of Teachers 220 

Denominational and Private Institutions.... 2.30 

Deaf and Dumb Institute 236 

Education 265 

Enumeration of Scholars 219 

Family Worship 252 

Free School Sysiem, The 215 

Funds, Management of the 217 

Female Prison and Reformatory 241 

HouBOof Refuge, The ...243 

Insane Hospital, The 238 

Northern Indiana Normal School 229 

Origin of School Funds 221 

Purdue University 224 

School Statistics 218 

State Universilv, The 222 

State Normal School 228 

State Prison, South' 239 

State I'rison, North' 240 

Total School Funds 220 




4 CHAFl'ER I. 

Geoi-ooy — TopoLTajiIiy — Drniimge — Drift 
Period— Cailjoniforous A^e — Niagura 
Group — Local Details — Fossils — Auti- 
quites, Etc 277 


County Organization — Legislaf ire Enact- 
uieut— First Board and Its Doings— Lo- 
catiug the Connty Feat — Sale of Lots— 
Changes in the Board — Rnances — 
County Poor — Public Buildings, Court 
Houses aud Jails — Avenues of Travel- 
Ferries and Bridges — Public Officers — 
, Elections— Oi'gauization of Townships- 
Agricultural Societies— Medical Society. 313 


Early Settlement — Character of the Pio- 
neers — William Connor — First Settlers 
aud "VVheie They Located — Early J^uul 
Sales — Hunters and Their Game — Pio- 
neer Dress — Amusements — Earlv Mar- 
riages—Trade and Commerce — Politi- 
cal Campaigns, Etc 3C6 

C&APTER ly. 

Indian History — Situation Unfavorable for 
the Red Man — Indian Land Tides — The 
Delaware Nation — A Doomed Race — 
Pigeon Roost Massacre — Battle at Tip- 
ton's Island — Tieaty at St. Marys 405 


Bekchand Bar— First Courts — Adoption 
of Seal — p:arly Cases — Miscellaneous 
Items — Judges of Circuit and Common 
Pleas Courts— Associate Judges— Prose- 
cuting Attorneys — Clerks— Sheriffs — 
Roll of Attorneys 413 


Military History — Early Militia— Mexi- 
can War Companies — Conditon Prior 
to the Civil War — Beginning of HostiU- 
ties — First Company for the War — 
Other Troc^s — Later Public Sentiment 

—Morgan Raid — Drafts — Men Furnish- 
ed by tlie Counly — Bounty and R.'lief 
—Roll of Honor 431 

Religious History- The Methodisl Epis- 
copal Church — Its Classes at St. Louis, 
Hope, Newbern, Hai-tsville, Carter's 
Chapel, Bethel Chuich, St. Louis Cross- 
ing, Clifford, Pelersville, Burnsville, 
Trmity, Azalia, Walesbnro, Eli/abetli- 
town. New Zion, South Bethany, Mount 
Healthy, Mount Olive, Nineveh and 
Mount Pleasant — The African Jletho- 
dist Episcopal Church — Baptist Clnircli 
— Its Cla.sses at Sharon, Haw Creek, 
Little Sand Creek, Columbus, South 
Bethany — Second Baptist (Colored; 
C;hurch — The Catholic Church — United 
Brethren — Society of Friends — New 
Light Christians — Si')>arafe r.aiitists in 
Christ — St. Paul E)iist'opal Mission — 
German Evangelical Liithcian t'lunvh — 
English Evangelical Lutheran Clnnvh — 
Christian Union Clnn-L-h— The .Methodist 
Epi.scojial Church, Snuth- Jewish Svn- 
agogue — Christ ian Church— The Morav- 
ian Chm'ch of Hope 4?o 


Schools — Northwest Territory — Early 
School Legislation — Changes in the 
Laws — Early School Days — Qualifica- 
tion of Teachers — Examinations — 
The Pioneer Teacher — Rules and Cus- 
toms — Other Customs — Branches 
Taught— City of Columbus — Its Pub- 
lic Schools — Township Schools— Harts- 
ville University — Pi-ogress Under the 
New Constitution 635 

Towns — City of Columbus — ANHien and 
How J'ouuded — Pri\ations of the Early 
Settlers — Early Taverns — Pioneer Doc- 
tors — First Merchants — Railroads — 
Waterworks, Gas and Electric Light — 
Public Buildings — Additions— News- 
papers — Fraternities— Banking — Manu- 
factories — Hope — Elizabethtown — 
HartsviUe — Jonesville, Etc 573 


In order to find any particular biographical 
sketch, refer to the township in which the per- 
son liyes, where they will be found in alphabeti- 
ci!l order. The sketches for each township be- 
gin as follows: 

Clay Township 039 

Clifty Township 649 

Columbus City 601 

Columbus Township 700 

German Township .". 793 

Haw Creek Township '.'.'..'. 804 

Jackson Township 802 

Nineveh Township 865 

Ohio Township ['/' 871 

Rock Creek Township 879 

Sand Creek Township ' ' ' ] 881 

AVayneTownsliip g}j5 

Sutherland, Blutord 890 


Banker, A. J 579 

Brown, James S 647 

Cooper, Geo. W 477 

Crumji, Francis J 341 

Crump, John S 081 

Hord, Francis T 375 

Irwin Jeseph 1 409 

Lambert, II. W 749 

McCormack, P. H 511 

Norton, Wm. F 013 

Reeves, A. B 715 

Reeves, M. T 783 

Stansifer, Simeon 443 

Swengel, W. S 545 

Terrell, W. H. II 307 




Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins^ 
and though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinions of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suffice to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so eadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
antediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1656 anno mimdi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent, 

•IS msTour OF Indiana. 

will not l)c claimed; because it is not probable, iLougli it may 'be 
possible, that a settlement in a land v/hich may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was effected by the immediate 
Ibllowcrs of the first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
lieaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wiclced world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so .far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a "Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which d.. btless at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and pre nted a continuous shore from Lojnitka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bound 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
1757, A.M. ; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
tc them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
tlie Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
ratlis, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 


periodical visitinrr gods, surrendered tbcir Ltidies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and watched lor the rclurn of some transmi- 
grated ^oul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
thej believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essencs or 
Theraputa3 of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Thcraputre or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copj^or foinid within 
the tumuli; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all the modus ope?'andi of ancient mining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive 2:)roofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi vallej', while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known b}^ their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went wdst fi-om Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European ^Northman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45" was an ice-incumbcrcd waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebrre averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebrtB ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by tveenty-eight, by twelve inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been 6i::ty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that he may 


devour the budding tops of those great trees. Otlier efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for such a consummation; nor is it beyond the range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up tlie unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
grants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
brino'ing in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

AVith the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom says: "It is now the generally 
received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. Tlie number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet farther confirmed by some remarkable traces 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, arc supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 


boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Bchrincr's Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that thej^ as well as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were the Ilionrrnoos, 
who are, iu the Chinese annals, said to liave emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elj'sian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowl- 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which be 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid? 
situated in the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highly-polished porphyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 


notwitlistanding all their varied nccoiuplisluncnts, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious dut}' led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously sava:;-e and ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown. 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portions of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up in sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and wheu about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Mahometanism urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 


spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 



came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in com])arative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to tiie Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and Northwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating forages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it offered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and HuiL 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 


in some hasty effort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of "Waters, and indeed tlie country from 
the trap roclcs of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Yincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, "Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Fourteen-Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the '' Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications which has 
ever come xinder my notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the 'Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a short distance • 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 240 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridije, faciuii: the creek. This natural wall 


is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the car])oniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the ujiper 
ten feet being vertical, ■ The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet high. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
"Within the artificial walls is a string of mounds which rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliffs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in his efforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground, A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics, A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillsidcj and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry off the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the otliers, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as affording an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound,' There is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passage way to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort oi* 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 



all points. Stono axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spcar-points, totums, 
charms and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing the field at tjie foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " tlie Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Bone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. *' It is," ho states 
*' situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being the only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and afforded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by the cottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especially rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of -work 
has been very abundant, and is still found in such quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of clay, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes by surrounding them with walls of earth and 



stone. In same of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state of ])reservation, liavc from time to time 
been foitnd, and fragments are so cojumon that every student of 
archa3ologj can liave a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh-water shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 


The "-reat circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west of 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, ofier a subject for the anti- 
quarian as deeply interesting as any of * the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Sotne of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, sto)ie axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-Oil' Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, xmearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglyphical characters really are^ 
"Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that which is desired to be repre- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians .of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
doir; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme v/as resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes: and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed au alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we must dv/ell in 
a world of mere speculation. , 


Yigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the laud, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with liicroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
tlie form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American ])eoplc, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possiblj' indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "Kew World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says : 

" Kecently a German writer has put forward one theorj' on the 
subject, and an English writei' has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. The difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the Mon- 
golidae. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian famil}', which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our i) ive 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Frichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably bo dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of thei Old TVorld, and 
gave to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
Brown, the latest authority, attributes, in his " Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. He saj^s that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on tlie American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think that Jay)an, the Ivuviles, 
and neighboring regions, msiy be regarded as tlie original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
«by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features tlian is 
seen iu any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authoi'ity is altogether in favor of the 0])inion that our so- 
called Indians are a brancluof the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen tlie opinion. The tribes of both North 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the snbject. JSTo doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an zVsiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which might account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between (he Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in c ther words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should bo theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their Incas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Nortlnvesterii Indians of the prcocnt; obtaining 
all, and bestowing vciy little. The subjection of the Mongolian 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to ■which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
years later. Those statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be siib- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Red Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to affect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessaiy, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future, 


devise some mctlioJ under wliicli tlie remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the sweets of public kindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil aud tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they sa}'- that he was iiever 
formidable until the vrhite man supplied him with the M-eapons of 
modern warfore; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
Lis retired Ixome, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country by the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust, A. modern writer says, 
when speaking of the Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion ot 
demons, even with odds against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military systems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy any thing which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued bj' the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the" Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian people 
i©f the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 


Bedulouslv inculcated in the minds of tlie rI,?ino- rrencration as are 
tlie elements of reading, -writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies v.'cre the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
lutd passed. In a forest country ho selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himselr of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. '1490209 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fierj' j^assions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
tbe sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff". These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible, "War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 



glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
Vequisitcs. For such a purjDose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of hi 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is bounded on the east bj^thc mcn(5ianline 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending^ due 
north from the mouth of tlie Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Oliio river from the nioutli of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the Wabash; on tlic west hyaline drawn along the middle of 
the Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 scj^uare miles, lying between 37° 
47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 45' and 11° 1' west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Nova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Kegion. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were recoiled 




in a friendly manner and treated Lospitiil)]y. Tliev were made the 
honored guest: at a great feast, where honiinj, fUh, dog meat and 
roast buffalo meat were spread before them in great abuildauec. In 
♦16S-3 LaSivIie explored the West, but it is not known that he entered 
the regicm now embraced within tjjc State of Indiana. IIi^ took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whoso honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name "Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
into collision. But the country was actually held and occupied^'by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Plence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity. 

The "Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Eyswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XIY., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary efforts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 

nrsTouY OF ixniANA. 39 


The Wabasli was first named hy the Froneli,and p pel led by them 
Ouabacihe. This river was known even before the Ohio, and wa.^ 
navigated as the Onabacheall the waj to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thouglit they passed 
the month of the Ouabachc instead of the Ohio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabachc or Illinois. 


Francois Morgan de Yinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes 'n the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Vinccnnes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Vinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabachc in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 408 pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept safe until Yinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

There are many other documents connected with its ear]y settle- 
ment by Yinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this officer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at JSTew 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Yinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in. 
the words of D'Artagette: " We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Yinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant officer, leaving a name 
■which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Yin- 
cennes, changed from Yinsenne to its present orthograph^'in 1719. 

Post Yincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: '^Zes FraiiGoinitoienbitalli vnfort sur 

40 niSTOllY OF IXniANA. 

leflcMveOuahncliC f ih demandercnt un. mission aire ^ ct le Pcre 
Mcvmct Icur fat envoys. Ce Pere end devoir travaillcr a la 
conversion des Mascoutens qui avoienl fait an. village sar les 
*hords dxuiicme Jleuve. C'est nne nation I ndians qai eutend la 
langue Illinoise.^^ Tj-aii slated: " Tlio Freneli have cstablislied a 
fort upon the river Wabash, and want a missionary; and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. Thej are a nation of Indians 
who understand the lani^-nage of the Illinois," 

Mermet was tlierefore the first preacher of Christianitj'- in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The wa^' I took," sajs he, " was to co)i- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the bufitxlo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, "or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance, and which one of 
his nation worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. 'Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, docs it not foUo.w that the Mani- 
tou which inha*bits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary' logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name avc find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in ISiQ. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Vin- 
cennes is thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and runniiig back on Church street, it was a plain 


building with a rough exterior, of upriglit po=ts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and CO long; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
small befl. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a s])lendid cathedral. 

Vincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the "Wea river, 
among the Ouiateuons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1GS2, the government of France began to encourage ths 
polic}'' of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about T5 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of tlie river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a lull of water. It was of trian^^alar form. 
The missionary Ileunepiu gives a good description of it, as ho was 
Olio of the company who built it, in IGT'J. Says he: " ^Vo fell the 
tx-ees that were on the top of the hill; and liaving cleared the same 
from I'ushes for about two )nnsket shot, wc began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 10 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the riverside. We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their ileshljeing too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be Aveary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they coutinned their work. This, together with the 
approach of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
hio vessel (the Griffin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
hs concealed it as much as lie could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our pre?eut circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotlierly love. '" '^^ '^" The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one, is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indifferent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here tvfo villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for along time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been latelj'- sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re^ 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the In^ 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituoiis liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 


:^^ A 

i ^\ 





:#^ C'' 



-.•-,■■'• . , " ,. ■■ • ' ■-■-7- yii' 


L... .__ 


More than a century find a lialf has iiuv/ passed since Charlevoix 
penned tlio above, witliout any change whatever in this ti-ait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1705 the Miami nation, or conl'cdcracj, 5vas composed of four 
tribes, whoso total number of warriors was estimated at onl3'' 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis ])roper, 
300 Wcas, or Ouiatenons, 300 Piaukcshawsand 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near tjie place where 
Fort "Wayne now is. The larger "Wea villages were near the banks 
of the TVabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatcnon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the Wabash between Yincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 16S8 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the "West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the "Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the "Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort "Wayne, Ouiatcnon and Vincennes. ■ These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by whicli France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. _ 



In 17G2, after Canada and its dependencies liad been surrendered 
to tlie English, Pontiuc and liis partisans Pecretlj'- organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one h\o\v all English power 
in the West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principid act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed nnder their blankets, and on agi\-en signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settleuients in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and raj)id settlement of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efibrts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efix)rts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 j^ears after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual oecujiation of Western lands 
was the only way to keejj them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, dircetlj after tlie conquest of Yiucenncs by 
Clarlc, lie cn:rfigcd a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 
the Mis.sii^-^jppi, and ascertain by celestial observations llio point 
on tbat jher intersected by latitude 30" 30', the .southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter, lie was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and establ ish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort " Jefferson " was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " K"orth- 
westera Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those '' monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-cujrdling story from Mr. Cox' " KecoUcctions of the 
Wabash Valley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Ilinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Ilarrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard. 
Hue and George Holman, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, tlie guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Hinton drove the horses while Hue '.-alked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Ilinton heard some one say Whoa 
to the horses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Ilolnian why he had called him to 
halt. Holman said that he had not spoken; Kue also denied it, 

48 KiST<:)]:v of ii-!uiana. 

but said that, lie had heard the vuJco distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you ; it was Simon Girty that 
cried "Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time cmcrg- 
« ing from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, followed hy 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Kcntuckiaua and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
niakinty a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate fli^dit across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started througb the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at niglit, until they reached Wa-pnc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house afterreceiving several severe 'lows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boys, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled np the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless sufferer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
8oon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


Ilim in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk Lis tomahawk into 
his skull abo\ ft the car, and witli his knii'o strijned off the scalp, 
which he bore back with liini to the town ne, a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust info the faces of Rue and Ilohnan, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him aud left liini for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a Inarch of three daj's more, the ]n-isoners, Rue and IIoI- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, aud barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should l)oth be burned at the 
stake thtit night, though this decision was far from being i;nani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the ftices 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, tookllolman by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellov/ prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said : " I 
adopt you as my son, to fill the place of the one I have lately buried; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." "With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to llol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed, ' 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but- 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the A'ictim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the crowd aud the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said: " I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will lovctliis one, too; my old mother 
■will he glad when I tell her (hat 1 have l}rought her a son, in place 
^f the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning" 
of Red-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy ns. These innocent young 
rnen do not merit &\u'.h cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A- loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned tov>'ard the Mis- 
sissinewa and the 'Wabasli towns, while, a portion continued to De- 
troit. Ilolman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of tbe time of his captivity. Rue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of bis 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue eifected his escape in the following manner: Daring one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of S90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
"was the thief. Ai length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
Euspicioued; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war m.ight arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate hira soon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, "You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it soon. You v/ill meet with many trials 
and hardships in passiiig over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
■when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind; after that you will li." 3 plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with tbe 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Ilolman's party of Indians to "Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of hi? release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in fiivor :f recalling the council and trying 
bim again, and this was iinally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

"While with tlie Indians, Ilolman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckiau named Kicliard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings With a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomaliawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
WOT ids. W] en he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and 'urnt liim to ashes, which they scattered thz'ough the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a ca])tivity of about three years and a half, Ilolman saw an 
o: portunity of going on amission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Ilarrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on ai'riving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Eue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Kichmond, Ind. 


In tlic summer of 1778, Col. George Kogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle countj', Ya., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient Frencli settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Viucenncs, 
With respect to the maguitncle of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
ol the "West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to tost the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Ilarrodstown, to 
assemble June G, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know Avhat was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was lield on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat v;ith the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that tliey had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which paj-ment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not, Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
so hearty in favor of Clai'k's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 





bur^ and "Wliceling, pi'occcdcd down the Ohio to tlic "Falls," 
wliere ho took possession of nn island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Vin- 
cennes comprised about -100 militia, and it was a daring nndortalc- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. lie conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who liad possession of the Lake liegion. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The tact that the people ^regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildl}' replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but iiot venture out of 
towm, etc. Tins, by what has since been termed the "Rarey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
Frencli settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Yigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption w'ould they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currenc}'', and Vigo found great difficulty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. "Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Vigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Vigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold cofl'ee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would {lay tlieir little bills. 


"Doulcur," was tlic gcucial rcplj; and as an autliority on the sub- 
ject pays, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to ]iurchasc a 
silver dollar's worth of coflee; and as the P'reneh word "douleur" aU--- 
^lifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the Frencli or Eii"-- 
lisli languages expressed the idea more correctly than the doak//r 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to tin- 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
large amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Kovv', the post at Vincenncs, defended by Fort Sackvllle, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to "the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Yincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to garrison their own ibrt like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had its desired effect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Yirf^inia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their stvle of lan'nia<i-e 
and conduct chaiiged to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informino- 
them that their old lather, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherv.'ise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. lie was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confii-med it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Ivickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peoriasand branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as "Illinois" county; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of about 


30 rc/^ulars, 60 French volunteer.-^ and 400 Indians, went down a!i;I 
re-touk the post Yincenncs iu December, 177S. Ko attempt v.a? 
made hy tlie ])opulation to defend the town. Capt. Ilchii and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at the fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was talcen prisoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearinc^ of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and oni:,the 5th of February, btai'ted from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with ■water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel had to work' hard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suiFered them to shoot game whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as an 3^ of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little "Wabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterv/ard a reconnoitering ])arty was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the ISth they heard the signal gun atYincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large lil-cs" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was sup])osed to be on 
her w'ay up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


gone, and stfirvr.tioii seemed to be liovoriiii^^ ;il)out tliciii. Tlie next 
diiy tliey coiniaencod to make more canoes, when about no<in the 
sentinel on the river brought a boat with five Fienclmien Irom the 
fort. From this party they learned that they M'ore not as yet dis- 
covered. All the army crossed the ri\-cr in two canoes the next 
day, and as Clark had determined to reach the town tliat night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. Tliey plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over tliree miles. 

"Without food, benambed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at onetime mutinied aiid refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clai'k had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drumnaer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, "Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they readied 
the liigh land in perlect safety. . But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaig!! we quote from Clark's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank' of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men' transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the ofiicers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened mr 

UISl'dKY Ul-' INDIANA. 59 

face, gave tlic war-wlioop, ami inarcluHl into the water without say- 
in*^ a woi'd. The party <^azeil and loll in, one after anotlicrwitliout 
saj'ing a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordcretl those near me to 
begin a f?ivoritc soug of theirs; it soon passed lhrou<^di theline,ai!d 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about vraist-decp, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 

least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging, 
* * * -x- * * 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
ilhrough the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forv/ard with all diligence and pick up the men; and 
to encourage the party, sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired effect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the Aveak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and iloated on the old logs until they were 


taken ofTby tlic cuiuics; tlio strong and tall got ashore and built 
fires. Many ^vould reach the shore and tall with their bodies lialf 
, in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

"Thirf was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coming up to town, and took througli'this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-men as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took tlie Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly;- nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great Jiuxny gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatlj' invigor- 
ated the whole p;u-ty. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Everyman 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, sa}'-- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other, — which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessarj'. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
ahalf a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

" Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than COO men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little arm}', if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. AVe were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as the}' expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 


now to bo determined, probably in a few hours; we knew tliat 
notliiiiii; but the most dnrinij; conduct would insure success; I knew 
also tliiit a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable eircumstanoe; and as there was but little prooability of our 
rcmainin>^ until dark undiscovered, 1 di'.lerniincd to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 

To th<i InlMh'itants of Po.'<i Yincemies: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
• my array, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that arc 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be di-scovered afterv,'ard, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may de])end on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for every one I find in 
arms on iny arrival 1 shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. R. 

" I had various ideas on the i-esults of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause tlie lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered hy our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supjDosed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed oui'selvcs in 
full view of the town, — crowds gazins: at us. We were plun'T^inf 
ourselves into certain destruction or success; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the tov/n ; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, Vv'e, in leaving 
the covert we v/ere in, marched and counter-marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the beet advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 

03 }1IST01!Y nV INDIANA. 

not a ])orfcc't level, but liml frequent risings in it, of 7 <n' 8 
higher than the eonmion level, Nvhieb \v;\s covered with water; and 
as these risiiiii;t: "xener.-illy run in an oMique <lircctii)n to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, niarehing through llie water 
h}' it, which coni])letely ])reventcd our hi'ing niiinhered. We gained 
the heiglits liack of tlie town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Litait. 
Bay'ley was ordered witli l-i men to march and fire on the f^a-t; 
the main body moved in a dili'erejit direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a writrei: order to Hamilton commanding 
liim to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murdei-er; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
termsof surrender, Feb. 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writijig, ho was too far 
from aid from his own government, and l)ecause of the " unanimity" 
of his officers in the surren-: •, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Of this expedition, of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in vv'hich we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no uudertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be- 
longs to tv,^o men; Gen. George Rogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 

HIM<>i;V l)V J.\])IA\A. 63 

covered bj the threo great states of Indiana, Illinois and J\^c]li^^^,n 
Avaa added to the union, and so admitted to lie by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1TS3; (and but 
for this ver}^ conqncstj the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of theMississijipi,and so achnowlcdged 
by both our commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,Cl'0,000 people, the humau mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
tliat a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results.''* 
[John Law. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 00 men up the river 
Wabasli to intercept some boats which were laden with provision?, 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under cominand of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Lcgras, and they jjrocecded 
np the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
$50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by abont 
40 men, amOng whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit 
The provisions were taken for the ])ublic, and distribu! ' among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Yincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town, Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of White River; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use everj' means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vinccnnes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 

6i iiisTuuv OF i.xnrAXA. 

message io.tlie Dclawaros, telling tliein tliat lie would not accept 
their friendship or treat with tlieiu for i)c;icc; but that if they 
could get some of the iieighboriug tribes to become resj)ousiblo for 
their future conduct, lie would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After duo 
deliberation the Piankcshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the '' Grand Door" in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Clark's attention was next turned to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 

Clark's ingenious euse aoaixst the Indians, 

Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
Britisli soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the British 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just beeneifectcd 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, piercrd their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair-buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 


ward, wi til two other prisoners of war, Dojean and LaMotlic, to 
WillianisLuri:;, Y;i., carlj in June following-, 1779. Proclamations, 
iu his o\Vii handwriting, were found, in which lie had oHercd a 
specific sum for every Ainericaii scalp broui^ht into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this lie was 
denominated the "hair-bnyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of liviufj^ witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage he 
was. Thomas JcfForson, then Governor of Virginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer couGueuient. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, conlincd in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and pa])er, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General rhillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if lie had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 

The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault iu behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Yincennes, 
as well a? at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary'^ to the Illinois. Had it not been for the iufiucnce of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Sjianish 
milled dollars, to the supjwrt of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Wintlirop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "1-i toises, one side to Mr. Millet, anoUior to Mr. Yauurey, 
and to two streets," — a vague description ol laud. 

66 lIISTOliY OK IXniWA. 

Col. Francis A^igo was born in Moudovi, in tlic kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 17i7. He loft his parents and guardians at. a very early 
age, aTid enlisted in a Spanish rc^iuient as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it sul)5e<|ncntly to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Vigo acconipaiued this de- 
tachment. Blithe left the army and engaged in trading v.-ith the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settU;d at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where lie became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that lie was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Ivas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Jh-itain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the lugh character and 
standing of Col, Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and A'engeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
"With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, he overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Xaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Kn-wing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of affairs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previousl}"- captured, 
~ holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant. Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to parole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 


rassed by liis detontioi), beii\:^ 1>cslo^cd by the iiili:ibitants of the 
town, who loved Vigo and threatened to witlidraw their supjiurt 
from tlife gaiTJson if he would not rclen o him. Father Gibault was 
the chief ])leader for Yigo's release, llaiuilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Yigo, would do no injury to the British intercsta on 
his way to St. Loui.^. Tie went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned • > Kaslcaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Yinccnnes, 
Avithout which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his lauions expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the Britiiih is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Yigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 17T0 visited the old settlements at Yincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio, Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government atKaskaskia and Yincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headq^uar- 
ters at the falls of the Ohio, Avhcre he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian v/arfare. On reaching the settlements, Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and reipiiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number oi' adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. lie also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Yincennes, in the month of June, 1779, 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legnis, who had been appointed commandant at 
Yincennes. Acting from the precedents established by the early 
French commandants in the AYest, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
17S3, it had granted to different ])ai'ties about 2G,000 acres of laud; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 1787, when the practice 
was jirohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stu])cndous speculation, one not altogethci' creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The com;nandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were iuvestca 


witli the autliority to dispose of tlie wliolo of tluit i;u'i;e reirion 
wliicli ill 18-12 Jifvd heoii ^-ranted by tho Piankcsliaws to the FivhcIi 
inliabitants of Yincenncs, Accord iiiijlj' a vory convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into Ijy which the whole tract of couniry men- 
tioiied was to bo divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to tliat elTect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each mtynber look pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his f;ivor. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture tiie British garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At tlie head of 30 men he marched to 
Vinccnnes, where Jiis force was slightly increasetl. From this 
place he proceeded to tlie Jjritish trading post at the head of the 
Mauuiee, where Fort A\''ayne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men v/ere killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 1783, when tho treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in tho establishment of tlie inde- 
pendence of the United States. U]) to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Virginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Virginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 1781 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at tlie falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; and that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Eepublican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and ind. pendence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any j)art of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of theKas- 


kaskia, Post Yincennes and tlie neigliboritii^ villai^GS wliohave pro- 
fessed tlieinselvcs citizens of Virginia, sliall liavc tlieir titles and 
possessions confirnaed to tliem, and bo protected in tlie enjoyment 
of their rif^liis and privileges; that a qnantitj not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Virginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the ollicers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him wlien the posts and of Ivaskaskiaand Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the ollicers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid ofl' in one tract, the length oC 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Virginia; that in case 
the quantity' of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessec river, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and iiot reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of thesaid States, Virginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and honafidd dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1784:, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of luessrs. Jeffer- 
son of Virginia, Chase of ISIaryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after ISOO. except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was i-ejected. and an ordinance for the temporary 


governmeni; of the county was afloj^ted. In ITSo laws -svcrc jkisscJ 
by Congi'v , for the dis])osllIon of lauds in the territory and ])ru- 
hibiting the scttlciDcnt of iinappropriated lands by reokless speeu- 
* lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the hiw 
to some extent, and large associations, representing consideral)le 
means, were formed for the purj^ose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as tiie Lidian titles 
could be extinguished, the v/ork of settling and improving the 
lands was ])ushed rapidly furwiird. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Kathaa 
Dane; and to Kufus King and Timothy Pickering belong tlie 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained iu it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
way's of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States, To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
iu his ordinance of 1781, I' t tb.e part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which liad so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, conriec-"ting forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeabh monumc the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knov/ledge, and Unioi-, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr, Jefferson liad vainly tried to secure a sj'stem of government 
for the Northwestern territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 17S7, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and inarvelinis revolutions or])ulilic soiitiiuciit iliat once in fiveor 
ten centii. ies arc seen to Rwec]) over ii country like the breath of the 

Cutlet' was a gi'iidnatc of Yale. IJo h;ul ?! iidied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America liis name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a oourtlj'- gentleman of the old style, a 
man ofcoirunanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the Xorth. 
He ca,me representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public- 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the JSTortli- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia, The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of lier )nembers were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
cliusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1, The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever, 
- 2, Provision for public schools, giving one townsliip for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each t( .'nship; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for ptublic schools. 

3. A j^rovision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

72 irisToiiV oy inhiana. 

Be it forever r'.nicnibcrcil tluit tin's coin])act declftved tliut '• re- 
ligioT), morality-, unci knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the hai)pines3 of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
^ cation shall always be cncouragcil." JDr. Cutler jdantod himself 
on thi.s platform and would not yield. Giving his iintjuaHlIcd dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — ho took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional conventiun at Philadelphia. On 
Jiily 13, 17S7, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously ado^'ted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of sla\'cry. Soon 
the South saw their great blujider and tried to have the com})act 
repealed. In 1S03 Congress referred it to a conimittoe, of which 
John Randolph v.'as chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
waj" of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " North western Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he iram.ediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 17^8, the 
Judges being Samuel II. Parsons, James M. Yarnumand John C. 
Syniraes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted. Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Vincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions u'cre ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 

insTOiiy OK ixniAXA. 73 

Mary's rivers, but was coldly received; most of tlio chiefs IjcIdc^ 
dissatisfied wiili the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at 1va?l<as- 
kia in June, 1700. Being satisfied that there v/as no pros])ect of 
eflfecting a general peace with the Indijins of Indiana, ho resolved 
to visit Gen. llarmar at liis headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrj'ing an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthroj) 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, vrith the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
Wabash. lie directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military' ofiicers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, aj)pointed the officers, and noti- 
fied tliLj inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficult}'-, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in liis report to the President MTote as 
follows : 

"Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oial testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
Las seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during tl;e government of St, Angc here, a ro^-al 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


JMr. Sari:;;ent says tliero were alxmt 150 Frcncli families at Yin- 
ceiiiK'S in 17LU). The Jiead.-? of all these fauiilics had been at .some 
time, vebtod with certain titles to a poi'tion of the soil; and while 
the Secretary was busy in straii^htening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by SO Americans, askinj^ for the confirma- 
tion of grants o" land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. AVith reference to this 
cause, Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in case? where land liad been actually improved aiKl cultivat'xl 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have Ijoeii granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantify of iOO acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending li(pior among the Indians and others, ai d with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any militarj^ post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restjraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

V»^inthrop Sai'gent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Yincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of officers. lie had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American Kevolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
Lis judicious management of .afiairs. 



Gov, St, Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, liacl a long conversation witli Gen, llarinar, an<I concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise tiic ravages about tlic head- 
waters of tlie Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsjdvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and inarch with 
the garrison of tliat fort to Viucennes, and join Maj. llamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Viucennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which ho 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. tlarmar. 
At this ti le the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harniar at 400 effective men. Tliese, with tiie militia, 
gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Ilarmar 
marclied from Fort Washington Sept, 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and GO regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place tliey reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition ilaj. Hamtramck 
marched up th - Wabash from Viucennes, as far as the Vermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 


76 HISTORY OV IX!'I.\.\A. 

f^lifla, ILuTison, Jlandolpli, OrooiihritM-, KaDawlia niid ^[unt- 
gomeiy counties sent a joint nioniorial to the Governor ot' Wr- 
ginia, snyini^ tliat the dcfcnselc.-^s condition of the countios, fonn- 
,ing a line of nearly 400 niiics alon^- tlie Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, dcstitnteof every kind of 
siipport, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in tiiat country, they Imvc reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. TJiey further stated in their memorial: "Wo 
besr leave to observe that wc have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that tlie Indians will, in their turn, being iluslied witli victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their borrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit tliem to 
travel. Tlien is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (altliough thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all tliey have done and suffered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

Tliis memorial caused tlie Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding officers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the lirst of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the sanie time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of tlie Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to*Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this foi'cc Gen. Scutt accoi\linicly crossed the Ohio, 'May 2o_ iTOl, 
and reached the Wabasii in al)out ten days. !Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his upproacli, Hod, but he succeeded in destroy- 
inir all the villaires around Ouiatenon, tOircther with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 w rriors and taking 53 prisoners. IIo 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a "talk," 
which they carried to the towjis farther up the Waba^li, and v, IdcU 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 
March 3, 1701, Congress provided for raising and equijiping a 
regimejit for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief comniand of about 3,0'*0 trooi)S, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of "War to raarcli to the JFiami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio a'9 would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The j)Ost at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gai'- 
rison to afford a detachment of 500 or (iOO men in case of emer- 
gency, eitlier to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: "Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make tliern feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, }-ou will seek the enemy with the wliole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them witli great severity. * '''^' * * 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the ]\raumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (exce ing so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United State?, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned.'* 
Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town, Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1701, authorized Geii Wilkinson to conduct apccond 
expedition, not exceeding 500 niounted men, aj^ainst tlie Incuan 
»vil]af;ea on the Wahrush. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustcicd 
his Ibrces and wa.s ready July 20, to inarch witli o25 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' jirovisions, and 
M'ith this force he reached the Ke-na-])a-com-a-(.]ua village on the 
north hank of" Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Av^. 7, 
where lie killed six warriors and took 31 prisoners. Tiiis tov.'u, 
which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally de- 
stroyed. lA'ilkinsou encamj^ed on the ruins of the town thatnight, 
and the next day he commenced Iiis march for the Ivickapoo town 
on the prairie, M'hich lie was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. lie reported the estimated results of the expe- 
dition as follov/s: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Ivickapoo village, and c;.tdown 
at least 400 acres of corn, chieily iu the milk." 


Tl'.e Indians v;ere greatly damaged Ijn' the expeditions of Ilarmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. Thc}' 
regarded the pclic}^ of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
this time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 17S3, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or cariying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdj-aw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from tlu; United States, and from every ])ost, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lav.-ful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in st<. Iiig money, of all 
houa ^de debts previously contracted. The liritish Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treatj^ and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake liegion wero a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they afforded onctor \o i;osti!c Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among tlio Aniericiins. Tlii.^ st;itc of affairs in the 
Territory Nortlnvest of tlic Ohio continr.cJ froiri tlie coinmence- 
luont of the Revolutionary war to 179(5, wlien under a second 
treaty all British soldiers wore withdrawn from tlie country. 

In Scpteaiber, 1791, St. Clair moved fmm Fort "Washington 
Avitli about 2,000 men, and Xovemhcr 3, t.lic main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head-waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
whicli they improved on the morning of Kov.-l, about half an hour 
bef A-e suririse. The attack was first mode upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited ar»ny, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in the action were valued at $32,S00. 
There were also 100 or more x^merican women with the army of 
the Avliites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victor^'' to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whiles had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dying and the dead ! 

OEN. Wayne's great victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Major-Gen- 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony "Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for ro-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training his 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 ; ^en 
lie moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Waj'ne vras ])reparing for an offensive campaij^nj every 

so 1UST(>);V OF INinANA. 

possible incaiis was employed to imliice tlie hostile tribes of tbc 
Northwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with ilu; Aiuei-i- 

«caii GovenimciiJ ; ppeeches wore sent !iino!i.i;- tlii m, and a^-culs to 
make treiilies were alsot^ent, but little was acconii)iislie..l. M;tjor 
llanitramck, who still remained at V'^inceiines, succeeded in con- 
cUidinn- a geaei-al peace with the Wabai^li and EUinois Indian^; but 
the tribes more immediately under the iuflucjicc of the Jh-itish 

' refused to hear the sentiments of friendslii]) that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their counuge 
had been aroused by St. Clrir's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which liad preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
riiaintain tliat boundary. ' 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,C00 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. \Yayne July 2G, 
1794, and on ilic 2Sth the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumeo river. Arriving at the n)uuth of 
the x\uglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumeo, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the Eritish, 
the American army gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia^ The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 xlmerican troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields w.-^re consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol sliot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee,"the 
British Indian agent and "principal stitnulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about £0 


Tuilos on cacli .■^ide of the ^[tiumce wcio destroyed, as well as those 
for a considcrali:!'; distance around that post. 

Sept. Ji, 1 791, the army under Cren. W yne conimcnced its 
march toward the deserted ]\liami villages at the conlliieuce of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arrivin;^' Get. 17, and on the fuHow- 
:n^ day the .'-ite of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Xov. 22, and garrisoned hy a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Kamtramck, who 
gave lo the new fort the name of Fort "Wayne. In ISl-la new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Wasliington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, %Yith tlie Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Ilerc, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer 
succeeded in concluding a general tre fcy of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the jSTorth western Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
affairs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with tlieir arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts v.'ithin the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
uicu, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division iu 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was onranized. 



Ou the liiial success of Aincric;iii arms and diplomacy in 179G, 
the prin(;ipal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Yiucennes, whicli at this time comprised abont 50 house?, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the ISth century the condition of society at 
Yincennes imj)roved wonderfully. 

Besides Yiucennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg no'.v stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at "Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875, 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Yincennes. May 
13, ISOO, Win. Henry Harrison, a native ol Yirginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer, 
^to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
Wm. Clark, Henry Yanderburgh and John Griffin were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Yincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov, Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 


l!l.^'l\l];V Ol-- IMIiI \.\A. S3 

to pas? such liiws as thvy dcumoA nccossury for the. present govern- 
ment ol' tho Territory. This session beg-m ]\[arcli 3, ISOJ. 

From this time to 1810 tlio priiicipiil sulijeclswliich attracted the 
attention oI' tiic people of Indiana were land spccuhitions, the 
adjustineut of land titles, the question of negro slaver}-, the purchase 
of Indian lauds hy treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of tlie right of .-ulTrage, tho division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
viev^'s and proceedings of the Shawauee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Proplict. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territorj', had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the 'iorritory, 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afr;:rward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling tliem, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamatio7i 
April G, 1801, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year ISOi all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33^ was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 

AVhen it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeholders were in favor of organizing 
a General As?enibly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1804, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of 1787, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory, to choose members of a House 
of Ilepresentatives, who should meet at Vincennes Feb. 1 and 


msTORr OF iNnr.\NA. 

adopt measures for tlio orgoaiization of'aTerrilorial Council. Those 
delegates were elected, and met accordin<^ to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the rresident of the United States, 
*Mr. Jefilrrson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Le<;-isla- 
tive Conneil of the Tcrritorj-, but he decJinini,^ requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first scsslou of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritory was set oiT, its south line being one drawn from thesouLherii 
end of Lake j\[ichigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Viucennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county; Davis Floyd, of Clark county; 
J3eujamiu Tarke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and William Bigos, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph county. July 30 the Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Farke was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from Isew Jersey to In- 
diana in 180L 

TUK "WESl'EJiN sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Tcrrit(>ry, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwestern Territory." It was commenced at Viucennes in 
1803, by Elihu Stout, of Xentucky, and first called the Indiana 
Gazette, and July, 4, 1804, was changed to the Western Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many discouragements, 
when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the office. 


The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gc .. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant afiair, let us take a glance at the re- 
sourses and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520; 33 grist mills; 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; IS tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,250 looms; 


1,350 spinning wheels; value of lu.innf^acturcs — wtiolcn, cotton 
hcini)Cn and fiaxon cloths, Sl.o!),0o2; of cotton and Vv'ool spun iu 
mills, ^150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $i,000; of leatlier tanned, 
$9,300; of (lii^tilleiy products, 35,950 gallons, $10,230; pf gun- 
powder, 3,G0i) pounds, $1,800; of wine from grapes, 90 barrelia, 
$0,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

. During tlio yeai' 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
controversy liad been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a fc\v designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closiTig their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: '"We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout aclinowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimonj'' in sup- 
pjort of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence whicli 
rules over the affairs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1800 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from tliat river and Post 
Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but indue time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territory started off on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoyed. 

From the first settlement of Vincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


Standing the other's peculiarities, which rcinaincii iixc<l long 
enough for l)oth parties to study out and understand them. The 
government ^va3 a mixture of the niilitary and thecivii. There 
M'as iittlo to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both imknown: the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
lliere were no taverns; tJiers seemed to be -no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The comj)laining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied 'by a 
command to render justice. If this Lad no effect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a j)articaiar day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of mca 
were sent to bring Irlm, — no sheriff and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kepL in prison until he rendered justice 
according to the d ee; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him ;.. a sense of justice. In sucli a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and' still fewer write. Their disposition wa^ .. ., ..i.. always to deal' 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were t; ard of value. 

A brotherly love generally prevailed. But ihey were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Iiniiiediately after the or" anizatiou of Iiuliaua Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, 1)3' necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians wlio 
still held claitns to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of ISOo the United State? Government had ob- 
tained about 40,000 sfjuare miles of territory, includino- all the 
lands lyini;- on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the TV; ')ash river and the State of Ohio. 

Tiie levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among man}' of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sundaj', August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " v»'ithdra\v their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and liorse-stcaling were each punish- 
able b}' death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable hy the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable hy whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1801 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Vin- 
cennes a'.id one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jeffersouville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plaris suggested by Mr. Jelferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, "seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namel^', the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed; the Indian 



was nearly alwiiys tlie siifForcr. All along iVom ISOo to ISIO the 
Indians complained bitterly against the tMicroachments of the white 
people upon the lands that helonged to t.hein. The invasion oftlu-ir 
li-nting gronnds and the unjnstitlal)lc killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. i\n old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his ])co})le before Governor TIarrisou, said: "You 
callus children; why do you not make us as happy as our father.---^ 
the French, did? They never took from us onr lands; indeed, they 
were common bctv\-ccn tis. They planted where they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they jilcased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as liis own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his oomidaint, and the state of 
feeling existing among tlie tril>es at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them hy the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumsch, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw', but who assumed the name of Pems-quat-a-\vah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dian.--, ne was a good orator, somewhat pecidiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating lirpiors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons; that he had power to cure all 
disc: 'js, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His liarangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treatj' had been made with the Delawares in 1804, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his bodj^ consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 







IIIST.>l;r (IF IN1)1.\NV. J)l 

death by her brother, whit suddeu]}'^ iipj-.roiu-liod lier, took her by the 
hand, and, without mcetin<jj any op))OS)tion from tlie Indians present, 
led lier (.nitof the council-house, llctlien inunediiitel}- returned and 
checked tlie ••^rowing inflncnco of tlie Propliet by cxchuming in a 
strong, carne.-;t voice, " Tlie Evil S]>irit ha.-^ come among us and we 
are killing eacli other." — [DiIlon''s Ilhforn of [ndlana. 

"When Gov. IIarri.-Jon was made acquainted with the.-e events he 
sent a sjiecial messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
i-enonnce the Pi'ophet and liis works. This really destroyed to some 
extent tlio Projihet's iniluence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of tlie Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecumsch 
actively engaged himself in forming the tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void, lie also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Propliet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts %vhich the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lauds that belonged to the Indians. 

Eai'ly in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shavian ees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped; I will no longer suiler it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant ti-ibcs to listen to a fool, who sjjeaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have tlie impostor Avith them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was sjieak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Proj)hct sj^ent sev- 
eral weeks at Yincennes, for the jiurpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time lie told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


crly love, etc., Tiiak ill :i; Mr. TlanMt.on believe at least, that lie was 
hoiiCGt; but bel'urc Ion;; it was demonstrated that tiic ''Proplict'' 
^ was designin,^-, cunning and unreliable; that both heand Tecunisch 
were enemies of the rinited States, and tViendg of tlie Englisli; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and Eiigli,<h, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Yincennes, with assurances that he was not in syinpatliy with the 
English, but tlie Governor was not disposed to believe liiin; and in 
a letter to the Scc^retary of War, in July, 1S09, lie said that ' e 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combinatioa 
which had been produced by Pritich intrigue and inllucnce, in antic- 
ipation of a war between thein and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecuuisch and the prophet and in spite 
of all these dillicalties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. Ey the 
close of 1809, the total amount of land ceded to the United States, 
under treaties v/hich had been effected by Mr. Ilarrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a res. 

From 1S05 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the OJiio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed that 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned liis expedition and his followers had 

iiaekison's campaign. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the wliites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
S]unng of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the officials who oifered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter,offering to treat with him ]ierson- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of liis principal chiefs, to tlie President at Wash- 
ington ; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
M'Ord that they would visit Vincennee in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, ISIO, the Shawanec cliief 
with 70 of his princii;al warriors, marched up to the door of the 

mSTdllV (II.- IN DIANA. \Jo 

Governor's liousc, nvA from that day until tlic 22J hold daily inter- 
vicwis with llis Excellency, In all of liis sj>eeclies Tocuiiiseh v>-a3 
liaiiglity', and sometiiU'.;3 arrogant. On tlio L'Otli he delivered lluit 
celebrated speecli in whieli he i^-ave the (lovernor the alleniative of 
rctnrnini;- their lands or nicetini^ them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecnmseh inter- 
rupted hiiu vrith an <ingry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Ilarri.son, Iiad "clieated and imposed on the 
Indians." "When Tecumseii first I'ose, a number of his ])arty also 
sprung' to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made sonio threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way off, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dia) is, awed by tlie presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the folknving day Tecumseh repentctd of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of oiTensc. The Governor consented, 
an- the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chi'jf addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors wlio might 
sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
1809, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
rother, when you s]:)eak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children, I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, wevv'ant to save that piece of land. 
"We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you lausfc blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want tlie 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 
■ The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp ,,'f the great Shawanee, and in the course of along 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 

tM hi IOUV OI- I.\)i1ANA. 

injured by tLe war. JIo may sit pI ill in his town aTid drink his 
wine, while you and I will liave to li-ht it out." 
^ In his message to t!io new territorial Legislature in IS 10 (\ov. 
ILirrisuii called attention to the dangerous views held by Tccuniseh 
and the Propliet, to the iiernicious inilucnce of alien enemies 
aniung the Indians, to the unsettled (X-ndition of the Indian trad.e 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still iii the hands of tlic Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty siip- 
plies of the chase tlie more certain and plentiful sn])port of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
tlie Indiau and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, .the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the scat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?"' 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed by this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Vincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of go for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year ISll the British agent for 
Indian affairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savages in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Tecumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was being organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlei's and the Indians naturally grew moj-e and more 

niSTOKV 01'" INDIANA. 95 

? i^ressivc and intolerant, couimittiuij deproilalions and murders, 
until tbe Governor felt cojupellcd to send the followiii;^ Bpecch, 
substa»itially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have l>een 
alarmed at your proceedings; you threaten us with war; you invite 
all the triljes north and west of j-ou to join against us, while your 
warriors wlio have lately been here deny this. Tlie tribes on the 
Mississippi liave sent uie word that j'ou intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. "My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike yon, but to defeml themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise lis, as you expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. "Wiiat can induce 
you to undertake sucli a thing vrhen tliere is so little prospect of 
success? Do you really think that the handful 'of men you have 
about j'ou are able to contend with the seventeen 'Srcs?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' filonc? I am myself of the Long 'Knife lire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as ^iimerous as the niusquitoes on the shores 
of the ATabash. Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you: if we did, wo certainly have pov/er to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
h}' seizing the salt that ./as intended for other tribes." Satisfaction 
must be given for tliat also. You talk of coming to sec me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If} ar inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not suffer you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the Pre.-ident of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you ; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and sec him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who del ?.rs this is one of raj- war oflicers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you^ 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You are 

9'> Hisroi; ' of imuian'a. 

yoi;i'.>olf ii WiUTJor, aiul all sii' hiMild liavo o^'oein lor cadi otlicr." 

The bearer oi" this epoocli .vas ])oiii.oly i\ :eivod l>y Tecuruaeli, 
who replied t(» tlic Goveriiur hrjeilj tliat lie should visit Viuconnes 
♦ in a few days. Accordiiii^ly ho ari-ivod July 27, ISII, bringing 
■with him a considerable force of Indians, Vv'hich created much 
alai'ui auumi}: the iiihal>itanl:5. In view of an enieri^encv Gov. 
narrison reviewed hiSi'uilitia — about T.")!') armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detaciunent of draL;"Oou3 on the borders of 
the town. At thi? interview Tecuiuseh held forth that lie intended 
no war again^M. the Unitetl States; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murdci's and depredations ou the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which they ought to follow; 
that it was his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the uortherri tribes v.^ere united; that he was going to 
visit tlie southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all ditilculties with him, and that ho hoped no attempts would 
be. made to make settlements on the lauds which had been sold to 
the Uuited States, at the treaty of Fort "Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, loft for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederac3^ 

By tiie vvray, a lawsuit was instituted by Grov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Yiucenues, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people o])posed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $-i,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afierwa.d Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fortou the Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he irdered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Vincennes. When 
the military expedition organii;cd by Gov, Hai'rison was nearly 


rep.dy to march to the Proj>]ict'S town, several Indian cliiefs arrived 
at Vincenncs Sept. 25, IS 11, and declared that the Indians 
would oom])ly witli the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not clicck the niilit;iry proccedinr>. Tiie army undor con:i- 
mand of Harrison moved fi-oixi Vineennes Sept. 20, and Oct. 3, ou- 
counterinr^j no opposition from the cncni}'-, encauijjcd at the place 
wliere Fort Tltirrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Tcrre Haute now stamls. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians ajtproached tlie encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
Averc sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Pi'ojjhct's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, "Winnebagocs, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required tlie 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his possession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not tliero, nor had lately 
been, under his eontroL To this message the Governor received 
no answer, .unless that answer was delivered iu the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the '^Vabash was finished Oct. 2S, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate ofEcers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned v/ith a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the rem.ainder of the army, consisting of 010 men, moved 
toward the Pro])het's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison tl' it the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not complj'- 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
"Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the pn. [»het. Harrison tl}en resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not vety desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ton feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in thereai', through which 

98 iiiSTouy (iF ixniAKA. 

und near tlii,-? h\])k ran a small stream cloilicd witli willov; and 
* brush wood. Toward the left ihmk this higliiaud widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of loO yards terminated in an al)rn])t point. 
The two columns of iiifiintry occui)ied the front and rear of this 
ground, about iriO yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than half that distauce on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of Major-General Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by no comp.'my. The 
rear line was co7npose.d of a battalion of Uiiited States troops, 
under command of Capt.Eean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. "VYclls, 
oil the left flank, and Col. Deckers -battalion formed an angle with 
Spenoer's company on the left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, Y.'cre encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's trooji, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment Nvas 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. L the formation of the troops single file was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, jnst after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was fired by the 
sentinels or b}^ the guard in that direction, vvhich made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the^rst 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savatrcs within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awak or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in tiiu^e companies suilered consideniblj before relief could be 
brought to tlieni. Some few Indians i-a-s^Gd into the encainpniout 
near tne ungle, and <.>nec>r two penetrated to some distance before 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morninj^ Avasdark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Amej'icans afforded onh' a partial li2;lit, which gave greater 
advantage to the enciny than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extingni-hed. 

As soon ari the Governor could nionut his horse he roue to the 
angle which was attacked, wherehe found that Barton's conipany liad 
suflbred severely, and the left of Geigei^'s entirelj^ broken. lie 
immediately ordered Cook's and Wentworth's companies to march 
up to the center of the re line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of IT. S. riilemcn and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having n;"eertaiucd 
that the heaviest lire ])roceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons ; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force tlian was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his iianks. lie was mortals wounded and 
his men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his let 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounde<:. Tiie soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had becu driven from their position on the left 

Gen. llitnison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
eneui}' from breaking into the camp until daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that liad suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several com]>anlc3 
from the front and rear lines and re-cuforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had connnanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
tlie marsh, where they coild not be followed, ileanwhile Ca2">t. 
Cook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed uiider fire of the enemy, and being there joined 

100 insroKV or is\u\\.k. 

by tlic riflemen of that flank, diar-vd u].on tlio enemy, killii;g a 
number and puttin;^' ib^^ r(>^r to a. ju-t'cipitate liight. 
♦ Tims ended the ! rUo of Tippeeanoe, victoriously to the 

Tv'hites and bonor;d)!y to Lion. Jlni'rii^o)!. 

In tliiii battle ^Iv. ITarrisou bad about 700 efficient men, wliile 
tlie Indian? liad probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 hilled and 25 mortally wouiuled, and 120 wounded; the 
Indians lost 38 killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Anioni,' the whites killed were Paviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Eandolph, Bean and White. Standing on 
an eminence lu ; r by, the Prophet cncourac^ed his v/arriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless by tlie G reat Spirit. Being informed duringthe engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, retnnicd to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very few followers, then took 
up his residence among a sm;dl band of Wyandots encamped on 
WiM-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day,' Kov. 8. 

On the 18th the American arm.y returned to Yincenne;, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and tlie officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Kbgan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materiall.y, died in the latter part of November, lol2, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish vv'ith a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 22. In 1:hat skirmish the white man was 
killed, and Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the riile of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 


The*victory roccntlj gained by the Amoricnns at the battle of 
Tippccaiioo insnrcd perfect peace for a time, but only a short tiiu,. 
as tlie more extensive schetnes of the British liad so far ripciiod as 
to compel the United States attain to declare war against them. 
Tecumscli had lied to Halden, Canada, v.'jice, counseled b}- tlie 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as tliis war with Groat Britain was declared (June IS, 
1812), the Indians, as was o\'])ected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1813 several points along 
the Lake E.egioa succumbed to tlieBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1812, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to i-educing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities i'ather disij^ualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An expi-ess had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Itidians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had "broken their ranks" and reached 
the fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising'meu for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volur-ieers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
GO miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison liis safe ar- 
: ival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing tl ■ Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; but the little 
garrison, witli Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met tlie assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 
relief. During tliis siege the cotnmuuding olhcer, wliose habits of 


iulcuipcrance vfiulcvcd liini unfa, lor tlu; coniiiuuKl, was couliuc.l in 
tlio '• bliick hole," while tluj jiiiiiur olllcor assumed charo'c. This 
course \. 3 ajiproved bv tlio General, ou his arrival, hut C!i])t. Jlhea 
Received very little eciisurc, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Hevolutionary war. 

Se|.it. 0, 1SI2, Harrison moved for^'ard v\'ii.h his army to tlic re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
inilesof St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
avd M. Johnson; tlio next day at " Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's they were joined bySOO men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
offered their services as spies to Gon. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through the lines of the hostile Indians,]ie ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering tlia fort, he encouraged the soldiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they w^erc under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were damp; theyweredis- 
cliarged and reloaded ; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indiaiis, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort Wa^yne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed ; and "At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, "the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
c f the approach of the army. Groat clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Keiitucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort "Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort "Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1S19. 


Simultancour-ly \ tlio attack on Fort Wayne the Indians aU-o 
bosicgcfd Fort llarribon, wliich was coinmandeJ by Zachaiy Taylor. 
The Indians cotninenccd iiring upon tlio fort abuut 11 o'clock one 
niglit, \?lien the ^^arrioon was in a ratlicr poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy eucceeded in firing one ot" tlic hloek-houscs, 
whicli Cuntained whisky, aiid the whites had great diilicnlty in pre- 
venting the l>nrning of ad tlio barracks. The word " lire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldicvo' and citizens' 
wives, who had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to bo on 
duty; the Uion despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped tlic pickets 
in the ^ y nudt^t of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his Wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the manj^ 
details, rallied tiie men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving, themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th'^ni 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove oiFall of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dar- 
ing this period, was the massacre of tlie Pigeon Roo-it settlement, 
consisting of one man, live women and 16 children; a fcv/ escaped. 
An unsuccessful effort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
:"eached Yincenues, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
vVm. Eussell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marclied forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Eich- 
ardsoD, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gem Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 

cesses, ])en(.'n.ii'.| 'iroper into tlio scttleiuents, coiiiiiiittin^' great 
dc'prcdiitioiis. The activity and success of tlic encitjy uiou^cd the 
people to Ji realization of tlie f^rcat danger tlicir lioiues and families 
were in. Gov. Kdv.-ards collected a force of 350 men at Canij) 
Ilusscll, and Capt. Russell came from Vincenncs witli aliont 50 more. 
Being (iflicered and equipped, tliej ])roceeded ahout the middle of 
October on horseback, curryini^ ',vitli tlieni 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Crai<;' was sent with two boats np tlie Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to Vmild a fort. The little army proceed.ed to 
Peoria Lake, wliere was located a Pottawatomie village. The}' 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their ]jrescncc being known to the Indians. Four men were soit 
out niglit to rcconnoitcr the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service v\-ere Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis "White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it tlioroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between tlie Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay dov,-n in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skidking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian tovrn, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. "With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Hany guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed b^'' her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On neaviiig t1ie town a ^cno.ral cliarg'C was made, tlic Iiidiaiu- 
lleeing to tho iuterior wikhirnoss. SoDie of tlu:ir warriors made a 
stand, w!ioii a sharp enga_:;em(.!nt occ.nrrr-d, 1;;'.t the Indians hxtc 
routed. In tlicir Jlight thej left behi ir winter's store of 

])rovi&ion5, wliicli ^va^s taken, and their u cimcd. Some Indian 
children were fouTid who liad been left in tlic hnrried tiiglit, also 
some disaljled adults, one of who'n was in a starving condition, and 
witli a voracious appetite |>urtook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly troojjer straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its I'etrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast tiiat he hail killed an Indian. 

Septembei* 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, 3^ou will retake Detroit; and, with a view to tho conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that couiiti-y as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded hy many diSculties, the General began 
immediately to execute I:hese instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, moro men offered than could l>e 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Hevolutionary war, who was nudor instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, withabont 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and oOicors raised a 
miitiny v.'hich gradually succeeded ia carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About the Siune time Col. ilussell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by C.ipts. Perry and Modrcll, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and iifterward to inarch with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating w-ith Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was com])elled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce t!ie Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kcntucl:y mililia, 


coiuuwiiulcd by Cuts. Durhour, .^[illor iui<l Wilcox; a small coinpaiiy 
of rt-giilars couif lulcd by Capt. Zachary Taylor; a conii)any of 
raDgcrs coraiuaii ! by Capt. Bcekes; aucl a coin])aiiy of Sfouts or 
'spies under the e-'Uiiuaiidof Capt. Washbiiru. The main of 
thin army arrived at Fort Ilarrisou JN''os\ 5; on the lltli it pro- 
ceeded up the east sido of the "Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villag'es generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and tlic troops poorly clad, they liad to return to 
Yincenues as rapidly as possible. AVitli one exception the men 
behaved nt)bly, and did niucli damage to the enemy. That 
exception was the ])recipitato chase after an Indian l)y a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the enemy, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this carumuiin Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

in the fall of lSi3 Gen. i!ai'ri.-;on assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the lt)th U. S. Inf., the dnty of destroying the 
Hiarai villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about COO men, jS'ov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to rctii'e to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delawares and 
Miamis. This nnd three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the sup])l!C3 growing shct and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officoi's early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon thou with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
•and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's baud. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for rc-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met by the re-en foreemcut 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 

Jllr-rO!;-,- OF JNDIA.VA. 107 

Lieut. C'cl. Campbell sent two mossagos to Die Dulawares, who 
lived on Wliilc river und who had been prcviunsly directed and 
n'(,juestcd*to abandon tlioir towns on that river {ind reniovo into 
Ohio. In thoKc messages lie ex]>resscd his regret at uidbrtunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anec scttlenioiit on the Anglai/.e river. Tie assured them that the^' r 
people, in hi--, power, would be compeusuted by the Governm t 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, If such satisfaction would be received. 
Tliis advice was heeded by the main body of the Dclawares and a 
few' JUliamis. The Shawance Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retij-ed from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they w'ere received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the a])prouch of Gen. Harrison with Ids army in Sc])tcmber, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the OttawMS, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomics, Miamis and Ivickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which w-as granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming: nllie? of the Unite. "^ States 
in case of W"ar. 

In June, 1813, a,n expeu... v.,i ..0,1^:^:^'.^. -i. -...r i.ivi., u..ucr com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of "White river, to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces sttcceeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing consider''''^/" pom - ,.'' ' .rfumi.;- 1,-1 Yi^lonia on the 21bt of 
this month. 

July 1, 1S13, Cul. VVilhaui iCiio. ;i, ol tlie 7th. U. S., organized 
a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the mouth of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suifered many losses, found the villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel rcj^-urted that he 
went to everj' place where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 

108 JlIST(li;V Ul- iM>iANA. 

countiy, and find that tlio Iiidiiuis Avcro very carofid to l<cep tbem- 
selves out of sigh uid thus closed tliis series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the Sltli of December, ISU, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United Si. tes to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and ])OSSCS5ion3 to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawauee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 
death. His brother Tecumseh v.-as killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Ilarpe township, 
Ilancock'county, 111, whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 


If r ill 

fv^M 111! 

rif.^B> //? _-=a 

i¥ Ji 






If one gliould inquiro who li;is been the greatest Indian, tliernopt 
noted, tlie "jn-incipal Indian.'' in North America since its disccv- 
erj by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumsch. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tccnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no eqnal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, liis followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they ruslied on to victor}'- or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tccumseh, or Teeumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended tlioirway up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present sit of Shawneetown, III., whence they reuioved 
to the np];)er Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and v.'cre known as the "bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has nniformly been the bitter eneni}- of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. "While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 

passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 



this part of tlic conntry; but. T-'cmn-cli conccntrutod hi.-; i^^-oatness 
upon the more ])r;' and business aff:i.irs of military coiujuest. 
it is doubted \vhoih(;r lie was really a .sincere bch'evcr in tliejirctei:- 
sions uf liis fanati'-. lirothcr; if ho <rid not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them liclnid the slircwdncps t;> keep liis uiibelief t>> liira- 
self, knowino; tliat religious fanaticisiu was one of tlie stron<^c>t im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

Diiiini^ his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it way 'iV-cum- 
seh's npperniost desire of life to confederate all the Indi.'in tribes of 
the country tof^ether against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he com})rised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all tjiesc hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the ti'caties 
■were null and void. 

When he met Harrison 'at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he Tvas invited by that General to take a scat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
a7id then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinew}' arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
ftithcr? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The eSect was electrical, and for some 
mo)nents there was ])erfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had" some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and nnike restitution 
wherever it mi irht be decided it should bo done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the statel}' 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warm;:d up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " truinpet-tongiied," to tlie ntmosl. limits of the asscvnl)Iy. 
The most perlect silence prevailed, except wheu his warriors jjiivc 
their gtittural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wronn; and the white man's injustice. Tccumseh recited the wrongs 
wliich his race had snUered from the ti.iie it' the nuussacre of the 
Moravian IndiaTis to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that tlic Great 
Sjurit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Oluo, as a common property 
to all tlie tribes -in these borders, and tliat the land could not and 
should iotbe sold without the conscsit of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the lands tliey had bought of the Miarais and 
the other tribes, those united Vvitli him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; thai; they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
wliites ceased their encroachments i7pon Indian lands, the fate of 
tbe Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
"Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enougb to bury their war- 
riors on this side, of the "Father of T/aters;" that all would perish, 
all their poss _- ':en from them by fraud or force, unless they 

stopped the pi'j^iwhb ua' the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in wliicli one or the other must perish; that their 
rrlbes bad been driven towai'd tiie setting sun like a galloping 
borse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the eifect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagi.;.ed than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
moi'e logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 


til Harrison's iutcr])rc'tcr l)c;;an to translate liis speech to the Mia- 
^ mis and Pottawatoniies, when Teciuuseh and his warriors sin-aii^ 
to tlicir feet, brand ir-hing their war-clubs and toinaliawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecuinrch, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " ho 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in snioothtir language, but Tecuniseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him holies." The warriors began 
to grow more excitcLi, when Secretary Gib.->m ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arms to advance. This allayed the j-ising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseli through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no fnrther council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. Tlie next 
day Tecumseli requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition tliat he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingeucy. On this oc- . 
casiou the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
thedaj' before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. 'No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilliiig scene of the previous day. He claimed tliat half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that v/hites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, liad but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, tlie latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyaudots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawasand the Win- 
nebagoes, through tlieir respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of tlie United States and rctiini the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it wffe received. Tecnraseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril. Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the AVabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who Iiad occupied theni 
since the w])ite people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the baulcs of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, ap"^ each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powei'ful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

. Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the AVabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general Bystem of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" Ih union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the "Wabash country, tliat they should preserve perfect peace 
with the wliites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 

116 nrsTORY ok indian-V. 

ice; indeed, it is said tliat he never forgave liiin to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, on the bi-caking out of the v.'ar of 
«Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a ])Hrt7 of his 
warriors, and finally Buffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 


Owing to the absence of G v. Harrison on military dnty, John 
Gi5-con, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the adnjinistration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February'-, 1813, he said, substantially: 

''.Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already'' experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Although not au admirer of 
war, I am glad to see our little hat inimitable navy riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successfiil. The spirit of '76 appears to have lied from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal hori;iou sccine'l clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been ov/ing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
hy our foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victims to savage cruelty. I have done ray duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
law. Said he: "It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
* good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qiialiOed, thereby snbjceting Iheinselvcs to ridi- 
cule aild their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thin^^, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

Diirini^ this session of the Legislature the scat of the Territorial 
Government was declared to be atCorydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson proror^ned the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Mondny of December, 1813. During this year th.e Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak %vas made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been officer of the army of the 
lievolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Vincennes and entered npou 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1S13. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with great events. Our land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being, who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not suffer to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. '-^ * * Although our afiairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which. 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to eve- y- thinking man that v,-e were 
forced into the war. Every measure consistent with honor, both, 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy, * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 

lis JtlSTOliV OF IXniANA. 

gooil roads and ]iii>-]i\vay.s in as munj directions througli the Terri- 
tory .-IS the circunistiinces and situation of the inliabitiints will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
^ and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is iiii^hly 
neec??ar^^ There is an appro])vi:i.tion made by Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of establishing' j>ublic Schools. It comes now witli- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of tlie appro- 

This Legislature ])assed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the North- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began, again to flow. In January, 
1814, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort AVayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. Tiicy met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands. 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 

COUNTIES. While maloBofSl and over. TOTAL. 

Wayne 1,225 6,407 

Frank! in , 1 ,430 7,370 

Dearborn 1)02 4,42i 

Swilzurland 377 1,832 

Jetlerson- • • 874 4,270 

Clark 1,387 7,150 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,05G •0,!)75 

Knox 1,3!)1 «. 8,0GS 

Gil)son 1,100 n,3oO 

Posey 320 1,619 

Warrick 280 l,41.-5 

Perry 350 1,720 

Grand Totals 12,112 03,897 


The well-known ordinance of 1TS7 conferred many "rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


consequently npnn the. people of Indiana Torritorj, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as man}' privileges as are enjoj'ed at 
the prc^^ent day b}' our Territories. Tlicy did not have a full form 
of Republican goveriiinent. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
Vi'as one of the necessary qualiiications of each member of tlic legis- 
lative council of the Territory ; every member of the Territorial House 
of Keprescntatives was required to hold, in his own right, 200 acres 
of land ; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualiiications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia. Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the i-'eace, SlierilFs, 
Coroners, County Treasurers and Countj' Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among the several counties the members of the House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, howevei', ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people M^ere constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of suffrage. Five 3'-ears 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislativ^e Council, in 
repl}'^ to the Governor's Message, said: "Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we arc sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
Buch that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especiallj'^ when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. This act was passed in 1809, and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the right of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate 



toConrrress to every free wliito mulo person wlio had attained the 
a^c of twenty -one years, and who, Jiaving paid a county or Terri- 
^ torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1SJ4 the voting qualilicatiun in Indiana v/as delined by 
Ci)ngress, "to every free white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident uf the same." The House of 
Eepresentatives was autliorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, iu each of wliich the qualified voters were cm. 
powered to electa member of the Legislative Council. The division 
w^as made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, ISli, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Baak of Yincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 


The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corjdou, convening in Decembei-, 1815. Tlic tncssage of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territoi-y upon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the itnprovemcut of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
parator}'' to a State Government, and Deceuiber 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr, Jennings,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 2Sth, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its stjde, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 181G 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon'' s History of Indiana. 



The first State election touk place on the first ]\Ionday of Anfjust, 
3 '-1G, and Joiiatliau Jennings was elected Governor, and C'hristo- 
plier Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Wui. Hendricks was elected to 
reprc:-ent the new State in the House of Ivepresentativcs of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 181G. John Paul was called 
to the chair of tlic Senate proteni., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: "The result • '' your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its futur. jaracter as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its ciiizens. In tlie commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten in our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Govci-nraent and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure efficiency to its 
measures and stabilit}' to its character. Without a frec]uent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarilj'' severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government. ^ * '" The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a sujiport to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * -k- j recommend to your 
consideration tho propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
efiectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 




persons of color Ici^ally entitled to their freedom; and at tlie same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those wlio rightfully owe ser- 
vice to tke citizens of any otlicr State or Territory from seeking 
■within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of tlie other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Eobert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; W. II. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rnsli of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and bj' 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period lS25-'30 was a prosperous' time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Governor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew v/bat to do 
and they deferred actioa. 


In 1830 tliere still lingered witliin the bounds c=f the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose gro^s•illg indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence U])on their neighbors lor the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlors, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottav/atomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treat}' with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Arab}' the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the "Wabash, felt as sad as 
-^schines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning. May IS, 1832, the people on the west side 

of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 

account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 

approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 

alarm soon spread throughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 

Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 

commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 

Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 

dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 



make a call upon tlic militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly, and march to the aid of tlieir hlecding countrymen. 
Thereujjon Gen. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jcnners, Capt. 
Brown, of the .•ii'tillcry, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the arni}', and thence n])on a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the nuinber, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked preci])itately to Lafayette and the surroundinc^ 
country east of the Wahash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fl.y with his family to Lafayette for salety. Lnag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
his wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting tq 
see them again, unless perhaps )ie might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinac3\ 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonel}'^; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that " discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fears of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the " Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 



tlic meeting udjonrnea, the gw.inU were paraded on the green 
wlierc Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry e^olu- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to l)e an expert drill ofUcer, and 
Avhose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter-marched the troops from where the im])er.mill stands 
to Main street fcYry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
march to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped 3)inc miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket^ and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who, after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and staff sprang to their feet, shouting "To arms! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm. sentinels, in running to the 
centerof the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance^was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, he put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 28, 1833, Governor Noble ordered General AValkor to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even tliongli it Le necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp efpiipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Tlinrsday a squad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region; and on tlie 13th of June 
Colonel llussell, commandant of the iOth Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson, Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and Warren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return, They all did so except about 45 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross LLickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraham, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difficulty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Capt. I. H. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 1-5 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gun 
had been seen; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who," as s6on as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that the}' could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some' time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Yincennes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 


inhabitants gathered within the furts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfbrdsville were Buddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full i-])ecd with the annouuce- 
meut that the Indians, nuiro than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at thei)rin- 
cipal points in tlie directio?i of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dis])atched in dificrent directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the nioment- 
aril}'' expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of Warren, Fountain and Yer- 
miliion counties were alike terrified by exaggerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not witliin 100 miles of these temporary 
forts; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigli surrounded by a well- disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
baing ehased up into Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In Jnly, 1S37, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatoinie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing theiii west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George Proffit, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nas-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would nltimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into tlie brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippc- 



canoe, declaring that tlicy would rather die than he hanishcd from 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
ffom ditrerent jioints on their journey; and it was several years 
before they could he induced to join their countrymen west of the 

Several 3'cars after the removal of the Pottawatomies the Miami 
nation was removed to tljoir "Western home, hy coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a ])roud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of n\nnbcrs, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after the}'- had been driven southward l)y 
powerful and w^arlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within the State, was forwarded to that body? 
which grauted the request. The Secretary of "War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold about 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
their claim in this State. 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
<jeded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated hy the early ludianinns, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's '' llecollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 2i, 182i, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as tjicy were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him ; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would " crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been offered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days vraiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tip2:)e- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the land he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 

of his voice, "Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 



murdoring and scalping all before tliciu!" Tliey paused a moment, 
but as tlie terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
VllelpI Longlois, Cicots, help!" tliey turned and fled like a troop of 
retreatin": cavalrv, hasteninf? to the thickest settlements and "/ivins: 
the alarm, which s])read like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up tlieir guns to 
meet the Indians, he w'as quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
"There's a Yankee trick for 3'ou, done up by a Iloosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Rappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the "Wabash about 60 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid ofif 
a town, to which they gave the name of "Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was "in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Kappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the year 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There w^ere neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the daj- , literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriety. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. lie charged tlio hitter with teaching fiilso notions 
regardiiiij Imman responsibility — notions v^diich have since been 
clothed in the language of ]>hysi(>logy, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he^; 

"That which has hitherto been called wichedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

"1. Jlecause the3'^ are born with fsicultie? or propensities which 
render them more liable, under tlio same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, playmates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked; or, 

"3. They have become wicked iu consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked. Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I Teply, Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

"Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

" 2. That the affections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerity and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary effects 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 


During the administration of Gov. "Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, wliich resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory rc-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor "Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
184G, must be sought for as far back as the year 1830, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1830, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lauds from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian tields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1830, The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,000 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
crime Avas industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1835, having with a force ot 



500 men forced llic Mexican army of 1,000 to 11 j for refnf,^e to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Cfolonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican ariny and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reapjiearcd in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on the banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field,nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican Kepublic, and consequently left iinratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so' much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Republic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July 4, 1846. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he gi-ew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
General Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, with- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river Nueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore. General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed an open 


act of war. On tlic 9,CA]i of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this I'll'tjct to General Taylor, and on the same day a 
party of American drai^oons, sixty-three in number, being on tlic 
nortli side of the luo Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and Vv'oundcd, were forced to surrender. Their 
commandcj-, Cajitain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
liad now crossed the river above ]\[atamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of sup])lies for his army. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with liis 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the 8th of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle arraj', on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their ai'tillery was very effective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encam])ed upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery ou 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion. General de la Vega having fiillen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing ]\Iexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. This 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 184G, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of lSi6 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan. General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned bj tbc enemy in May, niarcbcd 
northward in llie enemy's country in August, and on the 10th of 
Septcmner he appeared before Monterey, capital of the ^Mexican 
State of i^ew Leon. His army, after havin/^ garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succes.siun of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans cajjitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which lie had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various tov/ns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In ISTovember, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of General "Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Victoria, 
the capital of Tamauiipas, and neai'ly at the same period, 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling' char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of July, Captain Fremort, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared CaUfornia independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, lSi6, the whole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By the drawing off of a large part of 
General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now marching upon him, under command, of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand, strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued nearly the whole daj', when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna .speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 


the Graiulo to tlic coiiiplctc occu])ation of onr troo]->s. This loft 
onr forces at liberty to prosecute the grand cnteriiririC uf the caiu- 
pai^ni, the capture of the strong town of Vera Uruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. On the 9th of March, 18-17, 
General Scott landed near the city with an armv of twelve thousand 
men, and on the ISth commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an ahnost incessant shower of shot and shells was pouretl 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and tlie city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8th of April the 
army commenced their march. At Oerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the 18th the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans, was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
18th of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras, Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the city, or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chap ul tepee was successfully 


stormed l)j General ^Vortli, tliough he lost one-fourtli of his men 
in the (lcs[)crate strug'i^le. Tlic castle of ChapuUc|icc, situated on 
an abiii])t and rocky eiuiiirnce, 150 feet above the f^urroundini^ 
conntr}', presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12tli, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was Vvithin the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the olHcers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag cf the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of ]\rexico. Tliis conf[uest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the war. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea;Coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, ISIS, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th of May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaiiacd peace 
on the 4th of July, 184S. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. "We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Hio Grande were duly honored bj^ the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him the Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
miist be considered as one of the most brilliant of. modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
of our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 

142 lllsrolJV OF INDIANA. 

One tiling we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, notonl^'asa soldier, bntas a man, set by our com- 
mander, Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the canij), always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belongino- to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who effectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-IIidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4:th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the Nevv^ York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Hio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contrcras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June lo, 1S47, and on the 16th elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jeffersonville for the front, and 


subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
wliicli then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment JJtS. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
U. S. Rrtillery, the ith Regiment of Indiana Vohmteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for tJio U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Passo do Ovegas, August 10, 1S47; 
ISational Bridge, on the 12tlr, Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in. 
the siege of Pucbla, which began on the loth of September and 
terminated on tlie 12th of October. At Atlixco, October i9th; 
Tlascala, ISTovember 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th; Guerrilla Ranche, December 5th; JSTapaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 1848; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February i9th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Yera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a quarrelsome 


We havG already referred to tlie proliibition of slavery in tlic 
!Nortlnvestern Territoiy, and Indiana Territory by tlie ordinance of 
17S7; to tlie imperfection in the execntion of tiiis ordinance and tiie 
troubles wliicL the autliorities encountered; and tlie complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the oro-anization of the State. 
The next item of significsmce in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. to the Legislature of ISl'S: " Since 
our last separation, while wc have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
fall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Kepublic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the peojjle's oni}'' 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to "Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
JTational Capital in memory of George "Washington, In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscripLi.-jn 
upon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty. Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
North, 'No South, Nothing but the Union. "Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loj^- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. "Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that "Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 






^Northern destiny: slic phuits herself on tlie biisis of tlic Consti- 
tution and takes lier stand in tlie ranks of American destiny." 


At tlie session of tlic Legislature in January, 1809, tlie subject 
of ratifying the fifteenth cimendnient to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency tliat neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Republicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the Republicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave tlie Legislature 
witliout a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of tlie State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extr. session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senators; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote ■was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned 
there was a quorum of the de-facto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House Committee had time to report on the matter, 31: Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
stop to further legislation. 


The events of the earlier ycnrs of tliirs State have l)eon reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's Jii.stor}' when the Republic de- 
manded a first eacri (ice from the newly erected States; to the time 
\vheTi tlie very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse tlian death 
— a life under laws that liarbored the slave — a civil defiance of the 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll of honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
jjublic made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal fur the uprising of the State. 
The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the lithof 
April, 18G1, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 
the welcome message to Washington: — 


lNDiAN.\rons, April 15, 18U1. ) 
To AcRAnAM Lincoln, President of the United States: — On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, 1 tender to you for the defense of the Kation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Govermnent, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
"War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington, This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1861 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arras, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merel}'- do credit to tlie aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 




The sum of SIO.oGS/.jS in trust fniKls was the amount of cash in the 
hands of tlic Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and ])urposcs 
unavaifalile to meet tlie emcr<>'ency, since it could not bo devoted 
to the military recjuircments of the day. This state of aflairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against tl 10 ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difliculty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to "Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, and for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of the magnificent 
corps d' armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 183-1, Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanaraity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to figlit to the bitter end iw. 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, tiicirzeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 

No : dear as freedom is — and, in my heart's 

Just estimation, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave, 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 men, 


answered nobly by tlic jicoplc of Indiana. Tlic quota of troops to 
be furnished by tlie State on the first call was 4,083 men fur three 
years' service from April 15,1800. On the IGth of April, (4ov- 
ernor Morton issued his proelamation calling on all citizens of the 
State; M'ho had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the lion. Lewis "Wallace, 
a soldier of the j\[exican campaign was aj^pointed Adjutant-Genenxl, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster-General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military lieadquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation; so that 
within a few days (19tli April) 2,400 men wbyg ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seerned as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75,000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days — re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such trul}^, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere thej^ partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money fi'om pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State oflxjred large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 

niSTOKY OF IXniANA. 151 

strengthened tin; hands of tlie Executive, and witliln a very few days 
Indlana^liad jiassed tlio crucia] test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in lS3Jt, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as illedical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters frona "Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor of the people, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt v.duch may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
da^^s later, he clearl}!^ laid down the principle of immediate action 
and sti'oug measures, recommending a note of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
•enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto^ but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arms 500,000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, thediligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that s^'^steraatic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three days after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 



iments, notwitlistandiiig tlio fact, that llic first six regiments wero 
already mustered into tiio general service, wore known as ''Tlie 
First Erigiidc, Indiana ^''oluntee^s," anil witli tlie sinijile ubjoet of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant liistory clear, 
were numbered respectivch' 

Sixth llegiment, commanded by Col. T. T. (^riUenden. 

Seventh " " " " Ebcnczcr Duniont. 

Eighth " " " '• W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " " " " Tt. II. Milroy. 

Tenth " " " « T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Camjiaigu was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
uumbered, and the entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following staff: John Love, Major; Cyrus C* 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opiniou has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, July 21, 1861^ 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor: — 

"GoYERXOR O. P. Morton, ImlinnapoUs, Indiana 

Governor: — I have directed the three montlis' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to you without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time A\ill elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
George B. ."McClellan, 
Mcijor-Qenend, U. 8. A, 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a length^', logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the "U-holo. After ])assiiig a glowing cviloginni on tlicir military 
qualities aiul on tliai unexcelled gallantry (Jibplayod at Laurel Ilill, 
Pbillipi and Carrick'e P^ord, Le says: — 

''Soldiers! You have now ii'turncd 1o llic friends whose j)raj-cr.s went with you 
to the lield of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and coimtry acknowledge tht! v.aluc of your lahors. IMay j'our future career he as 
your past has been, — honorahle to jxnuvclves and servii;(;able to yonr country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a di\'ision of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized fur three years' service, l)etween the 20th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, imder command of 
Colonel John M. "Wallace, and reorganized ifay 17, 1863, for three 
years' service under Col. W. II. Link, who, with 172 oflicers and 
men, received their mortal M'ounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, tliree months after its reorganization. 

The 13tu Kegimknt, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 18G1 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Ricb Mountain on the lOtbJulj'. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The lixH Regiment, organized in 1861 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser. 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 186J., and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The ISxn Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14tli June, 1861, 
under Col. G. D. Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the llth 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. "Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. "Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1863, and during the 
first days of Januaiy, 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone Rivei'. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


after enduring terrible li;ircUliij)s, ordered to 01iattanoup;a, and 
tliencc to Indiaiiaj)olis, -.vhere it was niustcred out the ISlli June, 
'tSQIr, — four da^'s after tlie exjnration of its term of service. 

The ICrn Regimknt, orf^anized under Col. P. A. llackhnnan at 
Richniond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
militar}' events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C, on the Hth 
of May, ]S62. Coh TIacldeman was killed at the battle of luka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Tljomas I. Lucas succeeded to tlie command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service, JMay 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant eugagoments 
of the war down to June, 18G5, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17x11 Regimknt was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12th of June, ISGl, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. Tliis 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to. Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18Tn Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, v;as ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took jDart in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20th Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July, 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
Bame month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Mainland, 
twelve days later. Throughout aii its iirilliant actions from Ilat- 
tcras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, 



incliuliiii; tlie paving of the United States Piiip Con (/resft, U-fNcw- 
port JVcws, it added daily sonic new name to its ose.ntclieon. Tliis 
r02;iniont was nin?tcred ont at Lonisville in July, 1805, and return- 
inji; to rndiana])olis was welcomed l)y tlic great war Governor of 
their State. 

Tlie 21sT Regiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
"W. MrJtillan, July 24-, ISGl, and reported at tlie front tlie third 
day of August. iLwas tlie first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortr.nes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed hy its inenibcrs, arc 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1803, the' regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1804, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

The 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the loth of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to tlie last victoiy, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the IGth June, 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, ISGl, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 24, 18G5, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

The 24:TH Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25Tn Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During the w^ar this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss, of 352 men 


and ofliccrs. [Mastered out at Louisville, Julj- 17, ISCj, it returned 
to Indianapolis ou the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 
« Tlic2Grii JJattalion, under AV. J\I. AVhealley, left Indianajiolis 
for the front the Tth of September, 18G1, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, lloron and Smith, may be taid to 
disband the ISth of September, 18G5, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by ^Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Rkgimknt, under Col. Silas Colgrove, moved irom 
Indianapolis to AVashingtou City, September loth, ISGI, and ia 
October was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1SC2, through all the allairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28Tn or 1st Gavalky was mustered into service at Evans- 
ville on the 20th of August, ISGl, xmder Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
few rebels, to the battle of the AVilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 18G5, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29Tn Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the otli of October, 1861, and reaching Camp Nevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to liosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Ilosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30xH Eegiment of Fort "Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin ou the 9th of October, ISGl. At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 18G5, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 31st R-EGiMENT, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in Sejitember 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the redaction of Fort Donelson on the 
13th, lith, and loth of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
"wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 

niSTOl'.V or INDIANA. 157 

was snbjcetcJ to many c]iaiii;C'.-, hut in all lis plia^^os mnintalned a 
fair fame won on niaii}' battli." lioKls. f.ilco tliu former regiment, 
it passcf^l into Gen: Slicridan's Army of Ol);erv;if ion, and held tlic 
district of Grroeii Lake, Texas. 

The 32d UiciirMicNX of <ri:!or\N IxPAvrRV, under Coh August 
"\\"illich, organized at Indiaua])olis, mustered on tlie 2-i-th of August, 
isGl, served witli distinction througliout the cain])aign. Col. 
Willicli was promoted to the I'auk of Brigadier-General, andLieut.- 
Col. Henry Yon Trebra commissioned to act, under wliose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d ItEoiMENT of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the Ifith of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1SG5, taken with its name as one of the most 
powerful regiments engaged in the war, are suflicient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, ISGl, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1S65, when at Palmetto Eanche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Pio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccup^' the position, so long in 
Southern hands, of Pingold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th or First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. AYalker. At IS'ashville, on the 22d of May, 
1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-first or 
Second Irish Pegiment, and unassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lieut.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1S62, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Ivenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 186-i, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, with Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it Avon for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 

158 lllsroUV OK INDIAXA. 

Thii oGtii IkicdiME.NT, of lliclinumd, Iiul., luulor Cul. William 
Groso, inustei'cJ into service tor tlireo years ou the IGtli ol' Sc])- 
tembcr, ISGl, went immediate]}' to the front, and shared the for- 
4 tunes of the Army of the Oliio unlil the 27tli vi' February, 1SG2, 
wJicn a forward movement led to its j>rescncc on the battle- field of 
Shiloli. Following xip the lioi^ors won at Shiloh, it ])artici];ated ill 
some of the imjiortant actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1SC5, transferred to Cicu. Sheridan''s army. Col. Groso was pro- 
moted in ISO-I- to the position of Erigadicr-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver 11. P. Carey, formerly Lieut. -Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37tu Battaliox, of Lawrcnceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Ilazzard, organized the IStli of September, 1S61, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1SG2, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
This regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 18G5, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The 38th Kegiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at ISTew Albany, on the 18th of September, 18G1, and 
in a few days were e?i route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1SG2, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 18G5, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the ISth of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39rH Kegiment, oit Eigutm Cavalry, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 2Sth of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it tookaconsjjicuous partin all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds v.'hich men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memoiy of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 40x11 Eegijient, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and. again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 


at once proceeded to the front, wlierc some time was necessarily spent 
in tlie Camp of Instruction tit Bardstown, Kentucky. In Februar}-, 
18G2, it joined in.Buell's forward movement. Duriu'^ the war thu 
re_i;imcnt sliared in all its liardsliips, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other bravo commands took service iinder Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holdint; the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st IIkgimekt ok Skooxd Cavalky, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised iu the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, ISGl, at Indianapolis, under Oul. John A. Bridglaud, 
and December IG moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en roxde to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1SG2, and at Pea 
Ridge on the 15th. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, lS64r, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherma;n in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. "Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 23d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment Avas 
mustered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

TuE 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the principal 
military'- affairs of the period, Warlrace, Mission Tiidge, Altoona, 
Kencsaw, Savannah, Charlestowu and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 18G5. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and loft Terre Kaute enrouie to 
the front within a few days. Later it was aPied to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1865. 

The 44th ok the Hegimrnt of the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort AVayne on the 24th of October, 18G1, under 
Col. Hugh B. Keed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and rrriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Cliattanooga, the 14th of September, 1865. 

The 45™, ok Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 

100 TIl^'i'OKV OK IXiylANA. 

orgaiiizod at (lin'orcnt. ])criods iuul for varied servicoo in 1>T)1- 
'62, iiiMler Colonel Scolt Carter and (]eorp;e TI. ClK'-pnian. The 
distiugui&licd name won by the Third Cavaliy is cstahlished in 
every villa_i;e within tlic State. Let it ButHcc to add tliat al'tor its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's I'uid down tlie James' 
river catial, it was mustered out at Tndianajicilis on the 7lli of Au- 
gust, 1805. 

TuK 4GTn Hkgiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky thclGth of February, 1S02, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's army, then 
tercd at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Jlovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
.Banks and Bnrbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command v.'as mustered out at Louis- 
ville on tlie tttli of Se])tember, 1SG5. 

The 47'rH was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. li. Slack, early 
in October, 1862. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was att ched to Gen, Buell's army; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under v/hom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 18G4 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack, received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Mc- 
Laughton ; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and liis arm}^ and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 18G5. 

The 48th REomENT, organized at Goshen the 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers ia 
1865 at Indiana]wlis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jeffcrsonville, under Col. J. TV, 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, ISGl, for service, 
left en route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge aud won its laurels on many 


a well-fonghtfidil until Sc])tcinljcr, 18G5, when it was niiistercd out 
at Louisville. 

The 50tu Kkoimi^nt, under Col. Cvnis L. Dunliam, organized 
duriiii-- the month of September, ISGl, Jit Seymour, lel't en route to 
Bardstuwn for a coarse of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1802, a detachment of tlie 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked hy Morgan's Cavalry near Edgeilcld Junction; but the 
gallant few repul^^ed their oft-iopeated on5(!ts and iinally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may bo said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, iSGo. 

TheSlsT ■Regiment, under Col. Abel. D. Strcight, left Indianap- 
olis on the 1-lth of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
Buell's and acted with great effect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Army of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regimrnt was partially I'aised at Rushville, and the 
• organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the l^ailway Brigade, or 56t]i Regiment, on the .2d of Feb- 
ruary, 18G2. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 5Erd Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an eudur :ble name. It was mus- 
tered out in July, 18G5, and returned to Ii: uananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The 54:Tn Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D. G.Rose. The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was ]>ushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service rccfiment it was reoriran- 


ized for one year's service and yalnod sonic distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1SG3 at New Orleans. 

Tlie 55Tir Hkgimknt, organized for three niontlis' service, retains 
the brief history apph'cable to tho first ori^-auization of the Sith, 
It was inustered in on tlie IGth of June, lSfJ3, under Coh J. R. 
]\IahoTi, disbanded on tlie expiration of its term and was not reor- 

^-'he 5Gtii ItECTMENT, referred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, niarshalled under J. M. 
Smith asColo;icl, but owing to the i'act that many railroaders had 
ab.'eady volunteered into other regiments, Coh Sniitli's vohmteers 
vrere incorporated with the 62nd, and this number left bhink in. the 
army list. 

The 57tii Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel, — the Rev. I. W. T. Mcilullen and Kev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the ISth of Novem- 
ber, 1S61, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C llaynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantly wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments It concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 5Sth Regi:uent, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1S61, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 1865, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59Tn Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization. Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the ISth it left en ronie to Commerce, ^vhere 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
wei'O lost during the campaign. The regiment^ after a term char- 


acterizcd "Uy distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on tlio 17th of Jul}', 1865. 

Tlic (*Oth Kkc;imknt war- partiaily organized under Lieut, -Cul, 
E.icl)ard Owen at Evansviilo during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp ^Murtou during !L' arch, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Traj^^g's army investing Munfordsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 1 Ith of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, wliich enabled it to joim; the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forins,. 
as it were, a monument to tiieir fidelity and heroism. The main, 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21st of March, 1S65, 

The 61sT was partially organized in Deeeinbcr, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and oflicers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Yoluuteers. 

The 62d Battaijon, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Bockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Bcgiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Begimknt, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its ver}'' forraation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30tli of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 61x11 iliiciMKNT failed in organization as an artillerj'- corps; 
but orders received from the AVar Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65tii was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once cvs 
7'oute for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action dnnni; the war was on the 18th and 20th of February, 
1SG5, at Fort Anilcrson and Town creek, after whicl», on tlie 22d 
, June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The G6tii HicorMENT partially ora;auized at New Albany, under 
Commandant Jloger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentw(;!<y on 
the lOth of Aiii;'ust, 1S03, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it wa.<! mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1S65, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The GTtii REoniENX was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
ou the 20th of August, 1SG2, whence it marched to Munfordville, 
only to share the same fate with the otlier gallant regiments en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of lionor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a term of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that cliivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At, Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
iew days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The oSth Regiment, organized at Greensbarg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col. Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; ou the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few daj^s it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; but shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate fui'ther in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1S63, From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69tu Regiment, of Richmond, lud., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th ot August, 1862, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and officers together with its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was I'eorganized under 
Col. T. W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sliornian (jf Grant's army, Chick- 
asaw, Vicksbnrg-, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 6!)th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 18(15, 
formed iiato a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The TOtu ItKaniENT was organized at Indianapolis on the 12tli of 
August, 1SG2, under Col, 13. Harrison, and leaving fur Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors cf Bruce's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of tlic regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at Washington, June 8, 1SG5, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

The 71sT on SixTU Cavalky was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general serviv;eat Indian- 
apolis on the ISth of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Topping. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
CoL I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction thx'oughout 
its career, and was mustered out the 15th of September, 1865, at 

The TTth Reorient was organised at Lafayette, &ud]ei'te/i-roiite 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a scries of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73kd Rt:Gi3iENx, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of Augast, 1862, and proceeded iin- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Alorton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Regiment, partially organized at Fort "Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22d 
of Aiigust, 1862, under Col. Charles AV. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together with the battles of Dallas, Cliattahoocliio river, Tvcnc?a\v 
and Athmta, \vhcre Lieut. Col. Mjrou Balcer was killed, allhcarcvi- 
<3enco uf its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9th of June, 1865, at "Wasliington. On the return of the 
regiment to Indian;; polis, tlio war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 75th REQiMEXTwas organized v.'ithinthe Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left "Wabash, on the 21st of August, 1S62, for the 
front, nnder Col. 1. W. Petit. It was the first regiment to cuter 
Tullahoma, and one of the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8tli of June 1865. 

The 76th B.^ttalion was solelj' organized for thirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavin., for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newbnrg on the 13th July, 1862. It was 
organized and equipped within foi'ty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, '•' The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, ok Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fanae over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29t.h June, 1865. 

The T9tu Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Kncfler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to tiie conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th June, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continiied round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The SOth Regiment was oricanizcd within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and officers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81sT Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Oaldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862^ and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
influence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driviug 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 


on tlie lolli JiiHO, IRGa, uiid roturncd to Tmliaiifipolis on tlie inth, 
to receive tlie well-niorited (.•oiigratuliitiuns of Governor J-forton 
and tlie ]kx)j)1c. 

The S^ND Rkoimext, under Colonel ]\rorton C. Hunter, Avas 
mustered in at Madison, lud., on the 30th August, 1SG2, and 
leaving immediately for the scat of war, parti eiuatcd iu many of 
the great battles down to the rntiirn of peace. It was mustered out 
at Wasliington on the 9th June, 1SG5, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recor;nition of its faithful service. 

The 83kd Regiment, of Lawrenceburg, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1SG2, and soon left en route 
to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history, the fact of its bcino" 
under fire for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
0,285 miles, leave nothing to be said iu its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered oat at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1SG5, au'l I'cturned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 84x11 Rkgiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1862, under Colonel Xelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on thedefenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short time it.3 labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
enemy on many well-contested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the litli of June, 1S65, at iSTashville. 

The 85Tn Rkgiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 18G2. On the 4th March, 
1863, it sliared in the unfortunate affair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Regtmekt, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1S62, under Colonel OrvilleS. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the S4th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of I^ashville on the loth 
and 16th December, 1S64. It was mustered out ou the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 87th Regiment, organized at South ' ud, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N". Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
ou the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day e?i route to 


the front. Fi'Oiti Springfield .-uwl Pen-yville on tlic GtU and Stli of 
October, 1802, to Mission lIi(l^o, on the 25tli of November, 1S(J3, 
^thence tlirongh the Atlanla campaign to tlie surrender of the Sonsh- 
ern armies, it niilieUl a ^i;-aUant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic wolco'.ne-liome on the 21 st of June, 1805, with a list of 
absent con))'ades aggregating 451. 

The 88th Regimicnt, organized witliin the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. 11 u)nj)lirey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1802, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the camjiaign in brilliant Ibrm 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1SG5, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Ekguient, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 28th of August, 18G2, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the 4th of August, 1805. 

The 90Tn Regiment, ok Fifth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of ]\[arch, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of June, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91sT Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1863, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days latei- left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the j)rosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the lield on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Hegiment failed in organizing. 

The 93i) Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. Do Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. ~W. Cam On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Euckland's Brigade of 


Geii. Shei'inan's. On tlio 14tli of ]\r;iy it wns aiiioni,' tlic first vo>/\. 
mcnts to enter Jackson, tlie capital of JSIissisi^ij)])!; was next ]ire3- 
ent at tlic a^sault "on Vicksl)ur<i;, and made a stirriiiii^ campaign 
down to tlic^ titorniini; of Fort IJlakcly on flu; Dili of April, 1S65- 
It was disfhai'irf-'d on the lltli of Aui^-ust, that ycai-, at ' diana[)o- 
lis, aftei' receiving a public ovation. 

The O-liu AND 95tii Ekgi.mknts, axUliorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, rcs])ectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th REoniKXT could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incorpo- 
rated with the 99Lh then in jn'ocess of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left l)lank. 

The 97x11 TviXrijUEKx, raised in the SeA'enth Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terro Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. liobert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memjrhis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Vicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentouville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 3-H men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Angusta Railwaj^, from the 15th to the 27th of June, 186-1. 

The 9STn EKoniKXT, authorized to be I'aised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated M'ith the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Ak-x. Fawler, and rejxirted for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned to Indianapolis on the 11th of the saujc month. 

The 100th RiiGi.MEXT, recruited iVoin the Eighth and Tenth 
Cougi'essional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 




into tlic scrvict'on (he liUli of Si'phMnltor, left for tin; fi-ont on the 
lltb of November, and became uttivc.bcd to the Army ol" 'iV'Tuirfsee 
on (lie 2r)th .of tl):it montli, 1802. Tlic reiijiment parti-jipatc.'-l in 
t\Vciit_)- live battles, to:;et}ier witli Bkiriiiltfliiiii;- during fully one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed :; of casualties monntin^ up 
tofouj' hundred and sixty-four, ft was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at AVashington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the 1-ith of June, 1SG5. 

Tlie lOlsT Eegj.mi;>;t was inu.^tered into service at AVabash on 
the 7th of September, 1802, under Col. "William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, ICentucky, Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofJ^ragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavalry, and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at ]\[iltou on the 18th of March, 1803, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 18G3, the regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102i) liEGiMENT, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in Jul}', and reported at North Yernon on the 12th of 
July, 1803, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapoli.s on the 17th to be discharged. 

The 103ij, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d liegiment, var3'ing only in its service by being mus- 
tered ont one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The 10-±Tu ItEGiMEXT OF MiNUTE Men was rccruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 714 men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and v-'as organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentuck}' against the raids of Gen. John II. Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the 18th of July, 1863. 

The 105th RkgijulN't consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished l)y Hancock, Union, Randolph, 

JI18T()i:V OF INlilAKA. 171 

Putnam, Wayne, Clinton juid Madison connlics. Tho command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and oliicers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leadin;^ ]);irt in the pursuit of Morgan. Re- 
turning oji the ISLh of July to Indianapoh's it wa? mustered out. 

The IOGtu Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine com])anics of Minute Men, 
aggregating t-even hundred and ninety-two men and officers. The 
counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and ]\[arion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1863. 

The lOTxu Regiment, undi;r Col. De Witt C. Rngg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Lidianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The IOStk Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Ilaticock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties ])resented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The IOOtji Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county, 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., shov/ed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R, 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The llOxH Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
•were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The lllxir Regiment, furnished hy Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and < fficers, rinder Col. Robert Cauover, was not 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Iiifantry Company of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton. Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was inuslcrcd out on the 17tli of 
July, JSG3. 

, The ll^TH Rkchmknt, lurni^heu l>y Daviess. Martin, "Was!) in^lon, 
and j\Ionroe counties, coni(>rised OliG rank and lilu under Coh Cieo. 
W. Jjurge. Like tlie 112th, it was assi(,nied to Gen. llu^lios' 
Brigade, and defended North Vurnun against the rej^eatcd attacks 
of John II. Morgan's forces. 

Tlie IMth Rkgimknt was wholly organized in Johnson coiintj', 
under Col. Lanihertson, and participated in tlie aiiair of Korth 
Vernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and liis G,000 cavalry 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

SIX months' keg iments. 

The 115th REontENX, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1SG3, was mustered into service on 
the IVth of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of Feljruary, 1SG4. 

The IIGth Regiment, mustered in on the iTth of August, 1SG3, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the oOtli, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Kicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. "Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. » After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24th of February, 1SG4, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The IITtii Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 18G3, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1SG4, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9 th. 

The IISth Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Cui. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


Stale c;v]Mtal on tlic Mlli of Fcliniiiry, ISO I. Tt:^ cfisuaUics were 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The HUtii, or Skvknth Cavai-uy, was recruited under Col. John 
P. 0. Shanks, and its origan izat.i on conipleled on the If-t of Octo- 
ber, I8G;>. Tlic rank and file numbered l,iM8, dividcnl into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
rc])orted, and on the 14tli it entered on active nervice. After the 
well-fon^ht battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the lOtli of June, 
1SG4-, although it onl}' brought defeat to our arms, (icneral Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Yoar General con- 
gratulates a'ou upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting agaiiist overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unHinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. Fr.]- hours on foot you repulsed the cliarges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, .-:id again in the saddle j'ou met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldier:' from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1SG5, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer "Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The 120x11 Regiment. In September, 1S63, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
jnents within the State for three j'ears' service. By April, ISGl, 
this organization was complete, and being transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier General Alvin P. Ilovey, w^ere formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Teimessce. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice w'as accomplished. 

The 121sT, on Nikth Cavalky, was mustered in March 1, 18G4, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a bx*ief period, is 


pre^^uant witli deeds of war of a lii^^li cliariicter. On tlic 20111 of 
^Vpril, 1805, tlie.>c ti(.)oji!>, while, rctui-niiig from their labors in the 
,Soutli, lost 55 men, owin^ to the ex]>losiun of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 3SG survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1SG5, wi'^ hailed with joy, and proved how v/ell and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d ItKuiMKXT ordered to be raised in the Third Con<^rts- 
sional District, owing to very few men bein^ then at home, failed 
in or^^anization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d IIkgi.mext was furnished by the Fourth aiid Seventh 
Congressional Disti-icts during the winter of lsG3-'04, and mus- 
tered, jMarch 9, ISGl, at Grccnsburg, under Col. John C. AIcQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, i)ar- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 18G5, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Haleigh, JNTortli Carolina. 

The 124tii Kegimekt completed its organization by assuming- 
three companies raised for the 125 Lh Ilegiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Ilichmond, on the lOth of 
March, ISGl, under Colonel James Burgess, and re])ortcd at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Boost, on the 8th of May, 
1864, under General Schoiield, Lost Mountain in June, and the 
cajDture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1SG5, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125th, or Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Vincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equi{)raent at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in I^ashville was 
repoi'ted, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later iu the battles of Nashville, Reynold's Bill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1SG5 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Stdtana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain GalTuey and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad, ]\[ay, 1804, lost 
live men killed and several \voundcd. After a term of service un- 

iiistoi:y of imiiaxa. 175 

surpassed for its utility and characlcr it was disciubudicd at ^'^icks- 
burg, Missi.'^sijipi, on the 31st August, 1SG5, and retuiiiing to 
Indianapolis early in Septeuibcr, was welcomed by the Executive 
and ])Joi)le. 

Tiio 12(1th, nii EijcvKXTn Cavalky, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Ivobert II, Stewart, on the 1st ot" March, 1861, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a verj- consjucuous ])art in 
the defeat of Hood near Kashville, joining in the p.ursuit as far as 
Gravelly' Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1805, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Iviley, Kansas, and tlience to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered o\it on the 19th September, 1803. 

The 127Tn, ok Twklftu Cavalrv, w-as partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 18G3, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edv/ard Anderson, in April, ISG-i. lleaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march througli Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Kegiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th I^Larch, 18GJ-. On the 25th it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schofield's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Dalton, Brentwood Hills, Nashville, 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after tlie termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129Tn Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1.861, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 12Stli until August 29, 1865, when it w\as disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The ISOxa Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left en route to the seat of war 
on the IGth, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th DeceniDer, 1865. 

The 131sT, OR Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. At L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Iii(liaiuij)olis on tlie oOili of A])ril, ISOi, in infantry trim, 
und y;ained its lir.~t lionors on the 1st of (>o.tot)cr in its tna<^iiificent 
dofcn?o of Kunt^ville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
'General Jliifurd, followini;- a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, tlio roijimeiit was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern foian, and was nmstered out at 
Vieksburg on the ISth of JS'ovembur, 1805. The morale and 
services of the rei>;iinent were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet P>rigadier-(Jencral in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to tlie ofler made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for onehun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of the war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed The Grand Division of tlie Yolunteers. 

The 132d Regiment, under Col. S. C. Vance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelliyville, Franlclin and Danville, and leaving on 
the 18th of May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d IIegiiient, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
186 i, under Col. R.N. Hudson, comj)rised nine companies, and 
folloM-ed the 132d. 

The 134tii REGurENT, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of May, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, a)id proceeded immediatel}' to the front. 

The ISoxn Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. "W". C. "Wilson, on the 25tli of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 1 36th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135th, under Col. J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137tii Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, corajn-ising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zancsviile, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owoii and Lawrcuce counties, left ci> route t.o Tennessee on tlie 
28tliof Ma}', ISGi, having cunipleted organizutiou the day previous. 

Tlio l<3STn Regiment wai lornicd of fccvcu companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congre^rsional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27tli of May, 
ISGl, under Col. J. II. Shannon. Tliis fnio regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a fuw days. 

The ISOtji TIkgiment, under Col. Geo. Humplirey, was raised from 
volunteers furni;-;hcd by Iveuualiville, Lawj-enceburg, Elizaville, 
Kniglitstown, Comiersville, Newcastle, Portland, Vevay, New 
Albany, Metaniora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864:, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 


Tlie 14:0th ItEGjMENT was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, ISGi. Having taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Mnrfreesboro in ISGl-, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, 1SG5, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14 1st Regiment was only partially raised, and its few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col. Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort Wayne, under Col. I. 
M. Comparet, and was mustered into service at Indianajjolis on the 
d of November, 1864. After a steady and exceedingly eflective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 18G5. 

THE PKESIDENt's C'.'.L OF DECEJUlEi:, 1864, 

Was answered by Indiana in tho most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments Vtrere placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 18G5, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 


The 14l'rii Rkcimknt, under Col. (J. A\^ liiilillc, was ninsterod in 
on tlie OtlrHarcli, 1805, left on tlio 9tU for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campai^^n and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August, 1S65. 

The 145th Rkcumknt, under Col. "W". A. AilamSjleft IndianajiMlis 
on the ISth of Febrnar}', 18G5, and joining Gen. Steadman's divi:^iuu 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its dnties 
Avcre discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The lin-rn Reoimei^t, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the 11th of March en route to Harper's Ferry, where it was as- 
signed to tlie army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1865. 

The I^Ttu Regijient, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1SG5, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 140th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 18G5. 

The 14STn Regimext, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
cajiital on the 28th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into tlie heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The llOrn Regiment was organized at Indianapolis by Col. TV. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 18G5, for Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddj' and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150th Regiment, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9tli of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Fen-y on the ITtli. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility'-, returned on the 9th of' 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151sT Regiment, under Col. J. Ilealy, arrived at Xashvillcon 
the 9th of March, 18G5. On the 14th a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1SG5. 

The 152d RiIgimknt was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 









'W. W Griowold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the 18tliof March, 
18G5. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Slicnaiiduah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153i) I'^KontEXT was organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1S65, under Col. O. II. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service iu Ken- 
tucky, Avliere it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of lighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1S65. 

The 151th Regiment, organized under Col. Frank "Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkcrsburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 28th of April, 1SG5. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155Tn Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centre\ illc, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4tli of August, 1805, it was mustered out at Dovei', 

The IoGtii Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 18G5, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1365, at Winchester,, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received, them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly tljeir own. 

independent cavalry company of india'na volunteers. 

The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25th of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary, on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1804, it was reconstituted and incorjjorated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until thcj 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 

182 lUt^TOia* OK 1M)1\NA. 

(iru cdi.ouKn 'iKonrs. 

4 The 2Stii RKGn:K.N'r ok CdLdUii) 'I'kooi's M-as rccruilcd tliroi!L;']i. 
'>iit the State of Imliima, and uikUt Licut.-Coluuel Chai'le;? .S. 
Kussoll, left IndiaiKipolIs for tlio fronton tlie 2ith of April, ISOi. 
The regiment acted very well in its first engagement Avith the 
rebels Jit White House, Virginia, and again with G(!n. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of tlie Chiekahominj'. In the battle of 
the " Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon iillcd 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Hussell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigralier-CJeneral, when ho 
was succeeded in the command by ]\lajor Thomas JI. Logan. 
.During the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
history, and was ultimately di:^charged, on the Sth of Januaiy, 
18G6, at Indianapolis. 


First Battkrv, oi-gjinizcd at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 18G1, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering I'eadily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 930 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, LsG'3 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the 8th at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Tcclic country, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efiicacy. In 1S64 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jucoby v.'^as raised to 
the Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the ISth of August, 

Second Battekv was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Coffee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The TniRD Batteuy, under Capt. AV. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediate!}' to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
Eouri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 


■which may !)(> engraven on its c^uns. It purticipated in the allairs 
before Narilivillcon the 15th and 10th of December, 18G-i, when 
Gcuersri Ilnud's Army was put to route, and at Fort IJlakcly, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned liome to report for discharge, 
Au,:^ust 21, 1865. 

The Fourth IJatteky, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, r<^ported at the front early in October, ISDl, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
imder Iloseucrans and McCook and under General Slieridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, i'.nd it 
retained its well-earned rej)utation to the very dsiy of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1865. Its first organization was completed 
under Oapt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Capt 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Batteky was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt, Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-jjounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gib 
bert, Louisville, on the 29th, it was siiortlj' after assigned to the 
division of Gen, Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and oftlccrs and four guns. It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Six'rn Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, tor the front, 
reporting at ITenderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of il^^ great 

The Seventu Batteky comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawreuceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J, Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
gan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the IJth of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Er .irrri Battuiiv, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrivc<' at 
the front on tlie 20tli of February, 1S02-, and. subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction tliroughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in Marcli, 1805. 

The XiNTH Bat'o:hy. Tlie orgaiiiaation of tliis battery vras 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1SG2, under Capt. 
I^. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it ])articipated in the aflairs 
of Shiioli, Corinth, Queen's Ilill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
dc Huss}'-, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Rapids, Mansura, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
eacli engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johuson- 
ville, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 18G5, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the bal tery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6 th of Mai-eh, and were mustered out. 

The Tknth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jeroine B. Cox, in January, 18G1. Having passed 
throiigh the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in ■many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1864, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
l7th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1862, to the ca])tnre of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th of June, 1865. 

Tlie Twelfth Batteky was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Lidianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1SG2, 
it reached Kashvillc, having been previously assigned to Bueli's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, rcfigned, and tlie 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
ofiicers to look back with pride npon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indiana])olis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thtrteektii Battery was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of ISGl, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 3 862. During the subsequent months it 



•was occujiiod iu the pursuit ()f Joliii H. Morgan'ti raiders, and 
aided effecth'clv in" driving tliem from Iventucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1805, and 
were discliarged the day following. 

The Foi-nTEENTU Battkky, recruited in "Waljash, iVrianii, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. II. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. W. IL McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1802, and within a few moutlis one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Jjcxington hy Geu. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main batteiy lost tv,'o guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Xashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29th of August, 1S65, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The FiFTKENTH Battery, under Captain I. C. II. Yon Selilin, 
was retained on duty frour the date of its organization, at ladiau- 
.apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stunevvall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison snrj'cndered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again iu the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a sjilendid renown ou every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 24:th of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Batiery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Nay lor, and on the 1st of June, 1862, left for 
"Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated in the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favorable record, 
and returned on the 5tli of July, 1S65. 

The SEVENTEENTn Batteky, under Capt. Milton L. I\riuer, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of Maj', ISGii, left for the 
front on the 5tli of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opcquan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on tliese battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winclicster to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1865. 

The EiGnTEE2JTH Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


froiil; in August, 1803, but did not take a leading part in tlu) eam- 
]);iig)i until 1803, when, under Gen. Ilosencrans, it ai)[)eared prom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From tltis period to the ali'airs o!' ^Vest 
Point and Macon, it }>erforiued first-elass service, and returned to 
its State on the of .Tune, 1SG5. 

Tlie XiNKTEi;.\Tn Battkhy was luustcred into service at Tn'lian- 
apolis, on the Stli of August, 1802, under Cai)t. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
iu the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every pott 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city ou 
the Gth of June, 1805, it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battekt, organ i;jed under Oapt. Frank A. Rose, 
left tlie State capital on the 17th of December, 1802, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1803, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1SG3, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Slierman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return ou the 
23dof June, 1805. 

The TwENTY-FiiiST BATTERr recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain W. W. Andrew, left on tlie Gth of September, 
1802, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged iu numerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged ou the. 21st of June, 1805. 

The Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1802, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavali'y, and iu many other affairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. While the list of casualties 
numbers only 33, that of desertions numbers o7. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 



Tlie TwKXTV-TniiiD 1jAttki:\, rccniitcd in ()(;tol)ei' 1SG2, and 
mustered in on the'Sth ot'Xuveinber, under C;ipt. I. IL Myers, pro- 
ceeded South, after havini>; rendered \'erj eilieieut services at lionic 
in guarding the camps of rebel [)risoner3. In July, 1805, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Braiidenburgh, and subsequently'^ to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, i-eaching 
Indianapolis iii June, 1SG5. It was discharged on the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1S02; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty until the 13thof March, 1SG3, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 2Sth 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's array. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it I'cturned to 
report for final discharge. 

The T-\VENTY-siXTH Battery', or "Wildek's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1S61; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantrj-, with "Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " liigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 



I>Ocnlity. All. oflJattl.?. LoCfiUty. Ko. of IVittlo;). 

Virginia DO Maryland 7 

Tcurx-Sseo 51 Texas o 

Georuia . . : 41 iSoutli Carolina 3 

I Mississippi yt Iiidinn Territory 2 

Arkansas 10 rennsvlvania 1 

Kentucky IC, Ohio.". 1 

L'Hiiaana la Indiana 1 

Jlissoiiri <) 

North Carolina 8 Total IJOS 

The regiments sent iortli to tlie defense of the Tiepublic in tlio 
liour of its greatest peri], when a liost of ]ier own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, lea])ed to arms that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving ]jrinciples of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their lathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to tlie Republic was then established; 
for wlien the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to particijxite in war for tlie maintenance of the Union, is 
Itrought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from lSGl-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern ■wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob,' 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of ])atriot- 
ism, guided b}' the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the ofhcial reports, furnished to the Y7ar De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legions of the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with soine prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the gt-eatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


of all rebclliuu.s }ioldi))g:i ])l:icc in tlie rccurd of nations, tJic l)cst 
blood of the Country \vould flow iu a vain attcin[)t to avert a catas- 
troplio \^)ic]i, if prolonged for many years, would n uilt in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the conntiy. 

The part which Indiana took m the war agaiii::;l the Rebellion is 
one of wliich the citizens of the State maj^ well bo proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and iu the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions 1 hindered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of p^ratitudo 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can bo traced to any want 
.of fidelity, courage or efficiency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who liavc represented us db 
almost every battle-field of the war, to sa}"- that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished b}' the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 


In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session. Gov. Morton 
resic'ned his office in consequence of having been elected to the U. 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citijcens of the United States and of tlie 
State wherein tliey reside, without regard to race or color; rcduc- 


iii^^ tlio Congressionni rejircsciitailoii in any State in which thora 
should bo a restriction of tlie exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
* who sliall liave cn^-aired in insurrection or rebellion airainst the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be (questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
thea])]-!ortionnient and compensation of a Board of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each townsliip, of two freeholders ap])ointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all olHcers and soldiers of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Eepublicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank curreucj-; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of suffrage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suffrage, etc.; while the 
Kejiublicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of tlio currency, 
etc. The camjjaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 961. In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1S6S Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and $1,958,917.94: was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 

f'-ii- ' 



mf, i^ 



V»; '' 


commission reported that .$113,590.48 were nllowed to parties suf- 
fering loss ])y tlie Mor::,^iu raid. 

Tliis year (Tovoi-iutr Baker obtained a site for the Iloiise of 
Kefiige.' (See a subsequent paife.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Kniglitstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and ado])tcd by the Legislature of the 
previous 3'^ear, was in a good condition. Up to that date ;he insti- 
tution had afforded relief and temporar}^ subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in tlie war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered. 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adultery. 2. Impo- 
iency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 



Were it not for political government tlie ])!oncers would have <^ot 
aloiii;- without iiioicj mncli longer tlian tliev did. The pressure uf 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to ])rovide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufficient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated, Said the Governor: "It will be oppressive if the 
State^ after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign. 
naent of the evidences of existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially whea their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public. loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt v;hich would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the 2:)^iblic debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 
The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 
of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 
bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States. 
the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 
bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 
effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 
the olllcers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 




had prostrated ihc paper circulating mcdimn of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal 
state of affairs like this verj^ naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an " unwise administration." 

Duriniij the first 16 years of this century, the belli<i,-erent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural sujiplics from America, and 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in nndertak'ing tlic tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the thmi'i forced upon tliem. The large 
disbursements made by the gener;.' Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage fur speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three yearSo This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, "William Hendricks, took a hopeful 
view of the situation, referring j^articularly to the "agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavilj' and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus i roduce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a seriwis dra'ivback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to their normal height 
on the very first opportunit}'. 

In 1822-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 


of tlie surplus produce of the farmers, A part of the surphis cap- 
ital, lio\vever, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were uusucccssful for a time, 1)ut eventually proved remu- 

Kuali Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing' his duties amid jieculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1833 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and yet the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 2S, 
iS3i. The act of the Legislature, by its ov/n terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 183-i, its 
outstanding circulation was $1:,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'58 the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redenaption of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured b}"- the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was pa^-able July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,780,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed b}^ indi- 
viduals, and tlie installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
State of things tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as di-lu- 
sive in their results as tli-.'y are contrary to a jirimary law of nature. 
The people began more than ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Wliitcoinb, lS43-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimatelj^ the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claim^s 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. "Whiteomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted which gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 

'.-44J#>'r.. • WEALTH AND TKOGKESS. 

During the war of the Eebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition, October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and tlie disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within the State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 


see wliat a substaniifil foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great .commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
,coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
titiou. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is moi-e a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It pi'obably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, 3,GS4, with a 
total hoi'se-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,014; number of hands employed in the manufactories, 86,402; 
capital employed, is §117,462,161; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 
material, $104,321,032; value of products, $301,304,271. These 
figures are on an average about twice what they were only five years 
previously, at which time they were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1870 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $2,03,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. Tiiis is utterly astonishing, especially when 
we consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared with its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Reports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
to burden these pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 


Congress, all these and otlicr public documents in wliicli he may be 


This sidijcct began to be agitated as early as 1S18, during tlie 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 18-13, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of highways and canals and the improvement of 
fhe navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1826 Governor Kay considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessitj' to place the State on an equal financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless-,' 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in which the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the ?vork of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some suffering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13f per cent, on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
$51,000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
S52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to tJ.'Q 



Lalce. In comnli'anee witli this request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Le^^islaturc of the State, and, in a s])irit 
,of coiH'tesj, resohitions were addjjte.l by that bod)', stij)ulatiii>i: tliat 
if Ohio shouhl uUiuiately decline to nndertakc the conipkition of 
that portion of the work witliiii lier limits before tlie time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
jnst and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the pruceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before Jannarj' 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor l^oble, in 1834, said: "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or s^-stera, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be coinmenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Public "Works Is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrencebnrg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1S35 the "VVabasli & Erie canal was pushed rapidly forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
" to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the "Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
proveinent was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preiniratorj' to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


•without Giipigiiigaii Enij;ineer-iii-Cliicf for tlic roads and railways, 
and witliout the dosiied number for the euhordinate Btatiou; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under tlieir management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal ])rogressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; IG miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
iwork was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern dlvis- 
yion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
,were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the Sold of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Yernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and survej'ed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon "over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never he 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told tlieiu that the astoiiisliiiig success so far, surpassed even the 
hopes of tlie most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of tlie 
future were sufficient to dispel ever3'' doubt and quiet every fear. 
tNTotwithstanding all his efforts, however, the construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and in his last message he exclaimed: 
*' Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the ])resent. * -» * "pj^Q 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our liands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,827,000 for internal improvement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest ou 
debts — about $200,000 — which the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources fgr this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 1838, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Leg-islature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of affairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
rninous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 


ever rcndei-cJ direct taxation inexpedient. ITence it liccanie tlie 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide tlic means of paying the interest 
on the State debt witliout increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In ISiO the system embraced ten different works, the most im- 
portantof which was llie Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,1G0 inilc.s, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,000,000, and it required at least $l-l-,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work com]:)leted and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows: 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Ti])pe- 
canoe, 129 miles in length, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period opened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the moutli 
of Nettle creek, 76^ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046 ; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Iiidianupoliri to Evansvillc on tlic Oliio 
river, lO-i inilcsin length; total estimated cost, $3,5;]2,39i; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of whieli was com])leted at that date, 
at the southern end, and IG miles, extending south from IndJanau- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

7. Erie & Michigan canal, 1S2 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,024,823; amount expended, $15G,3t)-l:. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,403,- 
013. Iload finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, $503, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

IL Jefferson ville & Crawfordsville road, over 104 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty-five miles were jjartly graded and bridged, extending from 
JefFersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the "Wabash rapids, undertaken jointly by i 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, pajnng most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondlv, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every WRy. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the worlds but be it to the credit of this great 

nrsTouY OF Indiana. 205 

aiul glorious State, she would not rcpiKliutc, ns many otlior States'. 
and munici])alitios iiavc done. 

J*y tli£ year 1850, the so-called "internal ini])rovement " system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "]Miblic works." During this year about 400 miles 
of ])lank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 tu $1,500 per 
mile, and ab^ut 1.200 miles more were surveyed and in ])rogress. 
There were in tbe State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful oj)eration, of which 124 were com])leted this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-bi:rden the State with the old canal debt, and tbe matter 
Avas considerably agitated in the canvass (:;' iS70. Tliesubject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was ligbtly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probablj' had 
some eft'ect on the election in the fsill. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax the people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Auril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also fine quarries of buildmg stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 13 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation there coramenoes a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy ])rofits. In tlie whole of the southwestern pai't of the 
State and for 300 miles up tdc AVabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long for the appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufRcient su])port to enable hini to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'S, 
by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1SG9, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1S53, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few tho'usand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor iu the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people." — 
W. W. Clayton. 

Iw 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
■witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcely give even tlie substance of his ^-eport in a 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up entirely of local detail. 


The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
0,500 s^juaro miles, in tlie soutliwestei'ii part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north !o the Oliio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowiui^ counties:Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vandcrburi^, AVarrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and canuel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from GOO to SOO 
feet, with 13 to 14 distinct seams of coal ; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, the average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contains a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about ^Jr cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal' to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,0S0. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with cai'bonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rinffs under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burnin<:r," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the "State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There arc ei'i^lit distinct seams of Ijlock coal in this zone, three of 
■wliich are workaltle, liaving an average thickness of four feet. In 
♦ some jilaccs tliis coal is mined bj adits, but generalh' from shafts, 
40 to SO feet deep. Tlie seams are crossed by cleavage linos, and 
the coal is usually mined without ])ov\-der, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine ])rescnt a 
zigzag, notelied appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1S71 there were about 24. block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time tliis industry 
lias vastly increased. This coal consists of 81^ to 83^ percent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourtlis of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to S,2S3 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

The great Indiana coal field is witliin 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considerina: the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
lialf feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous tliroughout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw off scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parkeaud Fountain counties, where its commercial value has ah'eady 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in tlic vicinity of tlic coal field. In some 
places the beds ai:c quite thick and of considerable commercial 
value. < 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where j)jany large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature jmssed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which act are suljstantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more j)ersons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement ofagriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and ajipointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasurj^, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall offer annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
•domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, l)y grant 
of rewards, agricultural and household manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they .shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such timt'S and places as they 
ina_y dcein.jiroper; may hold two ineetini!;s a year, certifyiiii; to the 
^tatc Auditor their expenses, who shall draw his warrant u]iou the 
Treasurer ibr the same. 

In 1861 the State lioard adopted certain rules, embracing teu 
sections, for the government of local societies, hut in ISGS they 
were found inexpedieiit and abandoned. It adoj^ted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Eoard found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestl}' to work 
in the fall of 1872 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1873, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis,. 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variet}'- of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State liatl nearly 3,700 miles of railroad, not counting- sidc- 
traclv, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or 18 months one can <^o from Indianapolis to every county in 
the State by railroad. Indiana has G,500 square miles of coal field? 
460 of which contain block coal, the best iu the United States for 
manufacturini:; })urposcs. 

On the sulijf.'ct of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania liad, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,00G,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60,460,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, 8122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,940,000, on account of lier greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

"Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on tlie 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania. 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

"What we want in this country' is diversified labor.'' 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under thereof, thus affording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had iu the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the oflices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 



approached bj tlirco wide stuirways, accommodates the fine art, 
musical and other departnienis of liglit mechanics, and is brilliantly 
Righted by windows and skylights. l)Ut as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. "Wright, 
1852-'tt; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. 0. Stevenson, 1S5G-'S; G. D. 
Wagner; 1S59-G0; D. V. Ilolloway, 18G1; Jas. D.Williams, 1862, 
ISTO-'l; A. D. llamrick, 1SC3, 18G7-'9; Stearns Fisher, lS6i-'6; 
John Sulherland, lS72-'4; Wm. Grim, 1875. Secretaries: JohnB. 
Dillon, lS52-'3, 1S55, lS5S-'9; Ignatius Brown, 185G-'7; W.T. Den- 
nis, 1854, 18G0-'l; W. 11. Loomis, 18G2-'6; A. J. Holmes, 18G7-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l ; Alex. Heron, 1872-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis eveiy year except: Lafiiyette, 1853; Madison, 185-1; Kew 
Albany, 1859,- Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7,1874, addresses were 
delivered b}' the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony, 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was equal to the finest French plate; that 
the force-blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was' mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beecher was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not only as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Farmer and Gardener^ and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn, 


Aaron Aldridgc, Capt. James Sigarson, I). Y. Cullcj', Reuben 
Hagan, Stephen llauipton, Cornelius Ralliil', Joshua Lindlcj, 
Abner f ope and many others. In the autumn uf this year the 
society hekl nn exhibition, ]irobably the first in the State, if not 
in the West, in the hall of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
apple, which was won b^'^ Reuben Ragan, of Putnam county, for 
an a])ple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by tlie swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled aAvay until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1860, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wm H. 
Loomis, of Marion county, Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together lo be 
known as the "State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the i-egular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


Ill 18G4 tlicro was but little done on account of the cxliaust- 
ive deiuiindri of the great war; and the descent of mercury GO" in 
eighteen lioursdid soinnch mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of d(!Si)air. The title of the society was at tliis 
meeting, Jan., ISOi changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and altliough the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it lias been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most prodiictive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 180G, George M. Beeler, Avho had so indefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave, and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its vohime of proceedings in 
a substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 18G7 many valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being SG1.55. Up to this time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and diffusing annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held inTerre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best voiumo 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 tlie office of corresponding secretary was discoutinned; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to pul^lish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1875 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 18G0 to 1875 was 1,225. 


The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of the 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature, Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$1,216,044. At this time the seminary at Bloomington, supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though this is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-scliool system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 


for sdiool purposes wore elected through the State. Tlie law com- 
iriitted to tliein the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
» respective to\vnshi})S. As it was feared by the o])ponents of the 
law that it would not he possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were tliereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men; and although, of course, many blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the 3'outh; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational ]iositions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the office of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the pi'operty of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a iew 
old, leak}', dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
voter in the township a member of the corporation; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


half finished were abandoned, and in man}' townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law that the entire school law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Su[)reine Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of oftice. Hon. 
W. C. Lavrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possil)le. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufliciently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many " unqualified " teachers, esj^ecially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teacher, while 
there might not be a sufiScient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to $2,460,000. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these oflScers were 
allowed one-tenth of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 


of the State, in ]-)ro])ortion to the number of children. Tliis pliase 
of tlie law met with considerable opposition in 185-1:. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1854 was for qnalified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, man}' of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
186S, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Report (for 1877-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantial and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 



of School 

No of 

■ Attendance 


Am't Paid 


In Days. 


at School. 








$ 239,924 
































The increase of school population duriug the past ten years has 
been as follows: 

Total i« 1808, r)93,8G5. 

Increase for year endini^ Incrensc for year ending 

Sept. 1, 1^01) ; 17,009 MaylJSrt IS.O^S 

" 1, 1S7U 9,00:3 " 1,1875 13,372 

" 1,1871 3,101 " l,lS7f; 11,494 

" 1,1812 8,811 " 1,1877 : 15,470 

May 1, 1873 (8 months) 8,903 " 1,1878 4,447 

Total, 1878 099,153 

No. of wliile m.ilcs 354,271 ; females 333,033 087,304 

" "colored" ^ 5,937; " 5,912 11,849 


Twentj'-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The immber of white males enrolled in the schools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average dailj attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 j^er cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: "As 
long as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
days and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system, — such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of .a township to maintain each of the schools in his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easily applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population,' in the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. I 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
scho'ls up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the 3'ear, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted b}^ law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 


The State, however, averages six ami a half raontlis scliool per 
year to each district. 

« TIio number of scliool districts in the State in 1S7S was 9,3'^0, in 
all but 3i'of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 02, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,7S1. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was au increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, exce]>t about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
State in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In tuwnships, males, $1.90; females, 
$1.70; in towns, males, $3.09; females, $1.81; in citie.=, males, 
$4.06; females, 82.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school-houses, 1,724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana $8,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,214.91 

Ohio C,C14,81G.50 Missouri 2,525,252.52 

Illinois 0,348,538.33 Minnesota 2,471,199.31 

New York 2,880,017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2.210,864.09 

Iowa . . . 4,274,581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiaWe bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17,866.55 

Common-school fund,. .. . 1,666,824.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinking fund, at 8 per cent 569,139.94 ution 67,068.73 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrih- 

fund 3,281,076.69 uted 100,165.93 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land fund 42,418.40 

sional township lands.. 94,245.00 

Saline fund 5,727.66 $8,437,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1878 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The " Congressional township " fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of tlie townships. Almost all of these 


have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1S77 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The "saline" fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 3G entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congress. By authority of the sane act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by tlie Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 183G, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's sliare was 
$860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. "Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals.. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to 12^ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. " Sinking " fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headv, ay, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, tliis fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 


The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 


7. All fines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to the credit of the common-school fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
■when forfeited, are collectible bj law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to tlie ofBce of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years endinf^- 
with 1S72, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,805.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional laud grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1872 there was $42,il8.-10 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as' yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the ^Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds might be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: William H. Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Yanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias McNamee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

The sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memory. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located witliin its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at tliat place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1S25 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Eev. Baynard H. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $100 a year. In 1828 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the different departments; Eev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof, of mathematics and natural philosophy; and 
Rev. Bayard E. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difiiculties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1851, when it was destroyed by fire, and 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed. The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
tlie routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, * 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gotliic style, simply and truly carried out. The building, 
fronting College avenue is li5 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 38 feet by 26, and 
'the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty nunibci's thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in 1879-'80, ]S3; in preparatory, 109; total, 
349, aUowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed founaation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-ofScio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
jDrofessors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading- object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teacli such 
bi'anclies of leariiins: r.s arc related to acrricultnre and the incclianic 
arts, in sucli a luaiiner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively ])resoribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of tlie industrial classes in the several jnirsuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Skc. 5. That the grant of land and land scrij) hereb}' author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinl)efore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

*' First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to "which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund, 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, "without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

"Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

" Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sold., and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, mciading 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands snail be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroa''J 



grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, una. the number of acres proportionately diTiiinishcd. 
^ '-Sixth. Ko State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection afjainst the Government of the United States, sliall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. Ko State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act 

unless it shall ex])ress its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 

within two years from the date of its approval' by "the President." 

Tlie foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 

It seemed that this law, amid the diu of arms with the great Pvebel- 

hou, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 

Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 

called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe countv, who 

visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereuoon sent 

a special message to the Legislature, upon tlie subject, and then 

public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 

competed for the institution; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 

this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 

to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 

clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 

extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions of the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $400,000, and is invested in U. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1869, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, oflfered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to "Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a lOO-acre tract near Chauncej', 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
wdiich 86| acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
bouse, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The board ing-liouse ia a brick structure, in tlie 
iiaoderu Italian style, ])lanked by a turret, at each of the I'rout angles 
and measuring 120 feet front b}' GS feet deep. The dormitory is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the ])lain Elizabethan style, four stories 
high, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. loathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. Tlie laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, Iv. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, l.)ut yet sufii- 
ciently large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Richard Owen, Ibrmer 
President of the institution, occujnes the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of anew building. The military 
hall and gjnnnasium is 100 i'ect frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to wliicli this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every tacilit}'- for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate lieat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, cajjable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposu' 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, $37,807.07; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $33,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $4,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, $1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations. Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $000 a year, for the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds, — if necessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1874, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 

228 iiisTora' of Indiana. 

comprises tlic varied subjects gciicrallj ])crtaiiiin;:; to a first-class 
university course, namely: in the scliool of natural science — 
physics aiKl industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history; 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together -with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — thcoretr 
jcal and ]n"actical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the matliematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (ISSO) eleven members of the faculty'-, SG 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, lS74-'5, there were but G4: students. 


This institution was fodnded at Terre Haute iti 1S70, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficulty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efforts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geographj-, United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
ease of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


State. The advanced course of studies, togctlier Avltli the lii;;licr 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, anil ])i'c- 
parcs young men and women for entrance to the Stale University. 

The effifciency of tliis schdol may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from tlio official re})orts: out of 41 persons who had 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after tcacliing success- 
fully iu the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were goi tie- 
men and six ladies. After spending two j'cars and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that f)-ee- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition. of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the student's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, so 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 


This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1S73, with 35 students 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Talparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadilj', \intil at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the scliool 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equi])ment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thoroui^h, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large number of finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efliciencv 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and devolopment is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proprietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
"denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 


Noire Dame TJnivcr><Ui]^ near South I'eiid, is a Catliolic institu- 
tion, and is one of the most noted in tlie United States. It was 
founded tin 1842 by Father Soriii. Tlie first building was erected 
in 18i3, and the university has cunlinued to <;i'o\v and ])rosper until 
the present time, now having 35 profcssurSj 2(1 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all partsof the world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Ashury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury, It was 
founded in 1835, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Hoioard College, not denominational, is located at Kokomo, and 
was founded in 18G9. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom,was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore'' s Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1S5'1, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

Earlhani's College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

Wahash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1872, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 


Ilartsv'dle UnivcrsUy, United Eruthreii, at ITartsville, was 
foniuJcd ill 1S51, and in lS;72liad seven ])rofbs5ors and 117 student?. 

jS^rt/noe.sferii Clirlslian 6^; /-/ytfr.svVy, Disciples, is located at 
Irvin<;ton, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1S51, and by 
1S72 it liad 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1S30, the inllux of paupers and invalid persons was 
BO great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating tlie matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on tlie matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. Tlie Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 18-13. It was a 
pioneer institution; its Held of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, the first effort was made by James M. Ray, 
about 1846. Through his efi:brts William II. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Bay, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged J\Ir. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 181:7, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 


niSTOUY OF INPIAXA. Aj^&» VA.JX^.ii» 235 

tlic Coriufjiian style, wliilo c;u;li wing is siiuihirly overcappcd 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs arc gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and tlie former are molded after the princi])lc of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to l)e suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, who was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
eflficienc}' of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Phoabe Garrettson, Frances Cundiff, Dallas jMewland, 
Naomi Unthunlc, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Kachel Martin, her liusband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may- 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
theej'e may be treated, proceed as follows: 

1. The school year commences the first "Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students iinder 9 or 


over 21 years of age; but tliis power is extended only in very 
cxtrenio cases. 

* 3. Imbecile or unsound persons, or confirmed immoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; jieithcr can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

4. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the Stato of Indiana; nnd even those without the State 
have onl}' to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6- The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where he or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate the subject 
was William "Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


The next year tlic Loglslatuve adoptcil tin's seliool as a State insti- 
tution. ap])i>ii»ting a ]5oav(l uf Trustees for its niaiiageineut, consist- 
JTigot'tlie (-ruvcrnor and Secretar}- of State, ex-oflici(i,;uid llevs. Iluniy 
Ward Beccher, Phineas i). Gurlej', ]j. II. Jameson, Ur. Dunlap, 
Hon. James JMorrison and Rev. Matthew Siuijisoa. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and o]iened the first State asylum there in IS-i-i; but in 18^6, 
a site for a permanent building just east of Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
Oil this site the two first structures were commenced in 184:9, and 
completed in the fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was immediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-'70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a facade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the librar}'. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the chapel and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center beipg50feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
inany detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

The first instructor in the institution was Wm. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1841: conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salar}'' of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Erown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mclntire, who continues principal of the 



The Le<ifis]atare of lS32-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hosp.ital for tlie insane. This good work would liave been 
done much earlier liad it not hecn for the hard times of 1S37, 
intensiiied by the results of the gigautie scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken ]iublic sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their res])cctivc counties. During the year I8i3 tlie 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
GiTorts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and liospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature iu ISii, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1S4G ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
ISiT, the central building was completed, at a cost of 875,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories higli, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise IGO acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of G21 foot. Tl)e central building is fhc stories in licight and con- 
tains tlio store-rooms, otiicc?, rccc])tiun p;iriors, medical dispent^in"- 
room.-^ mo.'^s-rooins juid tlie apartments of the superintendent o.nd 
other ollicers, witli those of the female employes. Imniediatel) 
in the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is tlie chapel, a building 50 b}' CO feet. Tliis chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the undcn* stories hold the kitchen, 
baker)', cuiployes' dining-room, steward's oflicc, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is tlie engine- 
house, (iO by 50 feet, containing all the paraj)hernaHa for such an 
establishment, such as builers, puni]iing wurks, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the "State 
Prison South," located at Jeft'ersonville, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1821, Before that time it was 
customaiy to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among \\-]ioin were Capt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an aff'ray was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named "Williams, Messrs, Patterson Hensle_y, and Jos. 
P, Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few j'eai's they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or pleasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and un ventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
Government to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1857 to 1871 the labor of the jDrisoners was devoted 


to tlie luannfactnrc of w;igonsand farm implements; ami again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1S71, the Southwestern Car Company was organized, and 
cvftrj' pri.>oner capable of taking a part in the work of car-building 
was leased out. This did very well nntil the pjinic of 1873, when 
the company suffered irretrievable looses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. During the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners nam.ed Kennedy and Applegatc, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined bj' two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard, 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went in pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of his 
life. Bill Itodifer, better known as "The Iloosier Jack Sheppard," 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, aTid has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the JefFersonville prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 

mSTOKY OF ixniAXA. oil 

toward llic C(;iisti'uctiou of new colls, and iu olhcr directions alto 
tlie woik ol" ini])rovcment lias been goini; on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jefler- 
eonville [irit^on; and, strange to saj, by its economical working lias 
not only met the expenses of tli(; administration, but very recently 
liad amassed over $1J,000 in excess of current expenses, from its, 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The pett^- revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and cannot fiiil to bring liigh credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this State attained telling 
proportions in 18G9, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, wliich would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

" Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive, 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to-wit: 

"1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Commou 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestl}' requisite 


tliat from regard to the future wcHaic of sncli infant, and for tlie 
protection of society, pbesliould he jilaced under such o-Dardianship. 
« "2. Wlieu such infant has hvcy. coiuinittcd by such judge, as 
aforesaid, -upon complaint hy any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such iniant is a propt;r Gul)ject of tlic guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of Iier vagrancy or incorrigihle 
or vicious cu- duct, and that from the moral dei)ravity or other- 
avIkc (>i lier parent or guardian in wliose custod}- she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

"3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and ]Drepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
ashed the people for an a])propriation of another $50,000, which 
the Legislature granted in February, 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadily, that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State prisons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the fvdvo.nced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a three- 
stoiy brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
17i feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
suiDcrintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 


rear is tlie engine hous(3, with all the ways and means for heating 
tho builcling>. Enlarii^eniciif,^, additions and improvements are 
still in proi^rcss. There is also a school aTid library in the main 
building,^ M'liifih arc sources nt' vast good. 

October 3J, 1S79, there Wfvo 06 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and lil in the ''girls' reforniatory " dej)artincnt. The 
" ticket-oi-leave " S3'stem has been adopted, with entire salisfiiction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 18G7 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the luembers of which were to be ap])ointed 
by tlie Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the CTOvernor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 18G7, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller know^ledge and guide tlieir future proceedings. 
The House of Refuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were .Jso visited with this design; and after full consider' 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the "family" system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house ftither and family offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. Tho sj'stem 
"being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution, Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The iiext movement w^as to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1868- 


three family houses and work- shop were completed; in 18G9 tho 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 18G7, a Mr. Frank P. Ainswurtli and 
Jiis wife were appointed by tlie Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at tlieir disposal. In 
18Gi> they of course removed to the new building. This is G4 by 
12s feet, and three stories high. In its basement arc kitcluni, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and fa)iiily dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superir^.endcnt's private apartments, private 
offices and five dormitories for officers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, cliapcl and hospital. 

The family houses arc similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room., which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1S68, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 

IIISTUUI' OJ" i:;]-ilAXA. 2i5 


AfLor arri\iiig fiiul selec(i)i<;- a suitable location, the next tldug 
to do Avas to build a log cabin, a description of which may be in- 
teresting to man}- of our younger readers, as in some sections these 
old-tinio structures are no more to be seen. Trees of unitorm size 
were chosen and cnt into logs of the desired length, generally 12 
to 15 feet, and haul-.d to the spot selected for the future dwelling. 
On an appointed day the few neighbors who were available would 
assemble and have a "house-raising." Each end of every log was 
saddled and notched so that the^' would lie as close down as possi- 
ble; the next day the proprietor would proceed to "chink and 
daub " the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and cold. The house 
liad to be re-daubed everj- fall, as the rains of the intervening time 
would wash out a great part of the mortar. The usual height of 
the house was seven or eight feet. The gables were formed by 
shortening the logs gradually at each end of the building near the 
top. The roof was made by laying very straight small logs or stout 
poles suitable distances apart, generally about two and a half feet 
from gable to gable, and on these poles Avere laid the "clapboards" 
after the manner of shingling, showing about two and a half feet 
to the weather. These clapboards were fastened to their place by 
" weight-poles," corresponding in place with the joists just described, 
and these again were held in their place by "runs" or "knees," 
which Avere chunks of Avood about 18 or 20 inches long fitted be- 
tween them near the ends. Clapboards Avere made from the nicest 
oaks in the vicinitj', by chopping or saAving them into four-foot 
blocks and riving these Avith a froAV, which was a simple blade fixed 
at right angles to its handle. This was driven into the blocks of 
wood b}'' a mallet. As the frow was wrenched down through the 
wood, the latter was turned alternately over from side to side, one 
end being held by a forked piece of timber. 

The chimney of the Western pioneer's cabin was made by leaving 
in tlie original building a large open place in one Avail, or by cut- 
ting one after the structure AA'as up, and by building on the out- 
side, from the ground up, a stone column, or a column of sticks and 


mini, ilie sticks being liiid up colj-liousc fnshion. The firc-pl:ice 
tlui8 made wa.s oftoii liirgt^ eiiougli to receive ilre--\v()Oil six to eight 
loet long. Sometimes tins wood, especially the "back-log," would 
bo lU'arlj' as large as a saw-log. Tlic more rapidly ihe ]iionccr 
could burn up the wood in his vicinity the sooner he had his little 
farm cleared and ready for cultivation. For a avIikIow, a piece 
about two feet long was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed sometimes by glass, but generally with greased jKipor. 
Even greased deer-hide was sometimes used. A doorway was cut. 
through one of the walls, if a saw Avas to be had; otherwise the 
door would be left by shortened logs in the original building. The 
dour was made by pinning clapboards to two or three wood bars, 
and was hung upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, with catch, 
then finished the door, and the latch was raised by any one on the 
outside by pulling a leather string. For security at night this 
latch-string was drawn in; but for friends and neighbors, and even 
strangers, the "latch-string Avas always hanging out," as a welcome. 
In the interior, over the fire-place would be a shelf, called " the 
mantel," on which stood the candlestick or lamp, some cooking and 
table-ware, possibly an old clock, and other articles; in the fire- 
place would be the crane, sometimes of iron, sometimes of wood — 
on it the pots were hung for cooking; over the door, in forked cleats, 
hung the ever trustful rifle and powder-horn; in one corner stood 
the larger bed for the " old folks," and luider it the trundle-bed for 
the children; in another stood the old-fashioned spinning-wheel, 
with a smaller one by its side; in another the heavy table, the only 
table, of course, there was in the house; in the remaining corner 
was a rude cupboard holding the table-ware_, which consisted of a few 
cups and saucers and blue-edged plates, standing singly on their 
edges against the back, to make the display of table furniture more 
conspicuous; while around the room were scattered a few splint- 
bottomed or Windsor chairs and two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true-hearted 
people. They were strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler, 
seeking lodgings for the night, or desirous of spending a few days in 
the community, if willing to accept the rude oftering, was always 
-welcome, although how they were disposed of at night the reader 
iinight not easily imagine; for, as described, a single room was made 

nisTouY or ikdiaxa. 217 

to answer for kitcheUjilhiiiig-i-oom, sittins-i'fom, bed-room and parlor, 
aud many families oC .six or eight i)it'mbcr.s. 


The bed was very often made by fixing a post in the floor about 
six feet from one wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, and 
fastening a stick to this post about two feet above the floor, on 
each of two sides, so that the other end of each of tlie two sticks 
could be fastened in the wall; clapboai'ds were laid across 
these, and thus the bed v/as made complete. Guests were given this 
bed, while the family disposed of themselves in another corner of 
the room, or in the "loft." AVhen several guests were on hand at 
once, they were sometimes kept over night in the following man- 
ner: when bed-time came the men M'ere requested to step out of 
doors while the women spread out a broad bed upon the mid-floor, 
and put themselves to bed in the center; the signal was given and 
the men came in, and each husband took his place in bed next his 
own wife, and the single men outside beyond them again. They 
were generally so croAvded that they had to lie " spoon " fashion, and 
when any one wished to turn over he would say " Spoon," and the 
Avhole company of sleepers would turn over at once. This was the 
only way they could all keep in bed. 


To witness the various processes of cooking in those days would 
alike surprise and amuse those who have grown ujj since cooking 
stoves and ranges came into use. Kettles were hung over the large 
fire, suspended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, on the crane, or 
on poles, one end of which would rest upon a chair. The long- 
handled frying-pan was used for cooking meat. It was either held 
over the blaze by hand or set down upon coals drawn out upon the 
hearth. This pan was also used for baking pan-cakes, also called 
"flap-jacks," "batter-cakes," etc. A better article for this, however, 
was the cast-iron spider or Dutch skillet. The best thing for baking 
bread those days, and possibly even yet in these latter days, was the 
flat-bottomed bake kettle, of greater depth, with closely fitting cast- 
iron cover, and commonly known as the " Dutch-oven." With coals 
over and under it, bread and biscuit Virould quickly and nicely 


biike. Tiii'la'V and spar('-)-il)S v.-ci-e souicf inics ro:i.sti.'(l bcfuiv tlic fire, 
«susi)ciule(l by ii .string, ;i disli being placed uirderueutb to catcdi tlie 

llomiuy and saiap were very muck used. The hominy, liowever, 
Avas generally hulled coni — boiled cojji from wliicli the bull, or 
bnin, bad been taken by liot lye; bence sometimes called "lye 
hominy." True boininy and samp were made of pounded corn. A 
popular method of making this, as well as real meal for bread, was 
to cut out or burn a largo bole in the top of a huge stump, in tbe 
shape of a mortar, and pounding the corn in this Ijya maul or beetle 
suspended on tbe end of a swing pole, like a well-sweep. This and 
tbe well-sweep consisted of a pole 20 to 30 feet long, fixed in an up- 
right fork, so that it could be v/orked " teeter " fashion. It was a 
rapid and simple way of drawing water. When tbe samp was snfll- 
ciently pounded it was taken out, the bran floated off, and tbe deli- 
cious grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in early days were corn bread, hominy 
or samp, venison, pork, honey, beans, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for 
more than half the year), turkey, prairie chicken, squirrel and some 
other game, with a few additional vegetables a portion of the 3'ear. 
Wheat bread, tea, coffee and fruit were luxuries not to be indulged 
in except on special occasions, as when visitors were present. 

women's work. 

Besides cooking in the manner described, the women had many 
other arduous duties to perform, one of the chief of which was 
spinning. The "big wheel" was used for spinning j'arn, and the 
"little wheel" for spinning flax. These stringed instruments fur- 
nished the principal music of the family, and were operated by our 
mothers and grandmothers with great skill, attained without pecu- 
uiary expense and with far less practice than is necessary for the 
girls of our period to acquire a skillful use of their costl}' and elegant 
instruments. But those wheels, indispensable a few years ago, are 
all now superseded by the miglity factories which overspread the 
country, furnishing cloth of all kinds at an expense ten times less 
than would be incurred now by the old system. 

The loom was not less necessary than the wheel, though they 
were not needed in so great numbers. Not every house had a loom — 


one loom hail u capacit}' for Mie needs of several families. SeHlers 
Ijaviug succeeded, in- spite of the wolves, in raising sheep, com- 
menced li e manufacture of Avoolen cloih; wool was carded and 
made into rolls by hand cards, and tlu? rolls were spun on the 
*' big wheel." We still occasionally find in the houses of old set- 
tlers a wheel of this kind, sometimes used for spinning and twisting 
stocking yarn. Thej' are turned with the hand, and with such 
velocity that it will run itself while the nimble worker, by her back- 
ward step, draws out and twists her thread nearly the whole length 
of the cabin. A common article woven on the loom was linsej', 
or linsey-woolsey, the chain being linen and the filling woolen. The 
cloth was used for dresses for the women and girls. Nearly all the 
clothes worn by the men were also home-made; rarely was a farmer 
or his son seen in a coat made of an}^ other. If, occasionally, a 
young man appeared in a suit of "boughtou " clothes, he was sus- 
pected of having gotten it for a particular occasion, which occurs in 
the life of nearly everj^ young man. 


The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light upon 
their conditions and limitations that, in order better to show the 
circumstances surrounding the people of the State, we will give a 
short exposition of the manner of life of our Western people at dif- 
ferent epochs. The Indians themselves are credited by Charlevoix 
with being " verj" laborious," — raising poultry, spinning the wool of 
the buffalo, and manufacturing garments therefrom. These must 
have been, however, more than usually favorable representatives of 
their race. 

" The working and voyaging dress of the French masses," says 
Reynolds, " was simple and primitive. The French were like the lilies 
of the valley [the Old Ranger was not always exact in his quota- 
tions], — they neither spun nor wove any of their clothing, but pur- 
chased it from the merchants. The white blanket coat, known as 
the capot^ was the universal and eternal coat for the Avinter with the 
masses. A cape was made of it that could be raised over the head 
in cold weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it hung behind, a cape to the 
blanket coat. The reason that I know these coats so Avell is that 



I ]i;ivo worn many in my youfli, nml a worldii_^- man novcr woro 
Ji heHer garment. Drc^s.sed deer-^kiiis and Iduc elolli wnv worn 
commonly in the winter for imiilaloons. Tlie blue liandivcriliief 
and ilio deer-skin moccasins covei-fd tlie ]i(?ad and feet generally of 
the French" Creoles, hi 1800 scancly a man thought himself 
clothed unless he had a belt tied round his blanket coat, and on one 
side was hung the dressed skin of a pole-cat, filled with tobacco, 
pipe, flint and steel. On the other side was fastened, under the licit, 
the butcher knife. A Creole in this dress felfc like Tarn O'Shanter 
filled with usquebaugh — he could face the devil. Checked calico 
shirts were then common, but in winter flannel was frequently worn. 
In the summer the laboring men and the voi/arjciirs often took their 
shirts off in hard woik and hot ^^,■ather, and turned out the uaked 
back to the air and sun." 

" Among the Ameiicans," he adds, " home-made wool hats were 
the common wear. Fur hats were not common, and scarcely a 
boot was seen. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly 
moccasins made of deer-skins and shoe-packs of tanned leather. 
Some wore shoes, but not common in very early times. In the 
summer the greater portion of the young people, male and female, 
and many .of the old, went barefoot. The substantial and universal 
outside wear was the blue linsey hunting shirt. This is an excel- 
lent garment, and I have never felt so happy and healthy since I 
laid it off. It is made of wide sleeves, open before, with ample size 
so as the envelop the body almost twice around. Sometimes it had 
a large cape, which answers well to save the shoulders from the 
rain. A belt is mostly used to keep the garment close around the 
person, and, nevertheless, there is nothing tight about it to hamper 
the body. It is often fringed, and at times the fringe is composed 
of red, and other gay colors. The belt, frequently, is sewed to the 
hunting shirt. The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The 
colors were made often with alum, copperas and madder, boiled 
with the bark of trees, in such a manner and proportions as the old 
ladies prescribed. The pantaloons of the masses were generallj'- 
made of deer-skin and linse}-. Coarse blue cloth was sometimes 
made into pantaloons. 

" Linsey, neat and fine, manufactured at home, composed gener- 
ally the outside garments of the females as well as the males. 


The ladies had liiisoy coh)r(/il ami wnvou io suit their faiie^'. A 
boniict,*compose{l of calico, or some gay .q,"<jO(1s, was worn on the head 
when tlie^" were in the open air. Jewelry mi the pioneer ladies was 
uncommon; a gold ring wa< an ornament not often seen." 

In 1820 a change of dress begun to take, place, ami before 1S30, 
according to Ford, most of the pioneer co.-tunie had disappeared. 
"The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or white fringe, had given 
place to the cloth coat. [Jeans would be mont like tne fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of tlie animal dangling down behind, had 
been thrown aside for hats of wool or fur. Boots and shoes had sui)- 
planted the deer-skin moccasins; and leather breeches, strapped 
tight around the ankle, had disappeared before unmentionables of a 
more modern material. The female sex bad made still greater prog- 
ress in dress. The old sort of cotton or w^oolen frocks, spun, woven 
and made witb their own fair bands, and striped and cross-barred 
with blue dye and Tnrke}'^ red, had given place to gowns of silk and 
calico. The feet, before in a state ot nudit}^, now charmed in shoes 
of calf-skin or slippers of kid; and the head, formerly unbonneted, 
but covered with a cotton handkerchief, now displaj-ed the charms of 
the female face under many forms of bonnets of straw, silk and Leg- 
horn. The young ladies, instead of wa^ .ig a mile or two to chnrcli 
on Sunday, carrying their shoes and st..ckings in their hands until 
within a hundred yards of the place of worship, as formerly, now 
came forth arrayed complete in all the pride of dress^ mounted on 
fine horses and attended by their male admirers." 

The last half century has doubtless witnessed changes quite as 
great as those set forth hy our Illinois historian. The chronicler of 
to-day, looking back to the golden days of ]830 to 1840, and com- 
paring them with the present, must be struck with the tendency of 
an almost monotonous uniformity in dress and manners that comes 
from the easy inter-communication afforded bj' steamer, railway, 
telegraph and newspaper. Home manufactures have been driven 
from the houshold by the lower-priced fabrics of distant mills. The 
Kentucky jeans, and the copperas-colored clothing of home manu- 
facture, so familiar a few years ago, have given place to the cassimeres 
and cloths of noted factories. The ready-made clothing stores, 
like a touch ot nature, made the whole world kin, and may drape the 
charcoal man in a dress-coat and a stove-pipe hat. The prints and 

252 nisToKV OK jnuiaxa. 

silks of Eugliuirl and Fraiuo give a variety of choico and an assort- 
ment of colors and shades sncdi as the })ioiieer women could hardly 
have dreamed of. (uMhy and Demurest and Harper's l^izar are 
found ill our modern farm-houses, and the latest fasliioiis of Paris 
are not uncommon. 


The Methodists were generally first on the ground in pioneer 
settlements, and at that early day tliey seemed more demonstrative 
in their devotions than at the present time. In those days, too, 
pulpit oratory was generally more eloquent and effective, while 
the grammatical dress and other " worldly " accomplishments were 
not so assiduously cultivated as at pi-esent. But in the manner 
of conducting public worship there has probably not been so much 
change as in that of family worship, or "family prayers" as it was 
often called. We had then most emphatically an American edition 
of that pious old Scotch practice so eloquently described in Burns' 
*' Cotter's Saturday Night:" 

The checrfu' supper clone, wi' serious face 

They round tlie ingle formed a circle wide; 
The sire tiu-ns o'er, wi' pvitriarchal grace, 

The big ha' Bible, auce liis father's jiridr; 
His bonnet rev'rently is laid aside. 

His lyart haffets wearing thin and bare; 
Those strains that once did in sweet Zion glide; 

He wales a portion witli judicious care^ 

And "let us worship God," he says with solemn air. 

They chant their artless notes iu simple guise; 

They tune their hearts,— by far the noblest aim; 
Perhaps " Dundee's " wild warbling measures rise, 

Or plaintive " Mart3'r's" worthy of the name; 
Or noble " Elgin " beats the heavenward flame, — 

The sweetest far of Scotia's hallowed laj'S. 
Compared with tliese, Italian trills are tame; 

The tickled ear no heart-felt ra]3tures raise: 

Nae unison hae they witli oui- Creator's praise. i 

The priest-like father reads the sacred page, — ■' 

How Abraham was the friend of God on high, etc. 

Then kneeling down, to heaven's Eternal King 

The saint, tlie father and the husband praj^s; 
Hope " springs exulting on triumphant wing," 

That thus they all shall meet iu future days; 



There ever basic in imcrpnted rays, 

No more to sigli or f^hed the biUor tear, 
4 Together Jjj-nmiiiK tlieir Creator's praise, 
In 8U(;h societ}', yet still more dear, 
Willie cireliiig time moves round in an eternal sphere. 

Once or twice a day, in ilie morning jusl; Ijef'ore breakfast-, or in 
the evening just before retiring to rest, the head of the family woukl 
call those around him to order, read a chapter in the P)il)h% announce 
the hymn and tune by commencing to sing it, when all would join; 
then he would deliver a most fervent prayer. If a ynons guest were 
present he would be called on to take the lead in all the exercises of 
the evening; and if in those days a person who prayed in the family 
or in public did not pray as if it were his verj' last on earth, his piety 
was thought to be deiective. 

The familiar tunes of that day are remembered by the surviving old 
settlers as being more spiritual and inspiring than those of the pres- 
ent daj% such as Bourbon, Consolation, China, Canaan, Conquering 
Soldier, Condescension, Devotion, Davis, Fiducia, Funeral Thought, 
Florida, Golden Hill, Greenfields, Ganges, Idumea, Imandra, Ken- 
tucky, Lenox, Leauder, Mear, New Orleans, Northfteld, New Salem, 
New Durham, Olaey, Primrose, Pisgah, Ple.yel's Hyinn, Rockbridge, 
Rockingham, Reflection, Supplication, Salvation, St. Thomas, Salem, 
Tender Thought, Windham, Greenville, etc., as they are named in 
the Missouri Harmony. 

Members of other orthodox denominations also had their family 
prayers in which, however, the phraseology of the i)ra.yer was some- 
what different and the voice not so loud as characterized the real 
Methodists, United Brethren, etc. 


The traveler always found a welcome at the pioneer's cabin. 
It was never full. Although there might be already- a guest for 
every puncheon, there was still "room for one more," and a wider 
circle would be made for the new-comer at the log fire. If the 
stranger was in search of land he was doubly welcome, and his host 
would volunteer to show him all the " first-rate claims in this neck 
of the woods," going with hiin for days, showing the corners and 
advantages of every " Congress tract " within a dozen miles of his 
own cabin. 

2.')t lllSTilliY UK INDIANA. 

To liis iieig'liliors (lie pioiiorr w;is iMjually lilieral- \f a tlcor wa>4 
killod, the cliuicost bits wvvo. sent to his nearest neiglihor, a lialt- 
dwAcn miles away, i-erhaps. WJieii a"t;hoat" was bulchcit-'d. the 
same custom prevailed. li" a iiow-coiiier cjtme in too late for '" crop- 
ping," the neighbors would sui)i)ly his table with just the same 
luxuries the^- themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal quantity, until a 
crap could be raised. When a new-comer had located his claim, the 
neighbors for miles around \\onld assemble at the site of the new- 
comer's proposed cabin and aid him in " gittin' " it np. One party 
with axes would cut down the trees and hew the logs; another with 
teams would haul tlie logs to the groujid; another party would 
"raise'' the cabin; while several of the old men would " rive the 
clapboards " for the roof. By night the little forest domicile would 
be u}) and read}'' for a "house-warming," which was the dedicatory 
occupation of the house, when music and dancing and festivity would 
be enjoyed at full height. The next da}' the new-comer ^^•ould be as 
well situated as his neighbors. 

An instance of primitive hospitable manners will be in place 
here. A traveling Methodir . preacher arrived in a distant neigh- 
borhood to fill an appointment. The house where services were 
to be held did not belong to a church member, but no matter for 
that. Boards were raked up from all quarters with which to make 
temporary seats, one of the neighbors volunteering to lead off in 
the work, while the man of the house, Avitli the faithful rifle on his 
shoulder, sallied forth in quest of meat, for this truly was a 
"ground-hog" case, the preacher coming and no meat in the house. 
The host ceased not the chase until he found the meat, in the shape 
of a deer; returning, he sent a boy out after it, with directions on 
■what " pint " to find it. After services, which had been listened to 
Nvith rapt attention by all the audience, mine host said to his wife, 
" Old woman, I reckon this 'ere preacher is pretty hungry and you 
must git him a bite to eat." "What shall I git himP" asked the 
wife, who had not seen the deer; " thar's nuthin' in the house to 
eat." "Why, look thar," returned he; "thar's deer, and thar's 
plenty of corn in the field; you git some corn and grate it while I 
skin the deer, and we'll have a good supper for him." It is need- 
less to add that venison and corn bread made a supper fit for any 
pioneer preacher, and was thankfully eaten. 

]1ist()i;y of iN'iriANA. iJyo 

In pioneei" times {]\p tninsacfioiis of cuininrrce were geiior;illy 
carried on by iieii>"liborhoo(l exeli;iniro.s. Now ami tlieii ;i fiiDuer 
would load a flat-boafc with beeswax, liODe}', {allow and peltries, 
with i)erhaps a few bushels of wheat or com or a few hundred 
clapboards, and float down the rivers into the Ohio, and thence to 
New Orleans, where he would exchange his produce for substantials 
in the shape of groceries and a little ready money, with which he 
would return by some one of i .(^ two or three steamboats then ruu- 
iiiug. Betimes there appeared at the best steamboat landings a 
number of "middle men" engaged in the "commission and for- 
warding " business^ buying up the fai'uiers' produce and the tro- 
phies of the chase and the trap, and sending them to the various 
distant markets. Their winter's accumulations would be shipped 
in the spi'ing, and the manufactured goods of the far East or dis- 
tant South would come back in return; and in all these transactions 
scarcely any mone^' was seen or used. Goods were sold on a year's 
time to the farmers, and payment made from the proceeds of the 
ensuing crops. When the crops were sold and the merchant satis- 
fied, the surplus was paid out in orders on the store to laboring men 
and to satisfy other creditors. When a day's work was done by a 
working man, his employer would ask, " Well, what store do you 
want your order on?" The answer being given, the order was 
written and alwa3"s cheerfully accepted. 


Money was an article little known and seldom seen among the 
earlier settlers. Indeed, they had but little use for it, as they 
could transact all their business about as well without it, on the 
" barter " system, wherein great iugenuitj^ was sometimes displayed. 
When it failed in anj^ instance, long credits contributed to the 
convenience of the citizens. But for taxes and postage neither the 
barter nor the credit system would answer, and often letters were 
suffered to remain a long lime in the postoffice for the want of the 
twentj'-five cents demanded by the Government. With all this 
high pi'ice on postage, by the way, the letter had not been brought 
500 miles in a day or two, as the case is nowadays, but had prob- 
ably been Aveeks on the route, and the mail was delivered at the 
pioneer's postoffice, several miles distant from his residence, only 


oiico ill a M'L'L'k or two. All the nifiil ^vouUl bo carried by a louc 
liorsejiuui. Instuijocs aro related illustrating liow luisrepreseuta- 
tion would bo resorted to in order to elicit the sympathies of souio 
<5ne who was known to liave " two bits " ('-35 cents) of money with 
liim^ and procure the required Govern mental fee for a letter. 

Peltries came nearer being nione.y than anything else, as it came 
to bo custom to estimate the value of everything in peltries. Such 
an article was worth so manj^ pidtiies. Even some tax collectors 
and postmasters were known to take peltries and exchange them for 
the money' required b}' the Government. 

When the first settlers came into the wilderness they gener- 
ally supposed that their hard struggle would be principally over 
after the first year; but alas! they often looked for "easier times 
next year" for many years before realizing them, and then they 
came in so slily as to be almost imt)erccpt.ible. The sturd}'- pioneer 
thus learned to bear hardships, piivation and hard living, as good 
soldiers do. As the facilities for making monej^ were not great, 
they lived pretty well satisfied in an atmosphere of good, social, 
friendly feeling, and thought themselves as good as .those they had 
left behind in the East. But among the early settlers who came to 
this State were many who, accustomed to the advantages of an older 
civilization, to churches, schools and society^ became speedily home- 
sick and dissatisfied. They would remain perhaps one summer, or 
at most two, then, selling whatever claim with its improvements 
they had made, would return to the older States, spreading reports 
of the hardships endured by the settlers here and the disadvantages 
which they had found, or imagined they had found, in the country. 
These weaklings were not an nnmitigated curse. The slight im- 
provements they had made were sold to men of sterner .stuif, who 
were the sooner able to surround themselves with the necessities 
of life, while their unfavorable report deterred other weaklings 
from coming. The men ^who staj'od, who were willing to endure 
privations, belonged to a different guild; they were heroes every 
one, — men to whom hardships were things to be overcome, and pres- 
ent privations things to be endured for the sake of posterity, and 
they never shrank from this duty. It is to these hardj'^ pioneers 
who could endure, that we to-day owe the wonderful improvement 
we have made and the development, almost miraculous, that has 


broii.^lit our Sialc in ilu.' jiiisL sixty years, from ;i wilderiu'ss, to 
tlie iroiit rank aiiiojiu the Stales of lliis irreat nation. 

Xofc the least of the lianlsliips of the pioneers Avas tlie procnrin^ 
of bread. The first settlers must be supplied iit least oue 3'ear 
from other sources than their own lauds; but the first crops, how- 
ever abundant, gave only jjartial relief, there being no mills to 
grind the grain. Hence the necessitj' of grinding by hand-power, 
and many families were poorl}' provided with means for doing this. 
Another way was to grate the corn. A grater Avas made from a 
piece of tin sometimes taken from an old, worn-out tin bucket or 
other vessel. It Avas thickly perforated, bent into a semicircular 
form, and nailed rough side upward, o]i aboard. The corn Avas taken 
in the ear, and grated before it got dr3'^ and hard. Corn, however, 
Avas eaten in various Avays. 

Soon after the country became more generally settled, enterprising 
men AA'ere read}' to embark in the milling business. Sites along 
the streams Avere selected for Avater-power. A person looking for 
a mill site would follow up and down the stream for a desired loca- 
tion, and Avhen found he Avould go before the authorities and secure 
a Avrit of ad quod damnum. This would enable the miller to have 
the adjoining land ofiiciallj'- examined, and the amount of damage by 
making a dam Avas named. Mills being so great a public necessity, 
they Avere permitted to be located upon any person's land where the 
miller thought the site desirable. 


The agricultural implements used by the first farmers in this 
State would in this age of improvement be great curiosities. The 
plow used was called the " bar-share " plow; the iron point con- 
sisted of a bar of iron about two feet long, and a broad share of 
iron welded to it. At the extreme point Avas a coulter that passed 
through a beam six or seven feet long, to Avhich Avere attached 
handles of corresponding length. The mold-board Avas a Avooden 
OEC split out of Avinding timber, or hewed into aAviuding shape, in 
order to turn the soil over. Sown seed Avas brushed in by dragging 
over the ground a sapling Avith a bushy top. In harvesting the 



change is most striking;. Instead of ilie ii-upers and mowers of to- 
da3% the sickle and cradle were used. The grain was threshed with a 
l^ail, or trodden out by horses or oxen. 


Hogs were alwa.ys dressed before they Avere taken to market. The 
farmer, if forehanded, would call in his neighbors some bright fall 
or winter morning to help "kill hogs." Immense kettles of water 
were heated; a sled or two, covered with loose boards or plank, con- 
stituted the platform on which the hog was cleaned, and was placed 
near an inclined hogshead in vhich the scalding Avas done; a quilt 
was thrown over the top of the latter to retain the heat; from a 
crotch of some convenient tree a projecting pole was rigged to hold 
the animals for disemboweling and thorough cleaning. AVhen 
everything was arranged, the best shot of the neighborhood loaded 
his rifle, and the work of killing was commenced. It was consid- 
ered a disgrace to make a hog "squeal" by bad shooting or by a 
"shoulder stick," that is rnnning the point of the butcher-knife 
into the shoulder instead of the cavity of the breast. As each hog- 
fell, the "sticker" mounted hira and plunged the butcher-knife, 
long and well sharpened, into his throat; two persons would then 
catch him by the hind legs, draw him up to the scaldi)ig tub, which 
had just been filled with boiling-hot water with a shovelful of good 
green wood ashes thrown in; in this the carcass was plunged 
and moved around a minute or so, that is, until the hair would slip 
off easily, theii placed on the platform w-here the cleaners w^ould 
pitch into him with all their might and clean him as quicklj^ as 
possible, with knives and other sharp-edged implements; then two 
stout fellows would take him up between them, and a third man to 
manage the "gambrel " (which was a stout stick about two feet long, 
Bharpened at both ends, to be inserted between the muscles of the 
hind legs at or near the hock joint), the animal would be elevated to 
the pole, where the work of cleaning was finished. 

After the slaughter was over and the hogs had had time to cool, 
such as were intended for domestic use were cut up, the lard " tried " 
out by the women of the household, and the surplus hogs taken 
to market, while the weather was cold, if possible. In those 
days almost evciy merchant had, at the rear end of his place of 


business or at some convonlent buildiii<^, a " j)ork-liouse," and 
would buy tlio pork of liis customers and of such others as would 
sell to Viiiij :>'id cut it for tlic market. Tlii^ ^-jive etnploynunit to a 
large number of hands in every village, who would cut and ]iack 
pork all winter. The hauling of all this to the river would also 
.give employment to a largo number'of teams, and the manufacture 
of pork barrels would keep many coopers employed. 

Allowing for the difference of currency and manner of market- 
ing, the price of pork was not so high in those days as at present. 
Now, while calico and muslin are eight cents a yard and pork is live 
and six cents a pound, then,wliile calico and muslin were twenty-five 
cents a yard pork was one to two cents a pound. When, as the 
country grew older and communications easier between the seaboard 
and the great West, prices went up to two and a half and three 
cents a pound, the farmers thought they would always be content 
to raise pork at such a price; but times have changed, even con- 
trary to the current-cy. 

There was one feature in this method of marketing pork that 
made the country a paradise for the poor man in the winter time. 
Spare-ribs, tenderloins, pigs' heads and pigs' feet ■^ere not con- 
sidered of any value, and were freely given to all who could use 
them. If a barrel was taken to any pork-house and salt furnished, 
the barrel would be filled and salted down with tenderloins and 
«pare-ribs gratuitously. So great in many cases was the quantity 
of spare-ribs, etc., to be disposed of, that they would be hauled 
away in wagon-loads and dumped in the woods out of town. 

In those early times much wheat was marketed at twenty-five to 
fifty cents a bushel, oats the same or less, and corn ten cents a 
bushel. A good young milch-cow could be bought for $5 to $10, 
and that payable in work. 

Those might truly be called "close times," yet the citizens of 
the country were accommodating, and but verjvlittle suffering for 
the actual necessities of life was ever known to exist. 


Fires, set out by Indians or settlers, sometimes purposely and 
sometimes permitted through carelessness, would visit the prairies 
every autumn, and sometimes the forests, either in autumn or 
spring, and settlers could not always succeed in defending them- 
selves against the destroying element. Many interesting incidents 
are related. Often a fire was started to bewilder game, or to baro 


a piece of ground for the early grazing of stoclc the ensuing spring, 
and it would get away under a wind, and soon be beyond control. 
Violent winds would often aviso and drive the Jlanies with such 
rajiidity that riders on the fleetest steeds could scarcely escape. 
On the approach of a prairie fire the farmer would imnicdiatcl}'' 
set about "cutting off supplies" for the devouring enemy by a, 
" back fire." Thus, by starting a small fire near the bare ground 
about his premises, and keeping it under control next his projiert}', 
he would burn off a strip around him and prevent the attack of the 
on-coming flames. A few furrows or a ditch around the farm con- 
stituted a help in tlie work of protection. 

An original prairie of tall and exuberant grass on fire, especially 
at night, v/as a magnificent spectacle, enjoyed only by the pioneer. 
Here is an instance where the frontiersman, proverbially deprived 
of the sights and pleasures of an old community, is privileged far 
bej'ond the people of the present day in this country. One could 
scarcely tire of beholding the scene, as its awe-inspiring features 
seemed constantly to increase, and the whole panorama unceasingly 
changed like the dissolving views of a magic lantern, or like the 
aurora borealis. Language cannot convey, words cannot express, 
the faintest idea of the splendor and grandeur of such a conflagra- 
tion at night. It was as if the pale queen of night, disdaining to 
take her accustomed place in the heavens, had dispatched myriads 
upon myriads of messengers to light their torches at the altar of 
the setting sun until all had flashed into one long and continuous 

The following graphic description of prairie fires was written by 
a traveler through this region in 1849: 

" Soon the fires began to kindle wider and rise higher from the 
long grass; the gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, and soon 
fanned the small, flickering blaze into fierce torrent flames, which 
curled up and leaped along in resistless splendor; and like quickly 
raising the dark curtain from the luminous stage, the scenes before 
me were suddenly changed, as if by the magician's wand, into one 
boundless amphitheatre, blazing from earth to heaven and sweeping 
the horizon round, — columns of lurid flames sportively mounting 
up to the zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke curling away 
and aloft till they nearly obscured stars and moon, while the rush- 
ing, crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts mingled with distant 
thunders, were almost deafening; danger, death, glared all around; 
it t'ereamed for victims; yet, notwithstanding the imminent peril 

lIISTOr.Y or IXDLVlsA. 2()t 

of prairie firos, one is lotli, irresolute, almost unable to withdraw 
or seek lefiigc." 


"VVlien the earliest pioneer reached this Western wilderness, £^aino 
was Ills i)rincipal food until lie had cononered a farm from the 
forest or jtrairie, — rarely, then, from the latter. As the country 
settled game i^-rew scarce, and by ISoO he who would live In' his 
rifle would have liad but a ]>rccarious subsistence had it not been 
for "wild hogs." These animals, left by home-sick immigrants 
whom the chills or fever and ague had driven out, had strayed into 
the woods, and began to multiply in a wild state. The woods each 
fall were full of acorns, walnuts, hazelnuts, and these hogs would 
grow lat and multiply at a wonderful rate in the bottoms and along 
the bluffs. The second and third immigration to the country found 
these wild hogs an nnfliiling source of meat supply up to that 
period when they had in the townships contiguous to the river be- 
come so numerous as to be an evil, breaking in herds into the 
farmer's corn-fields or toling their domestic swine into their 
retreats, where they too became in a season as wild as those in the 
woods. In ISS'-; or '89, in a certain township, a meeting was called 
of citizens of the township to take steps to get rid of wild hogs. At 
this meeting, which was held in the spring, the people of the town- 
ship were notified to turn out en masse on a certain day and engage 
in the work of catching, trimming and branding wild hogs, which 
were to be turned loose, and the next winter were to be hunted and 
killed by the people of the township, the meat to be divided j!?ro 
rata among the citizens of the township. This plan was fully 
carried into effect, two or three days being spent in the exciting 
work in the spring. 

In the early part of the ensuing winter the settlers again turned 
out, supplied at convenient points in the bottom with large kettles 
and barrels for scalding, and while the hunters were engaged in 
killing, others with horses dragged the carcasses to the scalding 
platforms where thcj' were di-essed; and when all that could be 
were killed and dressed a division was made, every farmer getting 
more meat than enough, for his winter's supply. Like energetic 
measures were resorted to in other townshijjs, so that in two or 
■ thrac years the breed of wild hogs became extinct. 



The principal wild animals fouiKi in tlie State by tlic early fot- 
fler were the deer, wolf, hear, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, o-enerallv 
called "coon," woodchnck, or ground-hoc;, pkuid-r, nilrd:, Avcapcl, 
innslrrat, 0])0SSuih, rabbit and squirrel; and tlie ])riiu',i])al feathered 
game were the riuail, prairie chicken and wild turkey. Hawks, 
turkey buzzards, crows, blackbirds were also very abundant. Sev- 
eral of these animals furnislicd meat for the settlers; but their 
principal meat did not loui^ consist of game; pork and poultry' 
were raised in abundance. The wolf was the most troublesome 
animal, it being the common enemy of the sheep, and sometimes 
attacking other domestic animals and even human beings. But 
their hideous bowlings at night were so constant and terrifying 
that they almost seemed to do more mischief by that annoyance 
than by dii-ect attack. They ^vould keep everbody and every ani- 
inal about the farm-house awake and frightened, and set all the dogs 
in the neighborhood to barking. As one man described it: "Sup- 
pose six boys, having six dogs tied, whipped them all at the same 
time, and you would hear such music as two wolves would make." 

To effect the destruction of these animals the county authorities 
offered a bounty for their scalps; and, besides, big hunts were 


In early days more mischief was done by wolves than by any 
other wild animal, and no small part of their mischief consisted in 
their almost constant barking at night, which always seemed so 
menacing and frightful to the settlers. Like mosquitoes, the 
noise they made appeared to be about as dreadful as the real depre- 
dations they committed. The most eflfectual, as well as the most 
exciting, method of ridding the countrj'- of these hateful pests, was 
that known as the "circular wolf hunt," by which all the men and 
■boys would turn out on an appointed day, in a kind of circle com- 
prising many square miles of territory, with horses and dogs, and 
then close up toward the center of their field of operation, gather- 
ing not only wolves, but also deer and many smaller "varmint." 
Five, ten, or more wolves by this means would sometimes be killed 
in a single day. The men woL-ld be organized with as much 
•system as a little army, every one being well posted in the meaning 
of every signal and the application of evevy rule. Guns were 
i-acarcely ever allowed to be brought on such occasions, as their use 


■would be unavoidably dangerous. The dogs were depended upo}j 
for tliCtfinal elaugliter. The dogs, by the way, had all to be held 
in check by a cord in the hands of their keepers until the finat 
signal was given to let tlicm loose, when away they would all go ta 
the center of battle, and a more exciting scene would follow thau 
can be easily described. 


This wild recreation was a peculiar one, and many sturdy back- 
woodsmen gloried in excelling in this art. lie would carefully 
watch a bee as it filled itself with the sweet product of some flower 
or leaf-bud, and notice particularly the .direction taken by it as it 
struck a *' bee-line" for its home, which when found would be 
generally high up in the hollow of a tree. The tree would be 
marked, and in September a party would go and cut down the tree 
and capture the honey as quickh^ as they could before it Avasted 
away through the broken walls in which it had been so carefully 
stowed away by the little busy bee. Several gallons would often, be 
thus taken from a single tree, and by a very little work, and pleas- 
ant at that, the early settlers could keep themselves in honey the 
year round. By the time the honey was a year old, or before, 
it would turn white and granulate, yet be as good and healthful as 
when fresh. This was by some called "candid " honey. 

In some districts, the resorts of bees would be so plentiful that 
all the available hollow trees would be occupied and many colonies 
of bees would be found at work in crevices in the rock and hole? in 
the ground. A considerable quantity of honey has even been taken 
from such places. 


In pioneer times snakes were numerous, such as the rattlesnake^ 
viper, adder, blood siiake and many varieties of large blue and green 
snakes, milk snake, garter and water snakes, black snakes, etc., etc. 
If, on meeting one of these, you would retreat, they would chase 
you very fiercely; but if you would turn and give them battle, they 
would immediately crawl away with all possible speed, hide in the 
grass and weeds, and wait for a "greener " customer. These really 
harmless snakes served to put people on their guard against the 
more dangerous and venomous kinds. 

It was the practice in some sections of the country to turn out ia 
companies, Avith spades, mattocks and crow-bars, attack the princi- 
pal snake deus and slay large numbers of them. In early spring 

2G4: nisToiiY oe Indiana. 

the sualces were pomcwliat lorju'd rnul easily captured. Scores of 
rattlesnakes were soinotimes fn'ghtoiiod out of a single den, which, 
as soon as they showed their lieads throu"h the crevices of tlic I'ocks, 
•were dispatched, and left to be devoured by the nunierourt wild hogs 
of that day. Some of the fattest of tliese snakes were taken to the 
house and oil extracted iVoru them, and their glittering skins were 
saved as s[)ecilics for rheumatism. 

AnoUier method was to so fix a heavy stick over the door of their 
dens, with a long grape-vine attacbcil, that one at a distance could 
plug the entrance to tlie den when the snakes were all out sunning 
themselves. Then a large company of the citizens, on hand by ap- 
pointment, could kill scores of the reptiles in a few minutes. 


One of the greatest obstacles to the early settlement and pros- 
perity of this State was the " chills and fever," " fever and ague," 
or " shakes," as it was variously called. It was a terror to new- 
comers; in the fall of the year almost everybody was afflicted with it. 
It was no respecter of persons; everybody looked pale and sallow as 
though ho were frost-bitten. It was not contagious, but derived 
from impure water and air, which are always developed in the 
opening up of a new country of rank soil like that of the Northwest. 
The impurities continue to be absorbed from day to day, and from 
week to week, until the whole body corporate became saturated with 
it as with electricity, and then the shock came; and the shock was a 
regular shake, with a fixed beginning and ending, coming on in 
some cases each day but generally on alternate days, with a regu- 
larit}'^ that was surprising. After the shake came the fever, and 
this " last estate was worse than the first." It was a burning;-hot 
fever, and lasted for hours. When you had the chill you couldn't 
get warm, and when you had the fever you couldn't get cool. It 
•was exceedingly awkward in this respect; indeed it was. Nor would 
it stop for any sort of contingency ; not even a wedding in the family 
would stop it. It was imperative and tyrannical. When the ap- 
pointed time came around, everything else had to be stopped to at- 
tend to its demands. It didn't even have any Sundays or holidays; 
after the fever went down you still didn't feel much better. You 
felt as though you had gone through some sort of collision, 
thrashing-machine or jarring-machine, and came out not killed, but 
next thing to it. You i'elt weak, as though you had run too far after 
something, and then didn't catch it. You felt languid, stu2:>id aj*4 


sore, and was clown in the mouth and licel and partially raveled 
out. Your biuik was out of fix, your head ached and jour apptitito 
crazy. Your eyes had too inudi white in them, your ears, especially 
after taking quinine, had too much roar in them, and your 
whole body and soul were entirely woe-beji;onc, disconsolate, sad, 
poor and good for nothing. Yon didn't tliiiik much of 3'oursclf, 
and didn't believe that other people did, either; and you didn't 
care. You didn't quite make up your mind to commit snicide, but 
sometimes wished some accident would happen to knock either the 
malady or yourself out of existence. You imagined that even the 
dogs looked at you with a kind of self-complacency. Y'^ou thought 
the sun had a kind of sickly shine about it. 

About this time you came to the conclusion that you would not 
accept the whole Western country as a gift; and if you had the 
strength and means, you picked up Hannah and the baby, and your 
traps, and went back " yander " to " Old Yirginuy," the '" Jar- 
seys," Maryland or " Penns^dvany." 

" Aucl to-day tlie swallows flitting 
Roiiud my cabin sec me sitting 
Moodily within the sunshine. 

Just inside m}' silent door, 
Waiting for the ' Ager,' seeming 
Like a man forever dreaming ; 
And the sunlight on me streaming 

Throws no shadow on the floor ; 
For I am too thin and sallow 
To make shadows on the floor — 

Nary shadow any more ! " 

The above is not a mere picture of the imagination. It is sim- 
ply recoimting in quaint phrase what actually occurred in thousands 
of cases. Whole families would sometimes be sick at one time 
and not one member scarcely able to wait upon another. Labor or 
exercise always aggravated the malady, and it took General Lazi- 
ness a long time to thrash the enemy out. And those were the 
days for swallowing all sorts of roots and "yarbs," and whisky, 
etc., with some faint hope of relief And finally, when the case 
wore out, the last remedy taken got the credit of the cure. 


Though struggling through the pressure of povert}' and priva- 
tion, the early settlers planted among them the school-house at the 
earliest practical period. So important an object as the education 


of their cliildrcn they did not defe;- until tliey could build moro 
coiiielv and convenient houses. They were for a time content with 
such as corresponded with their rude dwelliui^s, hut ;X)on hcttorhnild- 
^igs and accommodations wcie ])rovided. As may I'eadily be tfup- 
posed, the accommodations of the eai-liest scliools were not good. 
Sometimes school was taught in a room ol" a large or a double log 
cabin, but oftencr in a log house built for the purpose. Stoves 
and such heating apparatus as are now in use were then xuihnown. 
A mud-and-stick chimney in one end of the building, witli earthen 
hearth and a lire-place wide and deep eiiough to receive a four to 
six-foot back-log, and smaller wood to match, served for warming 
purposes in winter and a kind of conservatory in summer. For 
windows, part of a log was cut out in two side's of the building, 
and may be a few lights of eight by ten glass set in, or the aper- 
ture might be co\-ered over with greased paper. Writing, desks 
consisted of heavy oak plank or a hewed slab laid upon wooden 
pins driven into the wall. The four-legged slab benches were in 
front of these, and the pupils when .not writing would sit with 
their backs against the front, sharp edge of the writing-desks. 
The floor was also made out of these slabs, or "puncheons," laid 
upon log sleepers. Everything was rude and plain; but many of 
America's greatest men have gone out from just such school-houses 
to grapple with the world and make names for themselves and re- 
flect honor upon their country. Among these we can name xVbra- 
ham Lincoln, oxir martyred president, one of the noblest men 
known to the world's history. Stephen A. Douglas, one of the 
greatest statesmen of the age, began his career in Illinois teaching 
in one of these primitive school- houses. Joseph A. Wright, and 
several otlier statesmen of the Northwest have also graduated 
from the log school-house into political eminence. So with many 
of her most eloquent and efiicient preachers. 



The cjiicf public evening cntcrtainmont for the first 30 or 40 
years of '^Vi'sicni juoiiocriiii!:; was tlie celebrated " Gpelliiii^-school." 
Both young ])Cople and old looked forward to the next spelling- 
school with as much anticipation and anxiety as we nowadays look 
forward to a general Fonrth-of-Jnly celebration; and when the tinio 
arrived the whole neighborhood, yea, and sometimes several neigh- 
borhoods, w^ould flock together to the scene of academical combat, 
where the excitement was often more intense than had been expect- 
ed. It was far better, of course, when there was good sleighing; 
then the young folks would turn out in high glee and be fairly 
beside themselves. The jollity is scarcely equaled at the present 
day by anything in vogue. 

When the appointed hour arrived, the i;sual plan of commencing 
battle was for two of the young people who might agree to play 
against each other, or who might be selected to do so by the school- 
teacher of the neighborhood, to " choose sides," that is, each con- 
testant, or "captain," as he was generally called, would choose the 
best speller from the assembled crowd. Each one choosing alter- 
nately, the ultimate strength of the respective parties would be 
about equal. When all were chosen who could be made to serve, 
eacli side would "number," so as to ascertain whether amid the 
confusion one captain had more spellers than the other. In case he 
had, some compromise would be made by the aid of the teacher, the 
master of ceremonies, and then the plan of conducting the campaign, 
or counting the misspelled words, would be canvassed for a moment 
by the captains, sometimes by the aid of the teacher and others. 
There were many ways of conducting the contest and keeping tall^^ 
Every section of the country had several favorite methods, and all 
or most of these were different from what other commiinities had. 
At one time they would commence spelling at the head, at another 
time at the foot; at one time they would " spell across," that is, the 
first on one side would spell the first word, then the first on the 
other side; next the second in the line on each side, alternately, 
down to the other end of each line. The question who should spell 
the first word was determined by the captains guessing what page 
the teacher would have before him in a partially opened book at a 
distance; the captain guessing the nearest would spell the first word 
pronounced. When a word was missed, it would be re-pronounccd> 
or passed along without re-pronouncing (as some teachers strictly 

2G8 HISTORY OF Indiana. 

followed tlie rule never to re-prononncc a word), until it was spelled 
correctly. If a speller on the opposite side finally spelled the missed 
word corrcctl}', it was counted a gain of one to that side; if the 
*word was finally corrected by some speller on the same side on 
which it "was oriirinated as a missed word, it was "saved," and no 
tally mark was made. 

Another pojiular method was to commence at one end of the 
line of spellers and go directl}' around, and the missed words 
caught up qulckl}'^ and corrected by " word-catchers," api)ointed by 
the captains from among their best spellers. These word-catchers 
would attempt to correct all the words missed on his opponent's 
side, and failing to do this, the catcher on the other side would 
catch him up with a peculiar zest, and then there was fun. 

Still another very interesting, though somewhat disorderl}', 
method, was this: Each word-catcher would go to the foot of the 
adversaria's line, and every time he "catched " a word he would go 
lip one, thus "turning them down" in regular spelling-class style. 
"When one catcher in this way turned all down on the opposing side, 
his own party was victorious by as many as the opposing catcher 
was behind. This method required no slate or blackboard tally to 
be kept. 

One turn, by cither of the foregoing or other methods, would 
occupy 40 minutes to an hour, and by this time an intermission or 
recess was had, when the buzzing, cackling and hurrahing that en- 
sued for 10 or 15 minutes were beyond description. 

Coming to order again, the next style of battle to be illustrated 
was to "spell down," by which process it was ascertained who were 
the best spellers and could continue standing as a soldier the loTigest 
But very often good spellers would inadvertently miss a word in 
an early stage of the contest and would have to sit down humilia- 
ted, while a comparatively poor speller would often stand till nearly 
or quite the last, amid the cheers of the assemblage. Sometimes 
the two parties first " chosen up " in the evening would re-take 
their places after recess, so that by the " spelling-down " process 
there would virtually be another race, in another form; sometimes 
tliere would be a new " choosing up " for the " spelling-down " con- 
test; and sometimes the spelling down would be conducted with- 
out any party lines being made. It would occasionally happen that 
two or three very good spellers would retain the floor so long that 
the exercise would become monotonous, when a few outlandish 
words like " chevaux-de-frise," " Ompompauoosue" or "Baugh- 


nangli-clnngli-ber," as tho}' used to spell it sometimes, would crente 
a little i*ipple of excitement to clope with. Sometimes these words 
would decide tlie contest, but (generally wheii two or three ;i;ood 
spellers Icept the floor until the exercise hecaine }n<.inotonous, the 
teacher would declare the race closed and the fc-tanding spellers ac- 
quitted with a " drawn game." 

The audience dismissed, the next thing was to " go home," very 
often by a round-about way, " a-sleighing with tRe girls," which, 
of course, was with many the most interesting part of the even- 
ing's performances, sometimes, however, too rough to be com- 
mended, as the boys were often inclined to be somewhat rowdyish. 


Next to the night spelling-school the singing-school was an. occa- 
sion of much jollity, wherein it was difficult for the average singing- 
master to preserve order, as many went more for fun than for music. 
This species ofeveningentertainment,in its introduction to the West, 
was later than the spelling-school, and served, as it were, as the second 
step toward the more modern civilization. Good sleighing weather was 
of course almost a necessity for the success of these schools, but how 
many of them have been prevented by mud and rain! Perhaps a 
greater part of the time from November to April the roads would be 
muddy and often half frozen, which would have a very dampening 
and freezing effect iipon the souls, as well as the bodies, of the 
young people who longed for a good time on such occasions. 

The old-time method of conducting singing-school Avas also some- 
what different from that of modern times. It was more plodding 
and heavy, the attention being kept upon the simplest rudiments, 
as the names of the notes on the staff, and their pitch, and beating 
time, while comparatively little attention was given to expression 
and light, gleeful music. The very earliest scale inti'oduced in the 
West was from the South, and the notes, from their peculiar shape, 
were denominated " patent " or *' buckwheat " notes. They were 
four, of which the round one was always called sol, the square one 
Za, the triangular onafa, and the "diamond-shaped" one m^, pro- 
nounced m,e\ and the diatonic scale, or " gamut" as it was called 
then, ran thus: fa, sol, la, fa, sol, la, mi, fa. The part of a tune 
nowadays called " treble," or "soprano," was then called " tenor;" 
the part now called " tenor " was called " treble," and what is now 
"alto" was then "counter," and when sung according to the oldest 
rule, was sung by a female an octave higher than marked, and still 


on the " chest register." The " old " "Missouri Harmon}"" and 
Mason's " Sacred llai'j) " wore the pri!ici])al books used with this 
^stjle of musical notation . 

About 1850 the " round-note " sy.-leui began to " conic around," 
being introduced by the Yankee singing-master. Tlie scale was 
doyre,7)ii,fa,sol,la^ si, do\ and for many years thereafter there 
was much more do-re-n)i-ing than is practiced at the present day, 
when a musical instrument is always under the hand. The Car- 
mina Sacra was the jiioneer round-note booh, in which the tunes 
partook more of the Ggv\ in or Puritan character, and were gener- 
ally regarded by the old folks as being iar more spiritless than 
the old " Pisgaii," " Fiducia," " Tender Thought," " New Durham," 
"Windsor," " Mount Sion," " Devotion," etc., of the old Missouri 
Harmony and tradition. 


The fashion of carrying fire-arms was made necessary by the 
presence of roving bands of Indians, most of whom were ostensi- 
bly friendly, but like Indians in all times, treacherous and unreli- 
able. An Indian war was at any time probable, and all the old 
settlers still retain vivid recollections of Indian massacres, murders, 
plunder, and frightful rumors of intended raids. While target 
practice was much indulged in as an amusement, it was also neces- 
sary at times to carry their guns with them to their daily field work. 

As an illustrationof the painstaking which characterized pioneer 
life, we quote the following from Zebulon Oollings, who lived about 
six miles Irom the scene of massacre near Pigeon Roost, Indiana: 
" The manner in which I used to work in those perilous times 
was as follows: On all occasions I carried ray rifle, tomahawk and 
butcher-knife, with a loaded pistol in vay belt. When I went to 
plow I laid my gun on the plowed ground, and stuck up a stick by 
it for a mark, so that I could get it quick in case it was wanted. 
I had two good dogs; I took one into the house, leaving the other 
out. The one outside was expected to give the alarm, which would 
cause the one inside to bark, by which I would be awakened, hav- 
ing my arms always loaded. I kept my horse in a stable close to 
the house, having a port-hole so that I could shoot to the stable door. 
During two years I never went from home with any certainty of 
returning, not knowing the minute I might receive a ball from an 
uukaown hand." 



The hiftory of pioneer life generally presents the durk fulo of the 
picture; but the toils and privations of the early settlers were not a 
series of UTiniitigated snfferinn-s. No; for ^v]lile the fathers and 
mothers toiled liard, they were not averse to a little relaxation, and 
liad their seasons of fun and enjoyment, Tliey contrived to do 
something" to break the monotony of their daily life and furnish 
them ca good liearty laugh. Among the more general forms of 
amusements were the " quilting-bee," "corn-husking," "apple-par- 
ing," " log-rolling" and "house-raising." Our young readers will 
doubtless be interested in a description of tliese forms of amuse- 
ment, when labor was made to aflbrd fun and enjoyment to all par- 
ticipating. The "quilting-bee," as its name implies, was when the 
industrious qualities of the busy little insect that " improves each 
shining hour " were exemplified in the manufacture of quilts for the 
household. In the afternoon ladies for miles around gathered at an 
appointed place, and while their tongues would not cease to play, 
the hands were as busily engaged in making the quilt; and desire 
as always manifested to get it out as quickly as possible, for then 
the fun would begin. In the evening the gentlemen came, and the 
hours would then pass swiftly by in playing games or dancing. 
" Corn-huskings " were when both sexes united in the work. They 
usually assembled in a large barn, which was arranged for the oc- 
casion; and when each gentleman had selected a lady partner the 
husking began. "When a lady found a red ear she was entitled to 
a kiss from ever}'^ gentleman present; when a gentleman found one 
he was allowed to kiss every lady present. After the corn was all 
husked a good supper was served; then the "old folks" would 
leave, and the remainder of the evening was spent in the dance and 
in having a general good time. The recreation afforded to the 
young people on the annual recurrence of these festive occasions 
was as highly enjoyed, and quite as innocent, as the amusements of 
the present boasted age of refinement and culture. 

The amusements of the pioneers were peculiar to themselves. 
Saturday afternoon was a holiday in which no man M'as expected 
to work, A load of produce might be taken to " town " for sale or 
traffic without violence to custom, but no more serious labor could 
be tolerated. When on Saturday afternoon the town was reached, 
"fun commenced." Ilad two neighbors business to transact, here 
it was done. Horses were " swapped." Difficulties settled and 


free figlits indulged iii. Blue and red ribbons were not worn in 
tliosc days, and whisky was as free as water; twelve and a half 
cents would buy a (j^uart, and thirty-live or forty cents a tjallon, 
, and at such prices enormous quantities were consumed. Cio to any 
town in the county and ask the first ]nonecr you meet, and ho v/ould 
tell you of notable Saturday-afternoon lights, either of which to-day 
would fiii a column of the Police JSfvio^', with elaborate engravings 
to niatcli. 

Mr. Sandford C. Cox quaintly describes some of the happy feat- 
tures of frontier life in this manner: 

We cleared land, rolled, logs, burned brush, blazed out paths 
from one nciglibor's cabin to another and from one settlement to 
another, made and iised hand-mills and hominy mortars, hunted 
deer, turkey, otter, and raccoons, caught fish, dug ginseng, hunted 
bees and the like, and — lived on the fat of the land. We read of a 
land of '' corn and wine," and another "flowing with milk and 
honey;" but 1 rather think, iu a temporal point of view, taking into 
account the richness of the soil, timber, stone, wild game and 
other advantages, that the Sugar creek country would come up to 
any of them, if not surpass them. 

I once cut cord-wood, continues Mr. Cox, at 31^- cents per cord, 
and walked a mile and a half night and morning, where the first 
frame college M'as built northwest of town (Crawford svi lie). 
Prof. Curry, the lawyer, would sometimes come down and help for 
an hour or two at a time, by way of amusement, as there was little 
or no law business in the town or country at that time. Reader, 
what would you think of going six to eight miles to help roll logs, 
or raise a cabin? or ten to thirteen miles to mill, and wait three or 
four days and nights for your grist? as many had to do in the 
first settlement of this country. Such things were of frequent oc- 
currence then, and there was but little grumbling about it. It was 
a grand sight to see the log heaps and brush piles burning in the 
night on a clearing of 10 or 15 acres. A Democratic torchlight 
procession, or a midnight march of the Sons of Malta with their 
grand Gyasticutus in the center bearing the grand jewel of the 
order, would be nowhere in comparison with the log-heaps and 
brush, piles in a blaze. 

But it may be asked, Had you any social amusements, or manly 
pastimes, to recreate and enliven the dwellers in the wilderness? 
We had. In the social line we had our meetings and our singing- 
schools, sugar-boilings and weddings, which were as good as ever 


what would you thiuk of going six to eight miles to help roll logs, 
or raise a cabin? or ten to thirteen miles to mill, and wait llueo 
or four days and nights for your grist? as many had to do in the 
first settlement of this country. Such things were of frecj^uent 
occurrence then, and there was but little grumbling about it. It 
was a grand sight to see the log heaps and brush piles burniiig 
in the night on a clearing of 10 or 15 acres. A Democratic 
torchlight procession, or a midnight march of the Sons of Jlalta 
with thoir grand Gyasticutus in the center bearing the grand 
jewel of the order, would be nowhere in comparison with the 
log-heaps and brush-piles in a blaze. 

But it may be asked, Had you any social amusements, or manly 
pastimes, to recreate and enliven the dwellers in the wilderness ? 
We had. In the social line we had our meetings and oiu" singing- 
schools, sugar-boilings and weddings, which were as good as ever 
came off in any country, neAv or old; and if oiir youngsters did 
not " trip the light fantastic toe" under a professor of the Terp- 
sichorean art or expert French dancing master, they had many a 
good " hoe-down" on puncheon floors, and v/ere not annoyed by bad 
whisky. And as for manly sports, requiring mettle and muscle, 
there were lots of wild hogs running in the cat-tail swamps on Lye 
creek, and Mill creek, and among them many large boars that 
Ossian's heroes and Homer's model soldiers, such as Achilles, Hec- 
tor and Ajax would have delighted to give chase to. The boys and 
men of those days had quite as much sport, and made more money 
8r,d health by their hunting excursions than our city gents nowa- 
days playing chess by telegraph where the players are more than 
70 miles apart. 


There are few of these old pioneers living as. connecting 
links of the past with the present. What mxist their thoughts 
be as with their dim eyes they view the scenes that surround them ? 
We often hear people talk about the old-fogy ideas and fogy ways, 
and want of enterprise on the part of the old men who have gone 
through the experiences of pioneer life. Sometimes, perhaps, 
such remarks are just, but, considering the experiences, education 
and entire life of such men, such remarks are better unsaid. 
They have had their trials, misfortunes, hardships and adventures, 


and shall we now, ns they are passiii*^ far down tlie western decliv- 
ity of life, and uiany of them gone, point to them the finger of 
derision, and laiig]i and sneer at the simplicity of their Avays? 
Let us rather claeer them uj), revere and respect them, for beneath 
those rough exteriors beat hearts as noble as ever throbbed in the 
human breast. Those veterans have been compelled to live for 
weeks upon hominy and, if bread at all, it Avas bread made from 
corn ground in haiul-mills, or pounded up with moitoi-s. Their 
children have been destitute of shoes during the winter; their 
families had no clotlies except what was carded, spun, wove and 
made into garments by their own hands; schools they had none; 
churches they had none ; afflicted with sickness incident to all 
new countries, sometimes the entire family at once; luxuries of 
life they had none; tlie auxiliaries, improvements, inventions and 
labor-saving machinery of to-day they had not; and what they 
possessed they obtained by the hardest of labor and individual ex- 
ertion, yet they bore these hardships and privations without mur- 
muring, hoping for better times to come, and often, too, with but 
little prospect of realization. 

As before mentioned, the changes written on every hand are 
most wonderful. It has been but three-scoreyears since the white 
man began to exercise dominion over this region, erst the home of 
the red men, yet the visitor of to-day, ignorant of the past of the 
country, could scarcely be made to realize that within these years 
there has grown up a population of 2,000,000 people, who in all 
the accomplishments of life are as far advanced as are the inhab- 
itants of the older States. Schools, churches, colleges, palatial 
dwellings, beautiful grounds, large, well-cultivated and produc- 
tive farms, as well as cities, towns and biisy manufactories, have 
grown up, and occupy the hunting grounds and camping places of 
the Indians, and in every direction there are evidences of wealth, 
comfort and luxury. There is but little left of the old landmarks. 
Advanced civilization and the progressive demands of revolving 
years have obliterated all traces of Indian occupancy, until they 
are only remembered in name. 


History of Bartholomew County. 



Geology — - Topography — Drainage — Drift Period — Car- 
boniferous Age — Niagara Group — Local Details — 
Fossils — Antiquities, Etc. 

2\ARTHOLOMEW COUNTY comprises an area of 
f^^-i about four hundred square miles, two hundred and 
fiftj'-six thousand acres. In the early histoiy of the 
State it formed a part of Delaware Count}', and was or- 
ganized as Bartholomew Count}- under an act of the 
Legislature, approved January- 9, 1S21. Originall}- it in- 
cluded most of the territory now embraced in the County of Brown. 
Johnson and Shelby counties bound it on the north, Decatur and 
Jennings on the east, Jennings and Jackson on the south, and Jack- 
son and Brown on the west. 

The monotony of an otherwise generall}'' level country is diver- 
sified by man}' a hill and valley in the west part of the county, 
especially that portion of the county lying west of Columbus, form- 
ing the western parts of Ohio, Harrison and Union townships, 
and locally known as the " Brown County edge of Bartholomew." 
An eastern continuation of the central ridge of the Brown 
County knobstone enters the county at the southwest corner of 
Harrison Township, and reaches its greatest altitude at Taylor 
Hill, in Section 36, Township 8, North, Range 4, East. Taylor 
Hill, the highest point in the county, is 1,003 f^^t above tide level, 
and 360 feet above Columbus. From its summit magnificent views 
of the surrounding country may be had. On a clear day when the 
air is pure the unaided eye can trace for miles, as a blue line against 

"Adapted to this volume from tlie State Geological Report for iSSi, by Tyloses N. Elrod, 
M. D., to John CoUett, State Geologist. 


the horizon, the eastern boumlary of the great Drifhvood-White 
River Valley. The observer may see Georgetown to tlie northwest 
in lirown County, Edinburg in Johnson County, and Columbus and 
AValesboro in liaiMiolomew. From Taylor Hill the Wall ridge, 
as Prof. Collett has named it, tiends to the north, tln'ough Union 
Township, thence west througli Nineveh Township to the Brown 
County line. It is not a continuous ridge, but a series of high 
points intersected lyy numerous \ alleys and gaps, that fall awa}' to 
the lower lands of the east and west, north and south. The cen- 
tral and northern parts of Nineveh Township, while broken bv out- 
liers and foothills of the Wall ridge, are generally what may be 
termed rolling lands. Low hills and ridges, ranging from twent}'- 
five to fifty feet in height, occupy much of the country between 
the knobstone summit and the bottoms of Driftwood, AVhite River, 
and to the south of the ridge in Ohio and Jackson townships. 
The central portion of the count}^ is level, much of it below and in 
the vicinity of Columbus being White River bottoms, ranging three 
to four miles wide. North of the county seat sets in the Haw- 
patch plateau, extending from White River to the Shelby County 
line, renowned as an extensive tract of arable land, level and fertile 
as any prairie, primevally covered with a magnificent forest of great 
trees, devoid of undergrowth. 

The eastern parts of the county are usually rolling, and some 
parts spoken of as hill^^, but the application of the term hill, /. e. — 
an elevated mass of land — is a misnomer. The so-called hills are 
not elevations above the level of the country, but valle3^s cut from 
twenty to seventy feet below the general surface. This distinction 
is important, as will further appear when we come to discuss the 
geology of the Drift period. Especially are the valleys marked in 
the vicinity of Hartsville, and in the northeast part of Clift}-- Town- 
ship, on Fall Fork and Middle Fork creek-s. 

Drainage. — What is given as the east fork of White River on 
the State and School maps, is locall}^, and it is claimed, correctly 
known as Driftwood from Edinburg down to the mouth of Flat 
Rock Creek, from that point south as White River; but as the 
term " Driftwood " is indiscriminately applied to any portion of the 
river in the vicinity of Columbus, and is not used generally out- 

GI'.OLOGV. 279 

side of the county, we sliall ch'op the name Driftwood and use tlie 
name White or East White for all parts of the east fork of White 
River below Edinburg. Above Edinburg the same misapplication 
of terms recurs in calling East White Ri\er Blue River. 

White River crosses the northern boundary of the county near 
Edinburg, and bears thence in a general course east of south 
through the central part of the county. From Edinburg the river 
follows and runs throuffh the foot hills of the wall ridire of Knob- 
stone till it reaches the sand and gravel bottoms below the mouth 
of Catharine's Creek. Above this the river flow^s through a ston)- 
bed of black shale, and is not subject to great overflows; below the 
banks are low, the bed gravelly, shifting and frequently overflown. 
According to the table of altitudes of the main line of the J., M. & I. 
railroad, the bed of the stream, Blue River, is fifty-three feet higher 
at Edinburg than the bed of White River at the Columbus bridge. 
From the same tables we find the fall in the river from Columbus 
to the Rockford bridge to be thirty feet, showing that the fall per 
mile is 100 per cent, more above than below the city. Advantage 
has been taken of this fall and utilized to run the extensive flouring 
mills at Lowell and the Valley Mills west of Taylorsville. The 
permanent banks and swift current of the upper river invite further 
investments in manufactories. Messrs. Stansberry and WiUiams 
give the mouth of Flat Rock Creek at 602 feet above the level of 
the ocean, and that of CHft}^ Creek at 596 feet above, inaking the 
fall six feet in five miles as compared with a fall of fift3'^-three feet 
in fifteen miles of the river above the mouth of Flat Rock. ^ The 
fall in the Ohio and Mississippi rivers from Louisville to the Gulf 
of Mexico is less than four inches to the mile. The difference be- 
tween high and low water at Columbus is given at fifteen feet. 

A few rivulets and brooks that rise west of the Wall ridge flow 
into an arm of Salt Creek that cuts the northw^est corner of Harri- 
son Township, and finally unites with East White River below Bed- 
ford, in Lawrence Count3^ With this exception all the streams of 
Bartholomew Count}' empty into White River within the county or 
soon after it enters Jackson Count3\ The general course of the 
creeks is east and west, with the surface of the countr}-, and to the 
south of the center of the greatest depression of the White River 


Valley. White Creek, and its tributaries, leaves the county in a 
more southern direction, and unites with White River below Sey- 
mour. The creeks of the west side of the river, beginning in the 
i^oj-thwest, are Big Nineveh Creek, Muddy Branch, Catharine's 
Creek, Wolf Creek, Denois Creek, and White Creek and its trib- 
utary the East Fork of White Creek; on the east are Flat Rock 
River, Haw Creek, Clift}- Creek and Little Sand Creek and their 
tributaries, Little Haw Creek, Fall Fork, iSliddle Fork, Otter 
Creek, Brush Creek and Bear Creek, together with other snudl 
streams, named and not named on the map. The banks of the 
creeks on the west side of the valley, after reaching the low lands, 
are cvit in the clay and mud without proper first or second bottoms, 
in appearance very much like artificial ditches, and hence overflows 
are common. The creeks flowing through the Hawpatch have 
low banks in the gravel with well marked second banks. Those 
of the limestone region of the east are deep and rock}^ and the 
present beds are never filled b}^ rain storms to their full carr}-ing 

The Drift Period.— \n order to a proper understanding of the 
wonderful forces that came into pla}' during the Glacial and Terrace 
epochs of the Drift period, we will first consider the clays, sands,, 
gravels and bowlders that go to make up the mass of these groups, 
and their distribution over the surface of the stratified rocks, and 
then discuss the theory and dynamics of their origin. In general 
terms we ma}^ say that the whole of the surface of the county is 
covered with drift materials, except the top of the w^ali ridge, and 
the hills to the west of it in Harrison and Union townships, and 
doubtless these high hills have been subjected to the action and in- 
fluences of the waters of the Terrace epoch, that have so greatly 
modified and re-arranged the ancient glacial deposit. 

The upland gravel beds are collections of pure sand, clean gravel 
and small bowlders, found only on the high grounds and ridges^ 
that I believe to be identical "hog's-backs" of the Ohio survey, 
and the kamcs and cskcrs of the authors; especially are these beds 
of gravel identical in only being found on the high lands, and in 
being much less modified and re-arranged by the action of water 
subsequent to the Glacial epoch. In stratification the beds are very 

GF-OLOOY. 281 

irregular and seldom conformable one with another; more fre- 
quently 00 indications of stratification are seen, the beds when 
oi:)ened showing sand at one end and coarse gravel at the oilier; 
the strata frequentl}' interlock and alternate in cross sections with- 
out reference to the underlying beds. This want of uniformity of 
stratification is in marked cjntrast with that of the low land gravel 
as seen in the Ilawpatch. The town of Hartsville is built on a 
rolling elevation, ranging from forty to fifty feet above the valleys 
and facing to the southwest. It is bounded on the west by the deep 
bed of Clifty Creek, and on the south b}^ the gorge, through which 
flows Boner's branch. In the south part of town, capping the bluff 
that forms the north bank of the Boner's branch gorge, there is a 
typical bed of upland gravel. It has a steep, rounded head at the 
east end, on which the Hartsville University building stands, and 
trends thence west in a low ridge that slopes to the north, terminat- 
ing in an abrupt bluff at the west, with a spur to the south. The 
high bluff w-est of Jackson Street is also capped with gravel, that 
in an irregular way, is connected with the bed found in the Univer- 
sity campus. The gravel beds that occur on the farm of William J. 
Herron, near the Tarr hole of CHfty Creek, and that on the farm of 
R. B. Kent, near Hartsville, are very similar in structure to the one 
above described, and are all peculiar in presenting on one side at 
least, a very bold, abrupt face. The upland gravel found on the 
farm of Mrs. Amy Wiley, west of Anderson's Falls, in Clifty Town- 
ship, is another extensive bed that, like the preceding examples, 
seem to be some way connected with the drainage of the country 
at the close of the Drift period. Other beds of upland gravel are 
those on the farm of Mi's. E. Jones, near the Haw Creek Baptist 
Church; on the farm of Mrs. M. Marlin; on the farm of E. Reed, 
near the village of St. Louis, in Haw Creek Towmship, and the 
"back-bone" ridge, as it is called, on the farm of J. Remy, west of 
Burnsville, in Rock Creek Township. 

The Hawfatch glacial gravel and sand, one of the most exten- 
sive and peculiar beds of gravel in the State, is roughly bounded 
by Flat Rock River on the northwest, and Haw Creek on the south- 
east, and reaching from the White River bottoms to the Shelby 
County Hne, a continuous bed of gravel covered with a gravelly 


black soil, twelve miles long In' three miles in average width. The 
actual limits of the Hawpatch gravel are to be found in the range 
<jf foot hills of the Knobstone on the west of White River, extend- 
ing from below the Lowell mills to the northeast of Taylorsville, 
and the sand ridges and dune like hills on the east, running north 
from the Clift}' Creek bridge. Another element that has entered 
into the formation and largely .determined the uniformity and even- 
ness of the surface of this gravel plateau lias been tlie smooth top 
of the underlying black shale; the shale unlike the other strata of 
Indiana, is a stony formation of great uniformity of structure that 
does not weather into rough escarpments of valleys and ridges. 
An exemplification of this may be seen in the bed of White River, 
in the vicinity of the Valley mills. 

All the beds, whether upland or lowland, have a large per cent, 
of chert and limestone fragments, not so much worn as the other 
materials, of a brownish color on the outside from staining with 
oxide of iron. The bowlders are frequently in a state of decompo- 
sition, and specimens measuring more than a few inches in diameter 
are seldom or never found. The following section, taken south of 
Columbus and Greensburg pike, on Haw Creek, is very character- 

Section on Wehhcr Smithes JFarm, Cohinihus Township. 

Soil mixed with gravel 3 ft. 

Stratified sand and gravel, with pebbles at the top 6 ft. 

Larger pebbles stratified 2 ft. 

Fine sand ; i ft. 

Stratified gravel to the bed of Haw^ Creek 4 ft. 

Total. 16 ft. 

The top of this section reaches the surface and includes the 
soil of the second bank of the creek. On the west of the point at 
which the section was taken, the strata have a uniform thickness; 
on the other hand the stratification dips sHghtly to the east, but is 
everywhere comformable. The following section in the second 
bank of Clifty Creek north of the pike shows the same general 
arrangement of the strata as the preceding : 

gj:ologv. 283 

Scfitio)! near CH/Iy Creek /Jr/dQr, (\>IiiJiibi!s Toivnsliip. 

Soil with j^ravel 2 ft. o in. 

Sand and gravel, stratilied i ft. o in. 

Coarse gravel and large pebbles in a continuous stra- 
tum o ft. 6 in. 

Stratified sand and gravel 4 ft. 6 in. 

Total 8 ft. o in. 

What is seen at these sections will be found true for the balance 
of the Hawpatch. Wherever examined on the banks of Flat Rock 
River, or in digging Avells, the same evidence of stratification was 
found, and it will be noticed that while there is occasional evidence 
of stratification in the upland gravel, such is not by an}- means the 
rule, thus placing the two in marked contrast. We can form no 
very correct estimate of the actual thickness of the Hawpatch^ 
gravel as the underlying stone was not seen, nor has it been 
reached in sinking wells in the deeper parts. Wells have been put 
down to the depth of fifty and sixty feet in the A'icinity of Colum- 
bus, and no stone struck. That the bed was once much deeper 
than now is shown by the mound on the farm of Judge Tunis 
Quick, one and a half miles west of Clifford, and the Tipton mound 
in the city of Columbus. The first is twent3^-five feet above the 
surface of the surrounding plain and the second twent}' feet. They 
are the monuments left by the currents of the Terrace epoch, and 
ineters by which we can in part measure what was once the thick- 
ness of this great gravel bed. The soil of the Hawpatch has an 
average thickness of five feet, is dark or black in color, and free 
from admixture with an}'- but alluvial clays — no glacical clay inter- 
venes between the soil and gravel. 

The following section east of the broad ford on Clift}' Creek 
shows the stratification and arrangement of the gravel, sand and 
pebbles of the gravel beds that form the connecting link between 
that of the uplands and lowlands: 


Section at Sarah Basil's luinn, Clay Tozi'ii</i/f). 

Soil free from "ravel ft. 10 in. 

Soil and gravel mixed 2 ft. 2 in. 

Coarse gravel and pebbles 5 ^n- 

Fine gravel and sand : . . . 2 in. 

Coarse gravel " 5 in. 

Fine gravel 4 in. 

Coarse gravel and sand i ft. 3 in. 

Fine clean gravel 3 in. 

Coarse gravel and sand i ft. 2 in. 

Clean gravel • 2 in. 

Coarse gravel and sand 2 ft. o in. 

Total 9 ft. 2 in. 

Here the stratification is ver}"- marked and distinct, and the 
strata more largely mixed with limestone fragments and chert, 
than at other places. 

Bozulders, or erratic rocks, locally known as " nigger heads " 
and " blue heads," of the largest size and in greatest numbers are 
found on the eastern boundary line of the county. A line of bowl- 
ders extending from the vicinity of Milford, south into Jennings 
County, was noted in the early history of the country-, and was 
supposed by some to have been the work of the Indians, who had 
placed them as some sign or memorial. . The largest one seen was 
on the land of Knox Smiley, just over the Decatur County line. 
It is of gray granite, and measures six by eleven feet on the sur- 
face, and is bedded deep in the earth. Another, on the farm of 
Henry Mobley, in Cliffy Township, measures 8x10x6 feet. Bowl- 
ders two and three feet in diameter are common, but grow less 
frequent toward the west, but are rather common in Nineveh 
Township and in the clay banks of White River down to Lowell 
mills. In composition they are identical with the mass of stones 
found strewn over the Drift regions of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and 
the northwest. 

The glacial, 3-ellow or ferruginous clays of Haw Creek, Clay, 
Clifty and Rock Creek townships, are light yellow in color, friable 


when diy and inclined to be sticky \vlien wcl. Internatcly mixed 
with the clay are fragments of chert and limestone, torn from the 
iinderl^-ing Niagara and corniferous strata, together with a large 
per cent, of metamorphic jiebblesof northern origin. In the banks 
of the creeks and bluffs the clay never shows evidence of stratifi- 
cation, but not infrequently beds of sand and fine gravel are pierced 
in digging wells and cisterns. A bed of sand two feet thick was 
found in the Paul Sheets well in Columbus, below fort3--five feet 
of white and bluish cla}-. These beds of sand are local, occurring 
in pockets that soon thin out, or are replaced by clay and gravel. 
The average thickness of the glacial clav, as determined from the 
average depth in a number of wells, is put at twent3--five feet, and 
varies from a few feet to many. The top soil, free from gravel-, 
ranges from one to five feet in thickness. The clay is thinnest 
when subjected to the wash and action of the currents of the Terrace 
epoch, as in the vicinity of Otter Creek, where the water once 
flowed across the creek south. 

The terrace clays that cap the Knobstone foot hills west of 
White River, are largely made up of the fine, impalpable sands 
and alumina arising from the decomposition of the adjacent and 
underl3'ing aluminous shale. Frequently underlying the terrace 
clay are beds of glacial origin; especiall}'' may they be noticed in 
the bluffs and hills west of Columbus. Seven feet of red or 3'el- 
low clay, containing quite a number of specimens of glacial gravel, 
was exposed in a well at Henr3^ Gross' farm, in Harrison Town- 
ship, at an elevation of 100 feet above Columbus, and glacial clay 
has been found near the top of the Wall ridge, but, as a rule, the 
clay of this region is of a much later date. The teiTace cla3's are 
%vhite, sticky and form a retentive cold soil, known as " crawfish 

The blue bowlder cla3^, recognized everywhere as of glacial 
origin, has not been seen by us in the county. Perhaps the con- 
ditions favorable to the formation of a blue cla3'^ did not exist in 
this immediate vicinit3'. The 3^ellow glacial cla3''s of Bartholomew 
Countx' are doubtless in the main the result of the disintegration of 
the Niagara and corniferous group rocks and the black shale, to- 
gether with the materials of a foreign origin, without the usual 


admixture of llie protlucts of the blue shales, so common in the 
lower Silurian and sub-carboniferous formations, neither one of 
t\'hich is crossed by the line of denudation that has formed our 
'cla3's. Blue clays are said to be found south of this county, and 
probably owe their origin to the base of the Knobstone. 

Tclloxv Saud. — Moulders or ferruginous sand forms an impor- 
tant feature in the surface geology of the county, not only on ac- 
count of the quantity, which is considerable, but more particularly^ 
as the cap of the extreme outl^'ing bluffs on the east and west of 
the White River Valle}-, and as being the most recent formation 
and deposits in the succession of time of the Terrace epoch. This 
deposit of sand marked the close of the Drift period. In physical 
appearance, where pure as left by the receding waters, and un- 
mixed with humus, carbonaceous clay and other foreign matter, it is 
always loose and mellow, with a rough feel to the touch — not im- 
palpable — in the vast majority of instances of a yellowish or ocher}' 
color, with occasional pockets of white sand, so clean that a shovel 
full of it will not render a pail of water turbid. The clean yellow 
sands are those that cap the bluffs and form the higher sand 
ridges, that have not been disturbed since the}' were deposited. 
Examined under the microscope, the fine particles show that the}' 
are of metamorphic origin, identical with the coarser sands of the 
Hawpatch, but without sharp points of crystallization, indicating 
that they have been water worn and rolled as the other glacial 
sands have. On the low lands and bottoms, where mixed with the 
products of the soil and mud of the flood plains and overflows of 
the rivers, they are dark, in many places after cultivation, black; in 
others, where much washed, of a hght color. 

The central line of sand ridges of the county commence at the 
northwest corner of Clay Township, and trend thence south to the 
north bank of Clifty Creek, following the bluffs of the south and 
west bank as a mande over the clay to the bridge on the Colum- 
bus and Burnsville pike, southeast to the Lutheran Church, thence 
in a general course south between Elizabethtown and Azalia, cross- 
ing the county line and connecting with the chain of sand ridges 
and hills of Jackson County. Through Sand Creek Township are 
found parallel ridges ranging north and south, with a spur to the 


\vest that is cut by tlie Azalia and Mineral Spring road. By baro- 
metric measurement this spur was found to be t\vent3-five feet 
above thsj river bottoms, and is probably forty feet above high 
water in Wliite River; Elizal:>ethtown by railroad level is .seven- 
teen feet above Columbus. The top of the bluff north of the 
Clifty bridge on the C. & II. pike is b}^ the barometer seventy-five 
feet above the bed of the creek. These sands modified form the 
surface soil of Sand Creek, and a large part of Wayne Township. 
An isolated, and apparently an anomalous accumulation of yellow 
sand unmodified is found on the east bluffs of Fall Fork Creek, and 
on both faces of the valley locally known as the "no-head-hollow," 
a sharp gorge running north and south from the banks of Middle 
Fork to Fall Fork, above their junction. These bluffs are esti- 
mated to be at least 120 feet above the bed of the White River 
Valley. A branch of the "no-head-hollow," is known as "fox 
hollow," here with little labor the fox and ground hog dig their 
habitations, safe places of retreat in the loose sand. On the farm 
of Dr. Biddinger, south of David Anderson's mill, is a low sand 
ridge in the bottom, showing that at one time overflows must have 
been much higher than an}^ of the present day. In the bends of 
Clifty Creek below Fall Fork, especially below Newbern, in the 
vicinity of Bush's mill, are points and broad accumulations of mixed 
sand and soil. On the w-est side of the great White River Valley 
the range of hills between Ta3dorsville and the Valley mills are 
covered on the west with yellow sand; in the vicinity of the Lowell 
mills the same range of hills show only a deposit of clay and clay 
gravel. The foot hills of the Knobstone west of Walesboro, and 
again in Wayne Township, are sand3^ 

Buried Timber. — In digging wells all over the eastern town- 
ships of the county at an average depth of twenty feet a bed of 
black earth is pierced. In appearance it is identical with a pro- 
ductive surface soil. This soil bed is found as a rule, not alwa3'S, 
and rests generally on the underlying limestone, but occasionall3'^, 
as in the neighborhood of Hope, is reported to have a substratum 
of sand and gravel. In thickness it ranges from one to six feet, 
and is not so much mixed with gravel and pebbles as the overlying 
cla3^ Where this black soil is penetrated, quite frequentl3' pieces 


of wood, roots, masses of deca3'ecl leaves, and a thick muck are 
found. A large piece of timber was taken from a well on the farm 
of John E. Galowa}', just east of Ilartsville; from tlie well of Fran- 
cis Galbraith, on the county line east of town; from the well of 
Prof. Lewis Moble}^; from the well of Mr. John Chisler, in Ilarts- 
ville, and from»a number of other wells in Clifty and Rock Creek 
townships. So common are the remains of an ancient forest that 
an inquiry in an}' neighborhood will elicit the fact of leaves and 
wood being found buried near by. A root is reported to have 
been taken 'from the Taylor well, in Columbus, fift}- feet down, but 
such things are not common in the central valley region. No fact 
connected with the history of the Drift has more indelibly fixed it- 
self on the minds of the masses, and no fact more conclusiveh' con- 
vinces the average mind that the whole country on the east line of 
the county has been subjected to the violent action of water or 
some other force, at a time long past. 

It is a well known geological fact that at the foot of the ice sheet, 
all over the northwest, great valley and river beds have been cut 
very much beyond the capacity to accommodate the streams now 
flowing through them; some of these ancient river beds have been 
silted by accumulations of sand and gravel, and the rivers flow at 
a higher level than they once did; others still find their old rocky 
bed. To the latter class belong Clifty Creek and its tributaries, 
Fall Fork and Dutch Creek. The Clifty Creek Valley and bed is 
cut through from twent}^ to forty feet of corniferous, and from ten 
to twent3'-five feet of hard crystalline Niagara limestone, and the 
same is true of Fall Fork Creek. Perhaps nothing connected 
with the surface geology of the county is more singular than the 
beds of these creeks, great valleys eroded in the solid stone, through 
which now flow insignificant rivulets that are dry for almost half 
the year. The Duck Creek Valley has a capacity to carry a vol- 
ume of water as great as that flowing down White River at flood 
tide. It is evident that the foot of the cross flow or cross glacier, 
as we may call it, must have rested for a long time on and near the 
banks of Clifty Creek, alternately advancing and receding, with 
the heat of summer and cold of winter, across Haw Creek, Clay 
and Clifty townships, while at the foot ran mighty rivers of ice 


■waler. No other hypothesis offers an explanation of the vast 
amount o^ local erosion and denudation that has here taken place. 
It is probable that the ice flow down the glacial valley was con- 
tinued long after the cross glacier foot ceased to exist, as an ice tongue 
of the decadent period, shorn of its moraines, but still laden with 
metamorjihic gravel and recent limestone pebbles. It was the 
long continued action of the direct vallc}^ glacier that cut awa}^ 
from forty to fifty feet of corniferous limestone down to black 
shale, Avest of Clay Township, planing and polishing the broad, 
smooth floor of the valley, now covered by the Hawpatch and 
lower White River bottoms. 

As the general glacial sheet receded to the north, the ferrugin- 
ous glacial clay and remodified upland gravel beds were left on the 
higher lands. The decadence of the valley glacier left vast quan- 
tities of gravel that was more or less modified and stratified by 
the great rivers of ice water, that the increased heat of summer 
sent down from the melting snow and ice. 

Of the various theories that have been proposed in explanation 
of the occurrence of buried soil and timber, " ancient forest beds," 
found at many places in the western drift, that one is adopted pro- 
visionally by the writer which seems best to agree with the facts. 
It is well known that the glacial clay of this vicinity where exposed 
to the sunlight and air, will soon support vegetable fife. The ice 
sheet receding through the influence of a warmer climate, the ex- 
posed ridges were soon clothed with a soil and growth of vegeta- 
tion that had continued to exist further south through the chmax of 
the cold period. Along with the forest growth came the mam- 
moth, mastodon, reindeer, great beaver and other animals now 
extinct. After the geaeral ice sheet had disappeared from a com- 
paratively narrow strip of territory on the southern edge of the 
Drift region, through changes in the climate, about the exact na- 
ture of which it is not necessary here to speculate, there was a 
recurrence of the extreme cold, the retreat of the glacier was 
arrested ; over the exposed drift,' on which a forest was growing, 
eame an extension of the ice flow of the north, the glacial clay was 
rearranged, the so-called ancient soil and forest buried in some 
places, and wholly obliterated in others. A few things connected 


■with the liistory of the forest bed seem to lend color to the above 
theory: First, the buried soil and timber is covered with glacial 
cla}' and gravel, and is strictly a phenomenon of the Drift period, 
\ve have .no reports of buried timber outside of the Drift area. 
Second, the forest beds of Indiana and Ohio, except where possibly 
buried under the old deltas of Lake Erie, are found only over a 
narrow strip of country confined to the southern limits of the Drift. 
These facts militate the theory of a general submergence. "By a 
submergence all the forest territory south of the Drift would have 
been buried. A local central lake, devoid of currents, could not 
have rearranged the glacial chi}', and it is hard to comprehend how 
a local lake was confined to few counties on the southern border of 
Ohio and Indiana, no barrier has been pointed out sufficient to dam 
up a lake whose currents and eddies could have swept over the 
lower Silurian hills. An inter-glacial period of a general forest 
growth certainly would have left scattered remains all over the 
Drift region, so far as Ohio and Indiana are concerned, with the 
exceptions mentioned, no such remains have been reported. 

That the great body of water flowing from the foot of the re- 
ceding recurrent glacier, further modified the lowland gravel beds 
of the glacial valley and washed vast quantities of it further down 
the valley, is shown by the so-called Indian gravel mounds on the 
farm of Judge Tunis Quick, and Tipton hill in Columbus, gauges 
that mark what was once the depth and extent of the deposit. The 
Judge Quick mound having an elevation of twent3'^-five feet above 
the general surface of the surrounding country, presents a sharp 
bluff to the north, a gently sloping talus to the south and a swale 
for surface drainage on the east, all showing that the eroding 
power has been water, and that the currents that have cut away 
the gravel and left the hill standing, came from the north down 
the Glacial Valley. 

When the glacier had retreated to the water divide, six hun- 
dred feet above Columbus, of Randolph and Henry counties, and 
covered the highlands with melting ice, the collected waters found 
an outlet through the White River Valle3\ Down the valley of 
the east fork came sweeping currents and floods carr^ang quanti- 
ties of yellow sand, that was left on the plains and hills where the 



flood current was broken and deflected to the ricrht or left. The 
bluffs of Clifty Creek on the Clay Township line formed the base of 
an eddy of slack waters al/oir, that gave origin to the ridge of sand 
hills that extends north from the vicinity of the Columbus and 
Greensbur T pike bridge. The retardation of the current of the 
flood caused the deposition of sand on the bluff sides and in the 
valle}*) of Middle Fork Creek, on the hills east and north of the ^^al- 
ley mills, in German Township, and on the bluffs west of and below 
Walesboro. But the great mass of sand was carried beyond the 
points mentioned, b}^ the torrent and left in the hills and ridges of 
Sand Creek Township, in the slack water formed below the Clifty 
Creek bluffs. Like influences together with the change in the 
course of the valley to the west through Jackson Count}^ caused 
heavy deposits east and south of the more modern bed of White 
River. Doubtless much of the sand found over Sand Creek and 
Wayne Township has been spread since the close of the Terrace 
epoch by the rains and floods of more recent times. 
' The location of the terrace clay, on the west side of the valley 
and in the White Creek slashes, gives a clue to their origin, and 
point to the conclusion that they are the products of the impalpable 
sand and finer materials, deposited from the sluggish waters of the 
glacial river, while the coarser materials were carried further to 
the east, where the main current flowed. This clay has been added 
to and modified by materials derived from the adjacent Knobstone 
hills. It is not necessary to invoke the existence of a great lake, 
the protecting influences of the Wall ridge were sufficient to favor 
the formation of baj^ous, great pools, and slashes beneath which the 
fine, whiteish, sticky clay was deposited. 

The Glacial period closed with the Terrace epoch. That the 
deposition of the yellow or ferruginous sand was the last record 
made b}'- the floods of the glacial valley that reached from the bluffs 
of Fall Foi'k Creek to Knobstone hills of the west is shown b}' the 
sand resting on and above the glacial clay. In depth the flood must 
have exceeded 150 feet, and that the flow was from the north 
to the south, a great rushing torrent, is shown by sand ridges 
only being left in the retarded current above and bclozu the bluffs 
of Chfty Creek. Such must have been the closing scene of many 


winters of ice and snow, the opening of spring that lias ever since 
«been followed by a perennial climate of summer as compared with 
that of the preceding age*. 

Alhivium. — The alluvial deposits of the East White River Val- 
ley are made up of the varied clays, sand and gravel which are 
further cominuted b}- the action of the water, together with great 
stores of organic matter that are swept down by the rain storms 
and carried by the floods and overflows over the fat acres of the 
first river bottoms; thus foreveV adding to their perennial green- 
ness, at the expense of hills and valleys east and west. The allu- 
vium of the creeks of the east part of the county, is unimportant as 
their rocky banks are seldom or never overflowed; that of the 
creeks of the west can not be separated from the mudd}^ terrace 
clay banks through which the}' flow. An overflow of the mud 
banks of these creeks is but the addition of an other layer of sticky 
clay and impalpable sand, a rearranging of the old materials and 
the addition of decaying vegetable matter. The calcareous soil of 
the Hawpatch is of local origin, from the decomposition of the con- 
tained limestone pebbles and metamorphic gravel, to which has 
been added ages of vegetable growth, carbonaceous matter that has 
imparted a dark color to the whole mass. 

Di^ and Connected Section. — Starting with the datum, derived 
from railroad surveys, that the bed of Clifty Creek at Hartsville is 
112 feet above the mouth, we find the top of the Niagara group 
limestones ninety-four feet below the same horizon at St. Paul, 
eleven miles north, and that the dip to the south is near eight and 
one-half feet to the mile. We find the level of the Niagara Hme- 
stone eight miles east, at Adams Station, to be 156 feet above that 
of Hartsville, which gives the dip to the west at nineteen feet to 
the mile. From these measurements we estimate the general dip 
to be to the southw^est at the rate of fifteen feet to the mile. 

The following connected section of the rocks of the county is 
made up from measurements made in taking the local sections, and 

* The reader in studying Dr. Elrod's valuable and interesting report, will observe that in 
some cases his observation differs from conclusions heretofore given. The subject of the 
drift will require much study, years of labor, and a wide area for observation. The opiX)S- 
ing deductions are here given to arouse study and investigation. — CoLLETT. 


presents at one view the various strata and their average thickness. 
The numbei-s in the first cohimn are referred to in the following 
pages by the abbreviation, C. S., No. — , and will enable the reader 
by reference, to see just what age, period, epoch and stratum, 
where not more fully given, is under consideration in the local 

Carboniferous Age. — Sub-Carboniferous Period. — Knobstonc 
Group or Epoch. 

1. Sandstone, coarse textured with bands of iron ore and 

shale partings 95 ft. 

2. Sandstone, even bedded, light colored quarry stone. ... 40 ft. 

3. Shale and sandstone in thin beds 50 ft. 

4. Shale and iron ore 90 ft. 

5. Blue aluminous shale and calcareous goniatite bed 85 ft. 

Devonian Age. — Hamilton Period. — Genesee Epoch. 

6. Black slate 80 ft. 

Corniferous Period. — Corniferous Group. 

7. Blue crystalline quarry stone. North Vernon stone, up- 

per corniferous 10 ft. 

8. Light blue crystalline limestone, middle corniferous. ... 12 ft. 

9. Gray or earth colored limestone, soft at the top, locally 

hard and ochery in color, lower corniferous 40 ft. 

Silurian Age. — Upper Silurian Division. — JViagara Period. — ■ 
Niagara Group or Epoch. 

10. Calcareous shale, fossil beds 6 ft. 

11. Blue quarry stone, locally brownish in color at the top. 30 ft. 

Total 538 ft. 

Local Details. — JViagara Groiip. — In lithological characters 
the blue quarrjf^ stones of the Niagara group vary from massive to 
thin bedded crystalline magnesian limestone with local bands of 
chert. Wherever it is exposed, it has been found very free from 
shaly or claj'-partings and breaks with a square angular fracture. 
In physical appearance and composition, it is subject to change, in 
some localities being an even bedded homogeneous i^ock, and at 


others, only a few hundred feet removed, irregular, and the mass 
made up of chert bands and nodules. At the top of the Niagara 
hlnestone the beds change in most places by imperceptible degrees, 
and at others, abruptly into a hard refractor}- ocher3'-colored pseudo- 
limestone that occurs in thin or massive la3'ers, generall}- shelly, 
with a conchoidal fracture. In color or structure, it seems to be 
persistent, showing in all the out-crops, in appearance it is veiy 
much like the base of the lower member of the corniferous group 
overl3'ing the carcareous shale, nodules of calcite, crystallized car- 
bonate of lime, of great beauty are common to both. The calcar- 
eous shales, No. lo, C. S., is not always found in place, is very 
variable in thickness, and composition. Where not too much ex- 
posed to the air the color is blue, where mixed with the surface 
soils and weathered, is a yellowish cla}'. It is thin bedded, spht- 
ting into thiner lamina;, uniform in structure, where non-fossiliferous 
sometimes a sticky plastic cla}^ and at other places intercalated 
with plates of fossihferous limestone and nodules and cubes of 
pyrites, ferrum sulphide. The surface of the blue limestone is not 
a uniform level; at the foot of the Farr and Stucker holes in Clifty 
Creek, the top of the outcrop is just above low water mark, while 
at the bend of the creek between the two, below Hartsville, a ridge 
is cut through twenty-five feet in thickness. There is no evidence 
that these irregularities are synclinal or anticlinal axes, but slight 
ridges left at the bottom of the ocean before the overlying corni- 
ferous was deposited, hence there is probably a slight want of 
conformability between the two groups of stone. 

The Niagara group stones were formed from the sediment of 
an interior ocean, whose eastern shore line was formed by the 
hills of Franklin and Ripley counties, hills that were then and have 
ever since reared their heads above the tide level. The nearest 
outcrop of the lower Silurian is seen in the vicinity of Westport, a 
few miles east of the Bartholomew Count}'- line. As the average 
thickness of the strata decrease as we go east, thinning out to a 
knife blade deposit, we have evidence that the waters of the ocean 
were shallow, but must have been very pure and quiet to favor the 
formation of crystalline rocks; the process of formation must have 
been slow and long continued to allow the growth of life, the frag- 


ments of whose remains are here found cntomhed in the Hving 
rocks. *\s the Niagara group limestone emerged from the shallow 
seas, a change in the purit\' of the water and irregularit}- of the 
limestone bed caused deposits of argillaceous clay sediment to take 
place in the pockets and depressions, hence the calcareous shale is 
variable in thickness within a few feet and occasionally ewholly 
wanting, where the conditions were not favorable to the accumula- 
tion of a muddy sediment. A very perfect specimen of Eiicaly 
■ptocriniis cmssus found in the calcareous shale, lying horizontally 
with the root and stem of another individual growing at right 
angles from the cal3'x, a Platyostonia iiiagxiroisc covered over with 
the delicate tracery of Palesc/tara, and on this the roots of a crinoid, 
together with the great number of fossils taken from these beds, 
show that the accumulation v/as xQvy slow and that more than one 
generation of animal life passed before the last was covered b}'' 

All the members of the Niagara group are fossiliferous and the 
calcareous shale, highly so. The cephalopod shells, Orthoccras 
crebesccns, H., O., annulatum, Sow., and Gyroceras clrodi. White, 
by their size, form and members are the most conspicuous, and are 
characteristic of the Niagara blue limestone. They are found in 
greatest abundance near the top of the group in the thin flagging 
stone. Occasional specimens of Atrypa reticularis^ Linn., Stro- 
^hostylus cyclostoinus, H., Meristina iiitida, H., Eucalyftocrimis 
crassus^ H., and a few very small Stcfhaiiocrinus gcmiforniis^ H., 
are found in the upper members, but not in abundance, nor are the 
corals or trilobites common; Calyniene niagaraisis, H., has been 
found. No attempt will here be made to give a list of the fossils 
of the calcareous shale, suffice it to sa}'^ that all the above named 
species are common, except the cephalopods and stephanocrinus. 

The Niagara group limestone outcrops in the bed and banks of 
Clifty Creek from the southwest corner of Section 2, Township 9, 
North, Range 7, East, to the Decatur County line at Possum Glory, 
up Fall Fork Creek to Anderson's Falls, up Middle Fork to Long's 
Falls, in Boner's branch to the cemetery road east of the college, up 
Hiner's branch to the bluffs on the south, and up the valle^-s and 
ravines for a short distance on either side of Clifty Creek. No 


Other outcrops are to be seen on Duck Creek or Haw Creek, and 
but for the vallc}' of Clifty Creek all the members of the Niagara 
group would be buried out of sight by the superincumbent cornif- 
erous limestone. 

As the Oriskany sandstone period has been referred to the 
upper Silurian rather than the Devonian age by most modern geol- 
ogists, perhaps a word may not be out of place as to its occurrence 
or non-occurrence in Bartholomew Count}'. If it occurs it should 
be found between what has been recognized universally as the 
Niagara and corniferous groups of limestone. On lithological 
grounds it is excluded if we look for it as a sandstone. No sand- 
stone occurs on Clifty Creek where the two groups are in contact, 
'the one above the other. In Southern Illinois the Oriskan}"- is 
described as a " silicious limestone," in Ohio as a " coarse saccha- 
roidal sandstone," neither of which can apply to any of our rocks. 
The presence of the calcareous shale settles the age of the lime- 
stone below it. The stone above is used down to the ver}' base, 
at the Arbuckle kiln, near Hartsville, as a lime rock, good speci- 
mens of Conocardium trigonale^ H. Zafhrantis gio^antea^ Raf., and 
other well known corniferous corals have been found in the stone 
resting immediately on the calcareous shale. It is true the lower 
member of the corniferous group has a " rough and hard dirty 
look, especially after weathering" (Dana), but no other characters 
in common with the Oriskany. 

Section at Anderson'' s Palls, Fall Fork Creeh, Clifty Tozvnsliip. 

Soil 00 ft. 00 in. 

Gray massive stone, lower division of the corniferous 

group to the bed of creek above the falls 3 ft. 00 in. 

Massive gray limestone hard in appearance 5 ft. 00 in. 

Calcareous shale, Niagara group, in their lamince fos- 

silifcrous 4 ft. 00 in. 

Even bended Niagara group limestone 2 ft. 00 in. 

Total 14 ft. GO in. 

A few yards above the falls the corniferous graj- stone that 
forms the bed of the creek, thickens in the bank to six and eight 


feet, and on the outside has a "hard and dirty look" where covered 
with minute growth of Hchens; here the characteristic appearance 
of the lower division of the corniferous ma}'^ be seen in the rough 
bed of the stream caused by the weathered and rounded tops of 
the square and irregular blocks reminding one of a pavement of 
huge cobble stones. The Anderson Falls are remarkable as being 
in a small way the geological equivalent of the Niagara Falls shale 
and limestone. Here, as well as at the great Falls of Niagara, 
may be seen the same processes in action, that in the one case has 
carried the falls back from Queenstown, Canada, seven miles, and 
in the other two or three hundred feet by the more rapid erosion 
of the soft underlying shale and breaking down of the harder su- 
perincumbent rock, great blocks of which lie in the channel below 
the falls, and in both cases the streams cut across or against the 
dip. From the foot of the falls to the mouth of the Middle Fork, 
the creek runs north and apparentl}' toward a C3'lindrical axis, that 
is due to an irregularity in the surface of the top members of the 
Niagara group, that are slightly unconformable with the strata 
above. At the falls the creek bed is over thirty feet wide with 
sharp overhanging mural front over which the water pours at flood 
height with a great roar, falling twelve or thirteen feet into the 
pool below, presenting a pleasing if not a grand spectacle. All the 
elements are present, of a first class picturesque resort, especially 
in summer, when the surrounding valleys are covered with ver- 
dure, but one, the lack of water to bring out the beauties of the 
falls, just at the time people feel most inclined to seek such places. 
During ordinary summers, Fall Fork dwindles to a lazy rivulet, 
playing hide and seek with the rocks of its stony bed, in very dry 
seasons it vanishes into thin air. But while the dilettante pleasure 
seeker might be disappointed, not so the geological specimen hun- 
ter whose work would be favored by the absence of water, and 
the shale that the bed of the creek left bare. Good specimens 
of Eticalyptocrimis crassus, H., Glyf taster inornatiis^ H., Rhodocri- 
nus melissa, H., and very fine crinoid roots are not rare, and an 
occasional perfect triro bite has been found. All the various species 
of brachiopods common to the calcareous shale are abundant. 
Picnic parties will find one of the finest chalybeat springs in the 


State below the falls iti the bed of the creek, where a profusion of 
the coolest water bubbles up from an xinknown depth. 

^ Section at Long's Falh^ Middle Fork Creek, Clifty Toii'nship. 

Graj'ish and ocher colored shelly slotic, lower division 

of the corniferous group 4 ft. 00 in. 

Calcareous shale Niaj^ara g'roup. non-fossiliferous, 
weathering further down the creek to a yellowish 
clay 2 ft. 00 in. 

Yellowish shell}'^ stone with chert bands at the top No. 

II, C. S I ft. 6 in. 

Massive, even bedded blue quany limestone, in ledges 
from two to fifteen inches thick, good building and 
flagging stone 8 ft. 00 in. 

Total 15 ft. 00 in. 

These falls are in a small way the counterpart of the Anderson 
Falls, and such cascades, rather than falls, are common to nearly 
all the valleys and ravines where the calcareous shale forms a part 
of the outcrop and has weathered so as to leave unsupported the 
overl3ang corniferous rock, that has a tendency to break in huge 
blocks with a square precipitous front. Examples of the square 
fracture may be seen on Boner's branch south of the college and 
on Webber's branch. No better evidence of the resistance, to the 
action of air and water of the blue limestone can be seen than is 
here presented, the running water more or less mixed with gravel 
and sand has scarcely left a ripple mark on the surface, level as a 
barn floor or rounded the square edge of the exposed strata. 

In the east bank of Fall Fork Creek at David Anderson's mill 
the upper members of the blue Niagara limestone, are replaced by 
bands and nodules of white chert, that breaks into smaller frag- 
ments on exposure, in appearance not unlike an imperfectly slacked 
lime rock. 

Devonian Age. — Corniferous Group. — Tlte corniferous group 
limestones form the surface stone and underlie the Drift of nearly 
the whole of the eastern upland portion of the county. It is the 



Stone struck in digging wells in Rock Creek, Clifty, Cla}' and Haw 
Creek townships. It is the bed rock and stone exposed in the 
banks ot Beaver Creek, Little Sand Creek, Duck Creek, Otter 
Creek, Haw Creek, and their tributaries, and on top of the bluffs 
on Middle Fork, Fall Fork and Clift}' creeks. From its lithologi- 
cal characters, we have divided it into three subdivisions, upper, 
middle and lower corniferous. In relative thickness the}' stand in 
the proportion ten: twelve: forty, but the outcrop in the county is 
not in the same ratio. The upper division, blue limestone, equiva- 
lent of the North Vernon quarry stone, was seen at but three places; 
James Manle3''s Limekiln or Little Sand Creek, and at the Ever- 
rode and Yaley quarries in Clay Township. In thickness it is 
variable; at Manley's kiln it does not exceed three feet, and at the 
other outcrops scarcely reaches ten feet. The middle division is 
only found in force on Little Sand Creek; other exposures of thin 
plates were seen on the bluffs east of Robert Ketner's place in the 
road from Hartsville to David Anderson's mill, and at John E. 
Robbin's farm. The lower member near Hope has a much, 
greater surface exposure and thickness from having been protected 
by the others from the general denudation to which they have been 

In lithological characters the upper corniferous. North Vernon 
stone, is a hard, 'sometimes refractoiy, dark blue cr3-stalline, mas- 
sive, even bedded, magnesian limestone, of uniform structure that 
weathers well. The middle is a light blue, crystalline massive or 
thin bedded, shelly magnesian limestone, of variable structure, 
banded and mixed with amorphous chert-geodes and weathers to 
thin plates and shelly fragments. The lower corniferous is a gray- 
ish, dark, dirty colored rock, never truly crystalline to the unaided 
eye, but showing, under a magnifier, very fine sand like specks, 
massive or thin, even bedded limestone of tolerably uniform struc- 
ture, except where mixed with or replaced by chert or pockets of 
calcite, that weathers into large angular blocks and rotten stone. 
At many points the lower division might be termed a true argilla- 
ceous limestone and is everj'^where mixed with a considerable per 
cent, of alumina, and the manner in which it resists the action of 
water, and atmospheric influence is variable; where covered by a 


thin soil or kept clamp the outside crust is a dirty rotten stone in 
appearance like sand, that tested with mineral acids and the micro- 
scope is found to be free from silex, at other places where exposed 
t(5 air and rains alone, the face of the bluffs and detached block are 
eroded into holes and crannies, as if long subjected to the action of 
waves and running water. That such has been the case seems 
probable from many of the blocks standing alone and away from 
the adjoining bed rock. On the west side of Clifty Creek north 
of John Graham's land are isolated masses with perpendicular fronts 
that measure from nineteen to twenty-six feet in height. On the 
outside these blocks and bluffs present to the eye a hard, gra}^ or 
blueish appearance in contrast with the soft and lighter colored in- 
terior. On the north side of Hiner's branch, a hundred 3'ards or 
more above the mouth, the lower division limestone is replaced b}^ 
a coral reef in which the fossils are not only silicified, but are im- 
bedded in a silicious matrix, the counterpart of what is mentioned 
by Professor Borden, in his report on Jennings Count}^, as a buhr 
stone, locally called " millstone grit," from its very great resem- 
blance to genuine French buhr. Whether the bed reaches down 
to the top of the Niagara group stone it was impossible to tell as 
the lower part was covered, but that such is the case, is probable. 
The cellular buhr stone was seen at a number of places, and is 
doubtless peculiar to the lower division of the corniferous group. 
At the base of the corniferous, overling the calcareous shale or 
Niagara limestone, frequentl}^ occurs hard, refractbr}^ ochery-col- 
ored stone, that in appearance and lithological characters is identi- 
cal with the top strata of the Niagara, both are equally persistent, 
and one or both may not show in the outcrop. Careful testing 
with acid and examination with the microscope fails- to detect the 
presence of silex in either. 

All of the corniferous group members are fossiliferous, especiall}*^ 
the silicious cherty poi'tion, in this last respect differing from the 
chert of the Niagara that seldom contains organic remains. Scat- 
tered all through the upper and middle divisions of the cr^-^stalline 
stone, fragments and occasional perfect specimens are found, and 
abundantl}', in the chert. We have not found any of the Brach- 
iopods and only one Conchifer Couocardiiim trigonalc, H., that is 


common and seems to be peculiar to the lower corriiferous divis- 
ion. At many places a part of the corals are replaced* by calcite, 
but as a rule the stony frame work of carbonate of lime has been 
replaced by silex, hard and durable as the everlasting hills, that, re- 
sisting the weathering process, are found mixed in the glacial clay 
and gravel, and scattered over the soil; geological records and 
monuments that have been torn from their settings, all that remains 
of the once massive stone that has yielded to the ravages of time. 
From the short time given to the study it is not yet possible to say 
with certainty what fossils are peculiar to each of the divisions, but 
enough is known to indicate in a general way the range of some of 
the more common species. No perfect specimens of crinoids could 
be had, but fragments of the base are not uncommon, and huge 
stems, some of them ver}'^ singular in having prolongations, wings, 
growing from every fourth or fifth ossicle, are abundant and found 
only in the upper blue limestone. The fragments of crinoids are 
referred to the genera Mcgistocrhms, Synbathocrinus and Rhodo- 
cj-inus; DahnanUes ohionensis. Meek, was found only in these beds. 
The various species of Strop/iodonta have a wider range through 
all the upper and middle strata. Probably the lower division is best 
characterized by the absence of all higher forms of life than the 
corals, except Cotwcardhim^ which is common in some places. 

A general subsidence of the ocean level took place at the close 
of the Silurian age, and that the lower coniferous was deposited 
from shallow^ water, more or less contaminated with impurities, 
seems evident from the per cent, of alumina contained in it; that it 
was a sea filled with coral reefs and islands is shown by the great 
beds of zoophites found in masses of so-called millstone grit; 
corals grow and form limestone only when they are in reach of the 
waves (Dana). The thin laminag of stone seen on Haw Creek 
and Duck Creek near Hope are the result of gentle wave action. 
These conditions were somewhat changed near the close of the 
Corniferous epoch, there must have been a sHght subsidence of the 
interior continent, an increase in depth and clearing of the water 
favorable to the growth of higher forms of life, and the formation 
of pure crj'Stalline limestone. 

The most common fossils are Spirifcra acu)ui)!ata, Conrad, 


S. mucronata, Conrad, Strophodouta /iciiiisf>/icrica, H., S. dc/i//s.<(r, 
H., an undetermined species of J/i/rc//iso/i/a, and the calyces of 
Mcgistocrinns and Syiibaf/iocn'niis, together Avith the pygidium of 
Proctus ■planimarginatits. Meek, and of Dahuanitcs o/iiociin\<, M. 
The abundance of large and peculiar crinoid stems show that that 
form of animal hfe was once common. 

Hamilton Period. — Black S/ialc, Gciicscc Efoch. — The stone of 
this epoch is locally known as black slate, but as it is slate onl^^ in 
appearance, we use the better term shale. It is the equivalent of 
the New Alban}'^ and Louisville black slate; Delphi, Ind., black 
slate; Huron shale of Ohio; Devonian black shale of the west; 
Genesee shale of New York, and the authors generally. 

The eastern boundary of the outcrop is defined by the expos- 
ures in the banks of Little Sand Creek, one mile east of James 
Manley's lime kiln, at the Yeal}' and Everroad quarries in Clay 
Township, at the Manley lime kiln, and at the old saw mill near 
the residence of Martha Russell, in Rock Creek Township. At 
the latter place the dip has gained on the base of the creek, so that 
the shale forms the bed of the stream. It is reported to have been 
struck in digging a saw mill well south of Elizabethtown, and in a 
well at Petersville. West of these points no outcrop is seen till it 
is exposed b}-^ the bed of White River at the Valley mills west of 
Taylorsville, and down the river to the Catfish Falls below Lowell 
mills. The black shale was found and penetrated to a depth of 
thirty-one feet in digging a well at Krusee's garden in West 

The shale, where protected or unaltered by contact with the 
underlying rock, is a jet black stone, where exposed and weath- 
ered changing to lighter shades and splitting into thin foliaceous 
scales and plates. Imbedded in it, at the outcrop on White River 
are frequent nodules and masses of iron pyrites, ferrum sulphide, 
that rust and combine with the oxj^gen of the atmosphere. When 
quarried in large blocks they soon break and slack, the line of 
fracture being as often across the lamination as with it. It is said 
to contain ten or more per cent, of bituminous matter and by dis- 
tillation to yield from ten to twent}'^ gallons of oil to the ton. Tak- 
ing the per cent, of organic matter at ten, the beds of this county 


contain enouoh bitumen to form a coal seam seven feet thick. 
Thrown on a iire it burns for a few minutes Hke stone coal, but 
the bulk of stone never grows less, the oil}- matters is burned out, 
leaving the carth}'^ residue undiminished and not a true ash. From 
this many persons are led to think that deeper in the hill or by 
boring, coal might be found, aside from geological evidence; fre- 
quent borings show that this is not the case; it is not even a sign 
of coal. Attempts have been made to utilize it, and at one time 
great hopes were had of its being useful as a roofing material, 
spread on felt, but expensive trials made by grinding it at Lowell 
mills, in this county, and at New Alban}', proved financially disas- 
trous to the experimenters. It has been recommended as a road 
material, but its tendenc}^ to slack w^ill preclude its use for this 
purpose. If of any practical value, other than as a part of the 
great mass of rocks necessar3' to the formation of the crust t)f the 
earth, we have not heard of it. In this age of cheap petroleum its 
distillation can not be made profitable. 

The black shale at points south of this count}-, and especially 
in Ohio, has been found to be fossiliferous. Nothing of the kind 
has been found by us, but may be, as large masses of hard rock, 
probably limestone, are reported, that frequently contain remains 
of fish. 

While the crystalline limestone strata of the latter part of the 
Comiferous epoch teach us that they were formed under deeper 
and purer waters than had prevailed earlier, the great thickness of 
the black shale, stratification and homogeneity of structure, all point 
to its formation under shallow seas of impure water, conditions 
favorable to the deposition of sediment mixed with mud, and that 
these conditions w^ere unchanged for a long period. 

The question as to the origin of the bituminous matter can not 
be satisfactorily answered, but the paucit}^ of the lower forms of 
vegetable life that had as yet come into existence and limited ex- 
tent of dry land, would seem to show that it was derived from the 
organic remains so common in the preceding epoch, and not 
wholly w^anting in this. 

During the oil excitement, some years ago, Mr. C. C. Anderson 
sunk a well at the Valley mills on White River, and Mr. I. N. 


Smock, who lives in the immediate vicinit}' of the bore, has kindly 
furnished a record of the strata passed tlirough. The section is 
given in Mr. Smock's own language, our comments in parentheses: 

C, C. yindersoii Borc^ Valley Mills, German Toicnsliip. 

Earth (first river bottom) , 10 ft. o in. 

Slate (black shale, Genesee epoch) 40 ft. o in. 

Appearance of coal (soot bed) 2 ft. o in. 

Soft stone of same kind (black shale) of lighter color 18 ft. o in. 

Stone resembling soapstone (black shale) 10 ft. o in. 

Hard rock, upper division of corniferous group 2 ft. o in. 

Total 82 ft. o in. 

Deducting ten feet of earth and two feet of hard rock, we have 
seven^ feet as the thickness of the black shale, which, compared 
with the estimated thickness from dip and bores made by Dr. 
Arwine and others in Brown County, we think the measurement 
rather below than above the maximum. The presence of the base 
of the Knobstone series resting directly on the shale below Cath- 
arine's Creek show that the deposit in this vicinity has not been 
much reduced by erosion. If borings are ever made in the south- 
west part of the county it will doubtless be found to increase in 
thickness, as most of our formations outcrop in greater force on 
the south. 

We decide that "the stone resmbling soapstone,". is black shale 
mainly from stratigraphical position. No other than the black 
shale has been reported as occurring anywhere in the State, be- 
tween the corniferous limestone and Knobstone group. 

The persistence of the " appearance of coal," at this bore, and 
at both bores in Brown County, the " soot " of the latter and the 
occurrence of soft black stone that could not be " picked " at the bot- 
tom of Krusees' well in West Columbus, at a depth of thirty-one feet, 
point to the conclusion that the black shale may be divided into 
two divisions, and that each of these may be of a different epoch, 
having fossils peculiar to each. 

Carboniferous Age. — Knobstone Grouf or Efoch. — Many ob- 
stacles are met in trying to get a connected view of the sandstones 


and shales of this group, as the great mass of the rocks are covered 
b}'^ detritus and soil on the hillsides, and the clay banks of the creeks 
and tributary branches never expose the stone so far as we saw, 
but by repeated measurements where an opportunitv offered and 
the lithological characters of the strata, enough is known to deter- 
mine the general averages with a good degree of accurac3^ 

At Catfish Falls, between Columbus and Lowell mills on the 
White River, the blueish gra}' calcareous shale, the ecjuivalent of 
the Rockford Goniatite bed, has a vertical exposure of a few inches. 
The outcrop is fossiliferous and shows in thin even bedded, smooth 
homogeneous stones with a fracture at right angles to the bedding. 

The blue aluminous shale, the equivalent of the New Providence 
shale of Prof. Borden, the next member of the Knobstone group in 
ascending order, has a thickness ranging from twenty-five to 
eighty-five f^t. It is locall}^ known as a soapstone, and' is the 
underl3nng stone of the whole of Jackson Township and the low 
hills of Wayne, Ohio, Harrison, Union and Nineveh, between the 
Wall ridge and the White River bottoms. 

In structure, the blue shale is tolerable uniform, with a tendency 
to become ferruginous, near the base. In places it resists the 
action of the atmosphere and water better than the higher drab 
colored shales. Where weathered it forms a blue pk'^stic cla}', and 
cold subsoil. 

. . . Section at JSfoblc HiJI, Jackson Tozunshij). 

Soil and covered space 40 ft. o in. 

Blue shale, Knobstone group, No. 5, C. S 5 ft. o in. 

Blue shale and iron ore nodules 5 ft. o in. 

Blue shale to foot of the hill. No. 5, C. S 10 ft. o in. 

Total 60 ft. o in . 

. This hill is said to be the highest above the average level of any 
in the township. The iron ore nodules of this section were in good 
shaped masses that readily shelled and broke under the hammer, 
but in amount were insufficient to be of any practical value. 

The other shales and the sandstones of Knobstone group are 
very variable in both vertical and transverse section, ranging from 


a blue to a drab, from argillaceous to yilicious, from friable, coarse 
sandstone, banded with iron ore to smoulh homoireneous even bed- 
ded quarry stone. It is evident the}' were formed on the eastern 
shore and bed of an ocean generally quiet, whose currents came 
from the north or northeast burdened w ith sand and muddy sedi- 
ment, derived from the wasting disintegration of some other land 
than the non-silicious limestones of the Devonian and Silurian ages 
of Indiana. The changing, fitful currents of this epoch that left 
sand at one time and mud at another, and, again, both mixed to- 
gether, were not favorable to the preservation of fossil remains, 
•even if marine life existed to an}' extent under such conditions. 

Section at Taylor Hill, Harrison Township. 

Soil. . ^. ... o ft. 

Sandstone, coarse textured with shaley partings ana cov- 
ered spaces. No. i, C. S 75 ft. 

Sandstone, light colored, even bedded quarry stone. No. 2, 

C. S , 40 ft. 

Shale, in thin beds and covered space, No. 3, C. S 50 ft. 

Iron ore, shale and sandstone. No. 4, C. S 90 ft. 

Blue shale, No. 5, C. S 85 ft. 

To level of Columbus Court House ...'... 20 ft. 

Total 360 ft. 

The outcrop of the quarry stone at Taylor hill has not been 
worked sufficiently to develop the true character of the rock, but 
enough has been taken out to show that it is a beautiful even free- 
stone, with a square sharp angled fracture, and will split well. 
Whether this range of stone is the exact geological equivalent of 
the celebrated Berea grit and flagging of Ohio or not, it is found in 
the same geological group, and both were formed under similar if not 
identical conditions, and it should be f ullv developed. If once put on 
sale in quantities the demand for^it would soon grow; it is a superior 
stone for many architectural purposes. Unlike many sandstones it 
does not retain dampness and become moss-grown. The exact 
equivalent of this bed has been extensively used in Brown County, 



and has been found a durable stone that witlistands heat and cold. 
Monuments and tombstones cut from it fort}- years ago show sharp 
corners and chisel marks untarnished by the ravages of time. It is 
not the province of a geological survey to open coal mines or de- 
velop stone quarries, but to point out where capital ma}' be invested 
with the prospect of a fair return for time and money expended ; 
a reasonable experiment in opening the quarry sandstone of the 
Wall ridge and putting the stone in shape for use would certainly 
prove a financial success. For water tables, window sill and caps, 
the rapid growth of Columbus and demands of the surrounding 
country would furnish a good local market. It is a persistent bed, 
outcropping on all sides of the Wall ridge. Great blocks were seen 
on the south and north in crossing the ridge from John Ault's place 
to Bethan}'. The Dowell hill quarries are in the same range and 
show the same stone. Mr. M. Powell, near the Brown Count}^ line, 
has eighty acres of quarry that can be worked at almost any point. 
To multiply outcrops would be to give a list of the land owners of 
nearly the whole west half of Harrison Township. 

Section at Henry Grass' ^larry^ Harrison Township. 

Soil free from gravel i ft. o in. 

Shale and sandstone in thin beds and wedge-shaped 

masses, Knobstone group. No. i, C. S ^ it- o in. 

Sandstone banded with iron ore. No. i, C. S., irregu- 
larly bedded i ft. i in. 

Sandstone, even bedded, No. 2, C. S i ft. 7 in. 

Massive sandstone in an even, continuous bed, without 
any indications of horizontal seams or partings. No. 2, 

C. S 2 ft. 9 in. 

Thin drab shales. No. 3, C. S 50 ft. o in. 

Shale and iron ore. No. 4, C. S 87 ft. o in. 

Blue aluminous shale, No. 5, C. S 47 ft. o in. 

Total 185 ft. 5 in. 

This section embraces forty-two feet of blue shale and reaches 
to a level with Mr. Grass' residence ; to the bed of Wolf Creek 


would add thirty-five feet more. Tlie two feet nine inches stratum 
is a rather coarse grained dark sodden looking stone that is worked 
Plainly for foundations, and is remarkable for uniformity of struc- 
ture and evenness of bedding for the whole length of tlie quarr}'. 

HartsviUc Fossils. — - As no attempt Avas made in the body of 
this report to give a list, even of tlie more common fossils of the 
calcareous shale, the following is liere inserted and embraces all 
the species exxept Br3'Ozoa, that have been identified. An exami- 
nation will show that it compares very favorably with the cele- 
brated and well known Waldron localit}^ 

Protozoa. — Receptaculites subturbinatus, H., rare; Astylos- 
pongia pramorsa, Goldf., not rare. 

Corals and Bryozoa. — Streptelasma radicans, H., rare; Strep- 
telasma borealis, H., not rare; Favosites spinigerus, IL, not rare; 
Favosites forbesi var. occidentalis, II. , common; Lichenalia con- 
centrica, H., common. 

(^rinoidca. — Saccocrinus christyi, H., not rare ; Macrostylocri- 
nus striatus, H., rare; Macrostylocrinus fasciatus, H., rare; Glyp- 
tocrinus carleyi, H., rare; Glyptaster occidentalis, H., rare; Glyp- 
taster inornatus, H., not rare; Codaster pulchellus, M. and D., 
rare; Cyathocrinus polyxo, H., rare; C3'athocrinus nucleus, H., 
rare; Lecanocrinus pusillus, H., rare; Melocrinus (ined), not rare; 
Rhodocrinus melissa, H., common; Eucal3'ptocrinus crassus, H., 
common;* Eucal^^ptocrinus cajlatus, H., common; Eucalyptocrinus 
ovatus, Troost, rare; Stephanocrinus gemmiformis, H., very rare. 

Brachiofoda. — Crania siluriana, H., rare; Crania setifera, H., 
rare; Orthis hybrida, Sowerby, not rare; Orthis elegantula, 
Dalman, not rare; Streptorhynchus subplana, Conrad, not rare; 
Strophomena rhomboidalis, Wahlenberg, not rare; Strophonella 
semifasciata, H., very rare; Spirifera eudora, H., rare; Spirifera 
crispa, Hisinger, common; Spirifera crispa var. simplex, H., rare; 
Spirifera radiata, Sowerby, common; Spirifera waldronensis, M. and 
D., rare; Meristina maria, H., common; Meristina nitida, H., very 
common; Nucleospira pisiformis, H., rare; Retzia evax H., very 
common; Atrypa reticularis, Linn, very common; Rhynchonella 
neglecta, H., not rare; Rhynchonella acinus, H., not rare; Rh3'^n- 
chonella indianensis, H., common; Rh^-nchonella whitii, IL, very 


common; Rhynchonella stricklandi, Sowerby, not rare; Rhyn- 
chonella cuneata, H., common; Anastrophia internascens, II., com- 
mon; Eichwaldia reticulata, H., not rare. 

LamcUihraucTiiata, — Pterinea brisa, H., very rare. Modiolop- 
sis subalata, II. 

Gasteropoda. — Platyostoma niagarense, H., common; Platyos- 
toma plebium, H., not common; Strophostylus C3xlostomus, H., 
common; Strophostylus cyclostomusvar. disjunctus, H.,not common. 

Cephalopoda. — Orthoceras simulator, H., very rare; Trocho- 
ceras waldronense, H., very rare. 

Annelida. — Cornulites proprius, H., not rare. 

Crustacea. — Calymene niagarensis, H., not rare; Homalonotus 
delphinocephalus, Green., rare; Cyphaspis christyi, H., rare; IIIje- 
nus armatus, H., rare; Dalmanites vigilans, H., not rare; Dalman- 
ites verrucosus H., not rare; Lichas boltoni, var. occidentalis, H., 

All the above species were found on Clifty Creek and tributar- 
ies, near Hartsville. Probably the best places for collecting are 
the Tarr hole and Anderson's Falls. The north bank and bluffs of 
Little Sand Creek, above Manly's limekiln, is the best place for 
getting corniferous group fossils; the corals are frequently very 
fine. The corals from the lower beds are found scattered over the 
fields and woods, mixed with the surface soil. 

Among the corals found may be mentioned Favosites favosus, 
Gold., F. hemisphericus, Y. & S. F. emmonsi, Rom., F., niagaren- 
sis, H., Michelinia trochiscus, Rom., Pleurodictyum problematicum, 
Cyathophyllum cornicula, Rom., C, geniculatum, Rom., C. rugos- 
um, E. H., C. davidsoni, M. E., C. radicula, Rom., Blothrophjdlum 
decorticatum, Billings, Phillipsastrea verneuili, M. E., Zaphrentis 
gigantea, Raff. Z. compressa, Rom., Amplexus yandelli, M. E., Cy- 
stiph3'llum americanum, M. E. One single specimen of Nucleocn- 
nus angularis, L5'^on, was found at the same locality, and a few 
species of brachiopods. 

Antiquities. — That the East White River valley was once in- 
habited by a race of people superior to the Delaware Indians, the 
last tribe to disappear before the "star of empire," is shown by the 
number of stone implements, axes, hatchets and fragments of pot- 


tery, found scattered over the soil. Some of tliese relics are very 
fine, especially a highly finished dark stone pipe in the shape of a 
third's head and bill, owned by Mrs. Dr. George Remy, found near 
Newbern, and an oblong double, greenstone hatchet and llesher, 
found and owned by Mr. VanBlaricuni, near Burnsville. A num- 
ber of elevations are pointed out as the work of the mound-build- 
ers, but we failed, wherever they were examined, to lind any of the 
so-called Indian mounds of any other than natural origin. The 
mound on the Hacker farm, just above the Manley limekiln, is 
clearly proven to be a part of the high bank north of Little Sand 
Creek, b}^ an excavation made in the side, that exposes the rock of 
the mound and shows it to be continuous with the strata of the ad- 
joining bluff. The Indians' burial place on the farm of Mr, James C. 
Remy, near Burnsville, is a natural ridge of upland gravel. That 
the Judge *Tums Quick Mound, in Flat Rock Township, is not arti- 
ficial, has been indicated in the discussion of the Drift period. In 
structure it is identical with the Hawpatch gravel, and shows no 
evidence whatever of being the work of man. It is not a mound 
but an irregular hill that slopes to the south. We did not have an 
opportunity to examine the Tipton hill in Columbus, but from what 
we could learn the same is true of it. Artificial mounds ought to 
show peculiarities in stratification different from that of the sur- 
rounding plain. The finding of bones only proves that advantage 
was taken of the higher points to locate a cemetery. Bones have 
been taken from the bluff between the junction of Clift}^ and Fall 
Fork creeks, from the Remy gravel bed, and the so-called Hacker 
mound, but nothing else, so far as we could ascertain. If, in open- 
ing these mounds, beds of ashes, buried soil, broken bones of ani- 
mals, water jugs, pottery, pipes, beads or ornaments were found, 
the proof would be conclusive that they were the work of the ex- 
tinct race race of mound builders, but as onl}' bones have been found 
they are probably the "last resting places" of the modern Red 
man. In expressing the above opinion, we know we run counter 
to the traditions of the mass of the people, and if our adverse opin- 
ion shall be the means of inducing some one to hunt up proof that 
our so-called mounds are artificial, or the burial place of the mound 
builders, we shall be pleased and have done a good work. 


• CHAPTER 11. 

County Organization — Legislative Enactment — First 
Board and Its Doin(;s — Locating the County Seat — • 
Sale of Lots — -Changes in the Board — Finances — 
County Poor — Public Buildings, Court Houses and 
Jails — Avenues of Travel — Ferries and Bridges — 
Public Officers — Elections — ^Organization of Town- 
ships — Agricultural Societies — Medical Society. 

'NE of the purest and most patriotic of Indiana pio- 
neers was General Joseph Bartholomew, for many 
years a distinguished citizen of Clarke County. He was 
the descendant of a Puritan family that emigrated from 
London to the Massachusetts colony in 1634-5, and whose 
members figured prominentl}^ in the General Court of the 
colony. But the luster of his name was not borrowed 
from the achievements of his antecedents. By the strength of his 
heroic character he placed it on the lips of men. He was self- 
taught, modest, brave, and honest. Solely by his merits as a man 
and a soldier he obtained distinction. In the frontier Indian trou- 
bles he was ever foremost in times of danger. Rising to the rank of 
Lieutenant Colonel, he commanded a battalion of infantry at the battle 
of Tippecanoe, where he was severely wounded. Death closed his 
eventful and honorable career in 1840. He was a State Senator 
from 1821 to 1824. When in Januar}^, 1821, a new county was 
formed out of Delaware, Samuel Merrill suggested that it be named 
in honor of General Bartholomew, and the motion to that effect 
was made by General John Tipton, whose influence on the new 
organic body was subsequently far more potent than that of the 
man whose name it bore. A likeness of General Bartholomew, re- 
flecting his sturdy manliness, was recently' obtained for the county 
through the efforts of Mr. George Pence and other prominent citi- 
zens, and now hangs in the east court room. 


Tlie act of the General Assembly creating the count}' was passed 
January 9, 1821. Several changes in the extent of the count\-\vere 
^bsequently made by the formation of new counties and in that 
natural shifting of Iwundary lines incident to new States. The or- 
ganization of Brown Count}-, Februar}' 4, 1S36, took a large strip 
of territor}-^ from the west side of Bartholomew Count}-. Orig- 
inally the county was bounded on the north by Morgan, Johnson, 
and Shelby, on the east by Shelby, Decatur, and Jennings, on the 
south by Jennings and Jackson, and on the west by Monroe. At 
present it is bounded on the north by Johnson and Shelby, on the 
east by Decatur and Jennings, on the south by Jennings and Jack- 
son, and on the west by Jackson and Brown. 

Organization and Early Official Acts. — On Thursday the 15th 
day of February, 1821, WiUiam Ruddick, Jesse Ruddick, and Solo- 
mon Stout met at the house of Luke Bonesteel and each produc- 
ing a certificate of election as County Commissioner from under the 
hands of the Count}- Sheriff, with a certificate of quahfication en- 
dorsed thereon, organized the first Board of Commissioners for 
Bartholomew County, The appointment of Edward Ballenger as 
Clerk of the Board " until the Clerk of the Circuit Court shall be com- 
missioned and qualified " was the first business transacted after organ- 
ization. The adoption of a seal followed, and then the report of 
the Commissioners appointed by the Legislature to select and es- 
tablish a permanent seat of justice for the county was received. 
These Commissioners were: William P. Thomason, Eb. E. Morgan, 
John E. Clark and James Hamilton. They selected the present 
site of the city of Columbus and contracted with John Tipton for 
thirty acres of land in Section 24, Township 9, of Range 5 east, for 
$1,000, and with Luke Bonesteel for thirty acres in Section 25, 
Township 9, of Range 5 east, for $2,000. The town was to be 
called Tiptona. The following allowances were made to the Com- 
missioners for services rendered: To W. P. Thomason, $30; Eb. 
E. Morgan, $30; John E. Clark, $24; James Hamilton, $18. 

The Board then di\-ided the county into three voting districts, 
to be designated as Northern, Middle, and Southern. The North- 
ern District comprised all that part of the county lying north of 
the line dividing congressional townships 9 and 10; the Southern, 


all that lyin<^ south of the line dividing congressional townships 8 
and 9; and the Middle, all that lying within the two lines named. 
An election in each of the several districts named was ordered for 
the purpose of electing Justices of the Peace: in the Northern 
District, at the house of John Pence, with Samuel Chappell as 
Inspector; in the Southern District, at that of William Stowers, with 
James Vanzant as Inspector; and in the Middle District, at that of 
Luke Bonesteel, with James McCowan as Inspector. The County 
Agent was directed to emjiioy John Vawter to lay off the count}^ 
town, and Elijah Sloan was appointed Superintendent of the school 
section in Township 9, north of Range 6 east. The Board then 
adjourned until Februar^^ 26, when it again assembled with all the 
members present. Most of that day was consumed in the appoint- 
ment of officers. John Lindsey was appointed County Agent, 
Luke Bonesteel, County Treasurer, and Joseph Pownal, hster of tax- 
able propert)' in the county. The Sheriff was directed to summon 
nineteen Grand Jurors and twent3'-four Traverse Jurors to appear 
at the house of Luke Bonesteel on March 12 next thereafter, and 
.the Board adjourned. Edward Ballenger, who was appointed to 
act as Clerk of the Board of Commissioners temporarily at the 
first meeting as above noted, was subsequently elected Clerk of the 
Circuit Court and thus became ex-officio Clerk of the Board of 
Commissioners, but died soon thereafter and was succeeded by 
Joseph McKinney. Though a seal was formally adopted February 
15, 182 1, as indicated, a description of it is not given, and it was 
not in fact obtained till late in 1822. In November of that year, 
James Goodwin, then a Commissioner, was allowed $3 for a 
seal and $4.75 for traveling expenses in obtaining the same. 

The conveyance of the land contracted for as a site for the seat 
of government as recited above, was not made by Mr. Bonesteel 
until August 9, 1 82 1, at which time he and his wnfe Julia for the 
sum of $2,000 "good and lawful money," conveyed to John 
Farquar, County Agent, the thirty acres named. The pay- 
ment for this land was made in town lots which this agent con- 
veyed to Bonesteel, naming the same amount, $2,000, as the 
consideration. The deed for the additional thirty acres was not 


executer] by Gen. John Tipton, of Harrison County, until April 19,. 
1822, when no consideration was named, the land being- donated. 

On the day next following the adjournment last named, that is, 
on Februar}' 27, 182 1, the Board of Commissioners re-convened 
and proceeded to appoint constables for the several ^■oting districts, 
and Superintendents of certain school sections. Elections were 
again ordered in tlie Northern and Middle Districts for the purpose 
of electing additional Justices of the Peace, to be held on the fol- 
lowing loth day of INIarch, the houses of Joseph Robertson on 
Clift}', and James Goodwin, respectively, being designated as poll- 
ing places. It was then ordered that the town lots in Tiptona be 
laid off 60 feet front by 120 feet deep, with four streets eighty feet 
wide and with alleys twelve feet wide. (These divisions were 
subsequently changed.) The Count}' Agent was directed to sur- 
ve}' Tiptona as soon as possible and advertise the sale of lots in the 
Corydon, Indiana, papers, the Chilhcothe (Ohio) Supporter^ and the 
Louisville (Kentuck}-) Corresfondcnt. The center of the public 
square was fixed at the stake dividing fractional Sections 24 and 
25. Luke Bonesteel was allowed $50 for his house in Tiptona 
which had been purchased to be used as a court house. 

On March 19th following, the Commissioners again met for the 
transaction of public business. The records now show that they 
assembled at the cottrt hotisc, no longer " the house of Luke 
Bonesteel." Seth Lockwood and Daniel Hutchins were appointed 
Constables for the Middle and Northern Districts, respectively, and 
being present with their bonds, were duly qualified. James Quick 
was appointed Inspector of elections in the Northern District. The 
Board of Commissioners then proceeded to consider the first con- 
tested election case. The ofUce of Justice of the Peace had not 
then been shorn of its power and glor}- as in after years happened . 
to it. The Squire clothed with the honor and dignity of his office, 
was a man of considerable influence, giving character to the neigh- 
borhood in which he lived. In the Middle District the election for 
Justice of the Peace was a livel}'^ one, and there was some doubt 
as to who should get the prize. John S. McEwen was returned as 
elected, but his right was contested. After hearing the whole 


matter the Commissioners confirmed the election, holding that 
proper and lawful notice of the contest had not been given. On 
March ^th, following, the Commissioners rescinded their former 
order, directing the Count}' Agent to la}- off Tiptona. The town 
had been named in honor of Gen. Tipton, and now the Commis- 
sioners were considering the propriety of making a change and a 
short order without assigning reasons therefor was entered of rec- 
ord, directing that the town be designated and known as Columbus 
thereafter. The size of lots in " Columbus, alias Tiptona," as the 
records have it, were ordered to be laid out with a frontage of 
seventy-five feet, and a depth of 150 feet. Eight lots were to con- 
stitute a block, and the public square was to be one block of lots. . 
June 15th w'as fixed as the time for the sale of lots. The County 
Agent was directed to advertise at Columbus, Brownstown and 
Vernon for proposals, and to sell to the lowest bidder, contracts for 
cleaning the public square, for building a stra}-- pen or pound, to be 
thirty-five feet square of " hughed " logs, with a door, a lock and 
a ke}'^, and for building a jail. The stray pen was to be erected 
on the northeast corner of the public square. The jail is elsewhere 
mentioned in detail. At this meeting of the Board, elections were 
again ordered to be held on March 31st, following, in the Middle 
and Northern Districts, at the court house, and the house of James 
Goodwin, respectively, for the purpose of electing Justices of the 
Peace. On May 15th, Samuel Downing was appointed County 
Agent, and a new township, to be known as Sand Creek Town- 
ship, was organized. 

On the 14th da}'^ of June, 1821, the County Agent, Samuel 
Dowling, was directed to commence the sale of lots at lot No. 86, 
and to continue as long as the}' " shall sell well," or until further 
ordered by the Board, reserving, however, lot No. 119 from sale. 
He was directed to r^eive " nothing but specie, or paper money 
at par with specie, unless the purchasers will make the usual dis- 
count in Indiana on any other paper money so as to make it equal 
to specie." The terms of the sale were one-fifth cash and the bal- 
ance in two equal payments, due in one and two years, satisfac- 
toril}' secured. A rebate of eight per cent, per annum was to be 
allowed on cash payments of the whole sum due. Claims already 


acted upon and allowed by the Board of Commissioners for Nvhich 
parties held unpaid orders upon the Treasurer were to be received 
ifi payment for lots, not, however, until a sutlicient amount of specie 
had been received to liquidate certain preferred claims, namely: 
those of the Commissioners appointed by the Legislature to estab- 
lish the permanent county seat, and the Sheriff of Jackson County, 
who had notified them of their appointment, amounting to $112; 
that of John TSlcEwen, "first payment on the jail," $S^; that of a 
Mr. Kelley for building the stray pen, $27; that for clearing the 
public square and la3-ing out the town, '$^6.62 ^4, and that of Luke 
Bonesteel for his house, $50. The sale occurred on the day fixed for 
it, and the first lot sold — No. 86 — was bought by David Stipp 
for $211. No other lot brought quite so much, though several 
sold for upward of $175. The cheapest lots were Nos. 94 and 
115, selHng for $11 each, and being purchased by Thomas Harron 
and John McEwen, respectively. The largest purchaser — and in- 
deed the onl}^ one who bought a considerable number of lots — 
was Abraham Fr}-, who bought between ten and twenty lots at 
from $30 to $160 each. Among the other buyers were Joseph 
McKinney, Jacob Kelley, Jesse Ruddick, James McEwen, WiUiam 
Eeard, Charles DePauw, John Vawter, John Parker, Benjamin 
Irwin, Samuel Chappell, Joseph VanMeter, John Young, Isaac Le- 
Masters, Solomon Stout, Matthew Pace, David Dietz and others. 
On August 13, 1822, the County Agent was ordered to sell the 
rest of the town lots, except the one on which the court house 
stands (presumabl}^ the same as reserved at the first sale) and the 
sale was held on the 22d day of October, 1822. On the following 
November 8th, the Commissioners sold to John Farquar, then 
County Agent, lot No. 36 and fractional lot No. 21 for the sum 
of $34. 

The proceeds of the sale of lots and the- various financial tran- 
sactions of the County Agents are recorded under the head of 
Finance, and subsequent important actions of the Commissioners are 
classified and narrated under the various subjects to which the 
actions related. The Board of Commissioners was at the organi- 
zation of the count}', composed of three members. The ^crsoiDicl oi 
the Board was from time to time changed, but the original form 


remained as at iirst until September, 1S24, when the Justices of the 
county, pursuant to an act of the Legishiture, came together in a 
body and were tx-officio Commissioners for the transaction of the 
count}' business. When tlie Justices first assembled and organized 
theA-^ elected Joseph Hart as President of the Board. He -was suc- 
ceeded in 1825 h\ Benjamin Crow, and he subsequent!}' by Will- 
iam S. Jones. In September, 1830, Thomas Hinkson was chosen 
President, but in the following May, the county was re-districted 
for the purpose of electing Commissioners, and in September of that 
year Lewis Singleton, Hiram Wilson, and Nathan Kyle qualified 
as Commissioners and organizing, proceeded to the transaction of 
business. In 1836, the duties of Count}' Commissioners were again 
assigned to the Justices of the Peace, who continued in their per- 
formance until 1839, when the old system was again resorted to. 
William Singleton was the first President chosen by the assembled 
Justices and he was succeeded by Moses Joiner. On February 
18, 1839 they re-districted the county as follows: ist Commis- 
sioners' District, comprising Haw Creek, Flat Rock, German and 
Nineveh townships; 2nd District, Columbus and Clifty town- 
ships; 3rd District, Wayne, Sand Creek, and Rock Creek town- 

jFtnaiices. — The growth and development of a governmental in- 
stitution are nowhere better shown than in its financial history, and 
no subject can be of greater interest to an individual tax-payer than 
that which relates to the disposition of a fund to which he annually 
contributes. For a time after the organization of Bartholomew 
County there was, as a matter of fact, no pressing need for a County 
Treasurer. One was appointed in February, 1821, but he did not 
qualify until the following August. The sources of revenue were 
limited; at first confined to a tax on polls and personal property, 
and one ferry license. In 1821 the Board of Commissioners made 
the following levy: 

On 355 male inhabitants at 50 cents each $i77 So 

On 444 horses and mares at 37 ^^ cents each 165 00 

On 4 stallions at the rate per season , 11 00 

On 45 work oxen at 25 cents each 11 25 

On 33 silver watches at 25 cents each 8 25 


On I gold watch at 50 cents $ 5^^ 

On 3 four wheeled })lcasure carnages at $1.75 each. ... 3 75 

On John Lindsev's ferry 5 ^^ 

« * 

Total- $382 25 

In 1S23, 584 poUs were taxed at 50 cents each and the rates as 
above were continued on personal property-. In 1824, bank stock, 
brass clocks, licenses to vend liquor or foreign merchandise (at 
$10 per $1,000 worth) lawsuits, and town lots were made subjects 
of taxation. By law, lands were exempt from taxation for five 
years after entr}-. In May, 1826, land sold at the first rates became 
subject to taxation and was assessed at 50 cents per 100 acres for 
first rate; 40 cents for second rate; and 30 cents for third rate. At 
this time the rates on gold watche^ and brass clocks were raised to 
$1, on pleasure carriages to $1.50, but silver orpinchback watches 
were allowed to remain at 25 cents. In 1821 and 1822, the town 
lots in Columbus were sold, the purchase money arising from the 
sale amounting to $5,865 up to October 15, 1821, and to a very 
small amount after that date. The business of the county was 
transacted principal!}' by the County Agent. John Lindsey was the 
first to hold the office. He was succeeded in May, 1821, b}^ Sam- 
uel Downing, who filed a $20,000 bond with John Young, William 
Gabbard, John Lindse}', John Parker, Joseph McKinney and Ebe- 
nezer Ward as sureties. Before the year expired, John Farquar 
was appointed, vice Downing removed, but he died in 1823, and 
on October 14th of that j-ear, his administrator turned over to 
James Gabbard, who had been appointed in September, $4,263.59 
in notes and accounts belonging to the county. In the following- 
November the same papers were delivered to John C. Hubbard 
who brought them into court and delivered them to the Commis- 
sionei's in Ma}', 1824. Farquar had been allowed %66^ and Gab- 
bard $12.50 for services. In May, 1825, Hubbard was charged 
with $107.04, money received as agent, and various sums followed 
as collections could be made. In November following he reported 
cancelled notes, papers, receipts, etc., to the Commissioners to the 
amount of $279.52, leaving a balance in his own favor of $19.12. 
In July, 1827, he resigned, brought all his papers and documents 


into court, which were inspected and found to be correct. lie was 
released from liis bond and his personal note for $13 which tlie 
count}^ held, was surrendered to him. James McAchran succeeded 
to the oflice but was remoAed, and Joseph L. Wasliburn held it 

In July, 1828, George Lyon was ajipointcd and directed to call 
on McAchran for all papers belonging to the county, and to bring 
suits on all accounts where there was a probability of collecting. 
These were liard iiii/cs. It is elsewhere narrated how for years 
efforts had been made to build a court house, how contractors, not 
paid in money, were unable to complete the work, how Newton 
Jones at last in a manner completed it and took as the greater part 
of his pa}' a judgment against Ruddick, and how the Legislature 
early in 1829, came to the count3''s relief with an act authorizing a 
poll tax io be -paid in specie only. Jones was a candidate for the 
Legislature. Among the local issues discussed probabl}' " tax or no 
tax" was prominent. He was elected but died before the House 
assembled. In September, 1829, Ephraim Arnold was appointed 
agent, received from Lyon $5.91, and in May following was charged 
with $124 "means placed in his hands." 

To show more clearly what led up to such hard times a step 
backward must be taken. The town lots had brought in October, 
182 1, as before stated, $5,865. According to the terms of sale 
but one-fifth part of it was paid in cash, /. c, $1,173. By law 10 per 
cent, of this amount was set apart and reserved for the use of the 
Public Seminar}^ fund. This left $1,055.70. There ma)'^ be added 
to this $42.50, the amount paid by Richard Fansher for two lots, 
he being the only man who paid all cash for his purchase. The 
agent as instructed by the Commissioners loaned to Joseph Pownall 
$112.50, and other small amounts to others on personal security. 
He paid the Treasurer $654.61, and was directed to hold the balance 
subject to the call of the Commissioners. At length the Commis- 
sioners called but called in vain. They removed Gen. Downing 
and ordered suit to be brought against him, but at length settled 
the matter by taking his personal notes Jiggregating about $500. 
These notes passed into the hands of Gabbard as a part of the 
$4,263.59 above mentioned. The money that was paid to the Treas- 


iirer was little more than enouj^Ii to pay the preferred elaims inci- 
dent to organization and the cost of running the county the iirst year. 
The amount of taxes collected was not lar<re and was materially di- 
minished by the depreciated currency in which theN' were paid, as 
will be shown by the following order passed in Noyemlier, 182 1, 
"ordered that Joseph McKinney be allowed to change the paper 
money of this State, being $146, for specie at fifty per cent, if it is 
law for the Counl:^^ Treasurer to receive the State paper for taxes 
due the count}-." In February, 1822, a similar order was made as 
to $46, but it Avas to be discounted on "the best terms possible." 
Hence the almost entire absence of specie in the treasury. 

The earfy Treasurers were somewhat careless in their methods 
of doing business. Each one at the close of his term made a satis- 
factory showing to the Board of his own transactions, but they were 
in the dark as to the exact state of affairs. In 1825, therefore 
Samuel W. Cowan was appointed to " examine, the situation of the 
county from its organization to the present," and in December of 
that 3'ear a special session of the Board of Commissioners was held 
to receive his report which was as follows : 

Receipts. Expenses. 

1821 $327 00 $445 00 

1822 592 671^ 781 53^ 

1823 461 II 691 04^ 

1824 289 56>^ .54993%: 

1825 49S 02^ 356 02 

Thus showing from 182 1 to 1824, inclusive, a deficit of 796.27, 
and m 1825 a balance in count3^'s favor of $142.00 j^^. In 1825, 
Philip Sweetzer became Treasurer, and in Jul}', 1827, reported re- 
ceipts since appointment $494.30; expenses $20.48; balance $473.81. 
Resettled satisfactorily, and in Jul}^ 1828, A. A. Wiles, his successor, 
reported receipts $385.29. In the following November he was 
credited with $409.55 (presumably for county orders paid and 
cancelled), and in January, 1829, he was removed. On settlement 
the Board found due from him $6.24, " which he is bound to ac- 
count for in specie or its equivalant when called for." But in jus- 
tice to him be it said that in March following he was allowed $6.58 

COUNTY or(;amzatiox. 


" as excess paid in 1S2S." Samuel M. Oshourne was then ap- 
pointed Treasurer, and on settlement in November, 1831, reported 
receipts $1,198.46 .(of which $35.12 was cash available for county 
purposes) ; expenses, $1,013.69; balance, $184.77. These figures 
complete the record for the first ten years of the county's existence. 
The}' ma}^ profitably be compared with the following : Total receipts 
at the treasury in 1863, $51,382.14; in 1868, $216,362.32; in 1887, 
$253,887.54; total value of taxables in 1843, $1,714,258; in 1S51, 
$3,203,855; in 1S60, $7,315,852; in 1870, $9,857,660, in i88o,$io,- 
101,625.; in 1887, $10,424,385. 

The appended table shows the expenditures for county purposes 
alone for the years designated : 

1836 $1,334 17 

1839 1,681 79 

1840 4>9i6 63 

1841 3,005 50 

1844 ■ 3,826 61 

1845 2,997 10 

1846 4,242 86 

1847 .'. 5,116 10 

1848 2,762 96 

1849 5,466 35 

1850 3,906 12 

1851 3,439 23 

1852 4,634 83 

1853 6,460 70 

1854 ••• 6,995 28 

1855 5,819 10 

1856 6,711 28 

1857 7,780 49 

1858 9,011 19 

1859 •••. 17,755 81 

i860 18,479 41 

1861 10,844 77 

1862 ,....." 9,948 61 

1863 12,358 90 

1864 $21,253 99 

1865 19,928 47 

1866 23,289 00 

1867 41^317 79 

1868 45,491 03 

1869 30,251 13 

1870 62,.8o5 46 

1871 62,591 72 

1872 30,588 59 

1873 27,947 23 

1874 32,409 23 

1875 27,417 8r 

1876 ■. 51,426 91 

1877 51,299 34 

1878 50,341 14 

1879 75,815 59 

1880 58,051 69 

1881 81,577 75 

1882 54,726 00 

1883 45,847 41 

1884 38,073 14 

1885 : 105,892 88 

1886 84,061 52 

1887 52,050 79 

The following issues of bonds have been made: .June, 1872, 
$60,000 for the court house; June, 1878, $32,000 for the poor 
asylum and to redeem $20,000 of outstanding bonds; August 


and September, 1880, $37,000 for bridges; December, 1S80, 
$8,000 for bridges; January, 1884, $35,000 for bridges; June, 1S84, 
$32,000 to fimd indebtedness; November, 1885, $25,000 to fund 
indebtedness. Of these bonds, $137,000 liave been paid and can- 
celled, leaving outstanding $92,000. 

The county holds in trust for the use and benefit of the public 
schools a common school fund of $38,273.96, and a congressional 
township fund of $55,115.83, the latter fund representing the sales 
of the sixteenth section in each congressional township originally 
set apart as a "school section." One of these sections, containing 
640 acres, in early days sold for $1,311, while another in 1882 
brought $37?572-77- This fund was for many 3'ears managed b}' 
a School Commissioner and afterwards by the County Auditor. 

Gideon B. Hart, for nineteen years was the trusted agent of the 
count}' in charge of the fund, and his successor was W. H. H. Ter- 
rell, who served until the duties of the office were assigned by law 
to the County Auditor. 

The County Poor. — One of the chief objects of social organi- 
zation among civilized people is mutual protection. ' Incidental 
thereto is the care of the unfortunate poor Avho have become unable 
to support themselves because of age, natural defect, disease or 
unavoidable misfortune. " The poor shall be with you alwa3-s," is 
true of all places. The rehef of this class is a public duty than 
which few are more worthy an honorable and conscientious per- 
formance. It is gratifying to know that Bartholomew Count}' has 
never been thoughtless or negligent in this regard. The means 
adopted at first, perhaps, may not accord with advanced ideas that 
pertain among humanitarians of to-day, but the}' were the best 
permitted by the times and the circumstances. The laws of the 
State provided for the appointment of Overseers of the Poor whose 
duties were defined by the statutes, the chief of which was to cause 
all poor persons who became public charges to be farmed out an- 
nually on contract in such manner as was deemed best calculated 
to promote the public good. Minors were bound out as apprentices : 
males until twenty-one years of age, females until eighteen years 
of age. An act approved in January, 1828, authorized the execu- 
tion of indentures of apprenticeship by the Overseers, which were 


entered of record in the Rijcorder's oflice, and the apprentice was 
provided with hnvful means for the maintenance of his natural 
rights agi^inst the oppressions of tlie "master." jNlay 15, 1S21, 
the Board of Commissioners appointed the first Overseers of the 
Poor, who were for tlie Nortliern District, James Goodwin and 
Abdiel Parsons, for the Middle District, Joseph Cox and Robert 
Wilkerson, for the Southei-n District, Richard Wall and John Rud- 
dick, for Sand Creek Townsliip, Samuel Richardson and Samuel 
Arnclt. Among other early Overseers were: Joseph Vanmeter, 
Joshua McQueen, Henry Saunders, David Hager, James Quick, 
John F. Jones, Samuel Crittenden, A. A. Wiles, C. Edwards, James 
McEwen and Jacob Gabbert. They were paid for the time actu- 
all}^ employed at a small fcr dicui. The total sum paid prior to 
1^33 was $81.49. 

In 1823 Dr. Joseph Rose was paid $12 for services rendered 
Nancy Burkham, and $10 was allowed James Lash for keeping her 
five weeks. In 1832 an allowance of $12 was made "for keeping 
Nancy, a woman of color, a pauper," and in the same year $17.83 
was paid for the support of Nanc}^ T3der. In JNIarch, 1827, an 
allowance of $5 was made "for farming out a pauper and burying 
a child" — -the first of the kind for either of the services mentioned. 
In March, 1828, the pa3'ment of $18.25 '^^'^s directed for the sup- 
port of Samuel G. Rice, and an allowance of $26 was made for 
professional services rendered him b}^ Dr. W. P. Kiser. The most 
unfortunate of the early poor was John Powers. He became a 
public charge earlj^ in 1828, and prior to the Christmas of 1829 
there had been expended by the county in his behalf $140.74, all 
of it for his "keep," except $3 which was paid Nathan Bass and 
Uriah McQueen for "advertising and selling" him, in November, 
1829. From first to last the count}' spent in caring for this one 
man $424.63, and at length this record closed his career in March, 
1835, "allowed $18.50 for the keep and burial of John Powers.'' 
These facts are recorded not to reflect upon the man named, for 
povert}^ of itself is never a disgrace, but to show the laudable con- 
duct of the communit}' in thus relieving his want. Up to this ti 
few expenses for the poor other than those named were incurr 
but as the population increased there was a natural growth in the 


dependent class, and the necessity of providing- better means for 
their care became manifest. In May, 1839, ^ committee was ap- 
pointed by the County Commissioners to select a site for a poor 
house, and authorized to purchase a farm, but nothing permanent 
resulted from the work of this committee. Consequently, in 
March, 1842, another committee composed of Francis J. Crump, 
John Prather and William S. Jones was appointed. After examin- 
ing several tracts of land, the west half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 14, Township 10, Range 5 east, was purchased from 
P. H. Redman for $500, of which $372.05 was paid in cash and 
$127.95 in the individual notes of the committee due one year from 
date. One hundred and sixty dollars was expended in repairing a 
house then on the land. In June, 1845, the Commissioners pur- 
chased for $1,650, from George G. Gabbert, no acres of land in 
Section 35, Township 9, Range 5 east, and in the following March 
sold the old farm to Harve}^ Dickinson in consideration that he 
should feed and clothe all the paupers of the county for three 
years, and decently bury those dying at the asylum during that 

In March, i860, an additional tract of land in the same section, 
comprising about seventy acres, was purchased from John Young, 
for $2,000, and in December, 1868, sixty acres of timber land, in 
Section 2, Township 8, Range 5 east, were bought from Thomas 
J. Followell, for $2,400. In July, 1848, a brick house, 56x18x8, 
divided into four equal parts by brick partitions, was built by James 
W. Betts, at a cost of ^700, and in June, 1861, an additional build- 
ing, 24x18, was erected at a cost of $150. In June, 1863, the 
necessit}' for a larger and better house was so apparent that bids 
for its construction were advertised for. The contract was awarded 
to Adam Keller, for $2,338.05. In April, 1878, after personal 
examination of the premises, the Board of Commissioners found 
the conveniences at the poor farm wholly inadequate, and decided 
to erect a new as3'lum, which, however, was not to cost in excess 
of $12,000, the sum to be raised by an issue of county bonds. 
G. W. Bunting, an architect of IndianapoHs, was emplo3'ed to 
draw up the plans and specifications. Pursuant to advertisements, 
the following proposals were submitted in June of the same year: 


Samuel Ilege, $11,900; McCormack & Sweeney, $13,288; R. M. 
Rowley & Son, $12,773; Keller & Brockman, $12,975; Perkinson, 
Dunlap & Co., $10,900. The last named bid being considered the 
lowest and best, was accepted, and contract entered into June 14th. 
When the contract was prepared a change had been made in the 
specifications respecting the kind of mortar to be used by which 
the proposed and accepted price was to be increased $100, and for 
this reason Commissioner Gant declined to sign the same, deeming 
it a bad precedent to establish. When the work was completed 
the contractors were allowed $12,114.79. The house is a two 
story brick building, Avell built, spacious, and in all ways well suited 
for the purposes designed. A barn, 34x40 feet, was built in the 
same year, by Samuel Hege, at a cost of $352. 

The farm is annually inspected by the Board of Commissioners, 
and the comfort of the inmates is carefully looked after. This duty 
was performed b}^ the Overseers of the Poor until that ofKce was 
abolished. They visited the asylum frequentl}^ and made written 
reports to the Commissioners. These reports show good manage- 
ment and humane conduct on the part of the Superintendents. The 
first Superintendent was Silas Keely, who received $300 for keep- 
ing from one to eleven persons six months. Other earl}^ Superin- 
tendents were: Frederick H3-att, Hance Irwin and Thomas Whalen. 
The last named kept all the paupers in 1848 for the use of the farm 
and 300 bushels of corn, and in 1849 ^o'* *^^^ "^^ °f ^^^ farm and 
$125. The present Superintendent is Thomas J. Noland who is 
under contract for three years to keep all the paupers for the use 
of the farm and $1,600 per 3'ear. The amount expended for the 
poor in the asylum in 1878, was $1,734.26; in 1879, $^5420. 55; 
and in 1887, $1,403.80. Concerning those supported outside of 
the "asylum the figures below^ are appended to show the fluctuations 
in this item of expense fi^om 1853. As to the period prior to that 
date a sufficient idea for the purposes of history has been given 

Expenditures in behalf of the county poor who are not inmates 
of the asylum: 



1853 $690 00 

1854 463 4- 

1855 704 30 

1856 889 79 

1857 1,755 98 

1858 1,516 84 

1859 1,1 1 1 68 

i860 1,770 97 

1861 3,401 74 

1862 1,595 55 

1863 1,596 54 

1864 2,139 28 

1865 4,352 60 

1866 4,117 66 

1867 4,736 49 

1868 3,297 82 

1869 3,321 47 

1870 2,485 02 

Total from 1853 to 1887 




$1,593 42 
2,2 v| 82 
2,398 68 
2,425 66 
2,908 35 
3,^79 9^ 
3,659 61 
3,572 31 
3,762 32 
4,926 75 
4,854 04 

5,952 53 
4,170 72 

5,631 87 
4,711 21 

4,557 37 
4,328 26 

$104,835 03 

Public Buildings.- — Court Houses: On Februar}- 26, 1821, im- 
mediatel}' after the organization of the count}-, the Board of Com- 
missioners purchased for $50 from Luke Bonesteel a small, double 
log house, to be used as a court house. It was inadequate for the 
needs it was bought to supply, and preparations were soon begun 
to have it replaced. In November, 1821, the building of a new^ 
court house was determined upon, to be of brick, two stories high, 
forty feet square, and about twent3'-five feet high. The contract 
Avas awarded to Giles Mitchell. In 1824, the house purchased from 
Bonesteel was sold, and for several years rooms ^vere rented by 
the Commissioners wherever they could be best obtained. In No- 
vember, 1824, the "undertakers of the court house" were given 
another year to complete the same, but when the time expired, the 
building was not finished. Mitchell was released from his contract, 
and was allowed $47.73, the balance due him, he having previous^ 
been paid $1,000. At the same time the County Agent received 
Mitchell's note, promising to deliver in Columbus, for the count}-, 
" four thousand brick." In ^panuary, 1826, a Contract for finishing 
the cupola, doors, windows, etc., of the court house, was awarded 
to Mr. Jones, and in Ma}' following, he was allowed $3,465. This 


and $20 paid upon settlement in ATay, 1H27, were tlie only cash 
pa^-ment^madc to this contractor. The Count}- Agent was directed 
to surrender to Benjamin Crow John Lindse3'''s note, on which 
Crow's name appeared as a surety; Crow was to give his individ- 
ual note to Jones; and the amount was to be charged to Jones on 
'• what will be due in November next " on his contract. The 
amount of these notes, or what would be due on the contract, are 
not stated. The agent was further directed to deliAcr to David 
Stipp two $52 notes, in favor of the count}-, on his signing over 
to Jones a bond held by Stipp for lot No. 86, in Columbus. The 
scarcity of specie rendered such makeshifts necessary. Still the 
court house was not finished, and the means of raising money were 
so few that new expedients had to be resorted to. The Legislature 
was appealed to, and on January 6, 1829, it w-as enacted by the 
General Assembly " that the Board of Justices of Bartholomew 
County, shall levy a poll tax of 25 cents on each and every person 
in said county liable to pay a poll tax for State purposes, which 
tax shall be paid in specie onl}-, and shall be by said Board appro- 
priated to the finishing of the court house of said county." 

This act was repealed in January, 1832, but the Board of Jus- 
tices, a few days prior to the passage of the Repealing Act, or 
afterward and in ignorance of it, levied the usual poll tax. This 
led to contests, and in February, 1834, ^'^^ action of the Board was 
legalized. In the Fall of 1829, William Chapman was awarded a 
contract to make further repairs, and the County Agent was 
directed to settle with him for his work. Chapman completed the 
wood-work, and in September, 1831, the house was at last ready 
for paint. The contract shows that the building, including the 
roof, was to be painted " Vanecian Read;" the window "shetters" 
to be green with , two good " cotes of pant," to be hung with iron 
hinges, and made " near after the same form of Hubbards store 
windows." The cornice, cupola and a ball above the same were 
to be painted white. Painting, plastering, and repairs to the inte- 
rior cost $386. In March, 1839, ^^^^ ^^'^ court house, which 
had cost so much time and trouble in its building, was sold for 
$825. Prior to this de\te the Commissioners, recognizing the 
fact that the public business, increasing constantly, demanded better 


facilities for its transaction than tliose enjoyed, appointed a com- 
mittee composed of John B. Abbett, Ephraim Arnold, and jNIoses 
Joiner, to consider the question of erecting a new court house. 
At the suggestion of this committee another was appointed to fur- 
nish a draft and model — ^ which, when submitted, provided for a 
brick building with stone trimmings and fire-proof vaults, two 
stories high, and to be covered with pine or walnut shingles. In 
February, 1839, Jo'"'" Elder submitted a proposal to construct the 
building for $8,500, which was accepted. Upon completion of 
the work the county in part payment transferred to Elder a judg- 
ment obtained against Jesse Ruddick, et al., and paid the balance 
in cash. This building stood in the center of the present pubhc 
square, and at the time of its completion, was ample for the heeds 
of the count}' and an ornament to tlie town. But, thirty years 
later, in December, 1870, the Commissioners declared it "dilapi- 
dated, crumbhng, and unsafe," and sold it for $350. It was 
then determined to build such an edifice as was demanded b}- the 
interests of the people who in that year had paid into the treasury 
more than $200,000, of which $63,912 was for county pur- 
poses. I. Hodgson, of Indianapolis, was chosen as architect. The 
Commissioners then in office were Louis Essex, John P. Iloltz, and 
John W. Welmer, who met much opposition in the contemplation 
of this work. It has been said that " though the old court house 
was frail in its structure and forbidding in its aspect, 3'et it required 
as much courage to resolve on the construction of a new building 
and to enter on the execution of that resolve as to meet an embat- 
tled and hostile enemy in the field." 

Pursuant to advertisements previously given, the following bids 
were received in April, 1871 : McCormack & Sweeney, $139,900; 
Frank L. Farman, $147,330; Epperson & Myers, $156,997; Mc- 
Kay & Goshom, $134,990; D.J. Silver, $163,000; Short Peperl}- 
«& Co., $200,000. The contract was awarded to McCormack & 
Sweenc}'. At various times it became necessary to enlarge upon the 
original plans which increased the cost of the building bej-^ond the 
amount stipulated in the contract. The contractors received about 
$175,000; the architect, $8,998.95 ; Jolin Rouser, builder of counters, 
bookcases, and other fixtures, $7,672; the Howard Watch & Clock 


Co. of Boston, for the town clock and bell, $5,000; the Union 
Foundry Works, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for fence enclosing the public 
square, $8,133.45. Other expenditures, including that for the heat- 
ing apparatus, swell the cost of the improvements made to above 
$225,000. The building stands on the northeast corner of the 
public square, fronting on Third and Washington streets. After 
the Franco-American st3'le of architecture, its exterior is of pressed 
brick and stone trimmings. The foundation stone is from the 
quarries at North Vernon, the finishing stone from those at Elletts- 
ville, and the brick from the manufactories of Indianapolis. The 
building is three stories in height, with a mansard roof, surmounted 
b}' a tower twenty-five feet s(]^uare and 154 feet high. The east 
front is 122 feet 8 inches long; the north front 122 feet long. It is 
thoroughly fire proof. On the first floor are the offices of the 
Auditor, Recoi'der, Clerk, Sheriff, Treasurer and Board of Com- 
missioners, all roomy and handsomely furnished; on the second floor 
are two spacious and loft}' court rooms, one 72x42 feet, the other 
52x47 feet, the offices of the Judges, Count}'- Attorneys, and Sur- 
veyor; and on the third floor are entrances to the court-room gal- 
leries, jury and witness rooms, beautifully designed and substantially 
built in all their parts. This court house will long remain " an archi- 
tectural triumph and a proud and enduring monument to the intelli- 
gence and enterprise of its founders." 

When completed and received the Commissioners determined 
to open the new building to the public on December 29, 1874. 
Preparations were made for a gala day and appropriate public ex- 
ercises. A cordial and general invitation to the citizens of the 
county to attend the ceremonies and a banquet to be held in the 
evening, was extended through the press. On the appointed day 
the streets of the city were thronged at an early hour. The entire 
people of the county seemed to have assembled, and large numbers 
from all parts of the State were, present. In the afternoon a great 
crowd gathered at the new Temple of Justice, the corridors, court 
rooms and otlices being filled with the old and young, rich and 
poor, of all classes and trades. In the larger court room an eager 
throng awaited, with beaming faces and glad hearts, the commence- 
ment of the exercises, and each took part in the doings of the day with 


proud jiloasurc. Ma^or Thomas Essex prcsulcd; api^-opiiate 
speeches were made b}- Hon. Josepli E. McDonald, Col. W. P. 
Tomlinson, of Louisville; Judge Samuel II. Buskirk, of the Supreme 
Bench; Judge J. Y. Allison, of INIadison; Judge C. L. Dunham, 
and othens; a poem of considerable beauty and pathos, 1^- Mrs- 
Laura C. Arnold, ^was read, and music suitable to the occasion was 
rendered by the city bands. The festivities were concluded by a 
ball and banquet in the evening, when brief addresses were de- 
livered and appropriate toasts proposed and responded to elo;|uently 
by visiting and resident men of acknowledged ability. The event 
was notable, important and long to be remembered. 

yails. — Among the first improvements made b}- the county 
was the building of a jail. The contract was let to John McEwen 
in May, 182 1. He was to receive the first payment of $83 out 
of the money received at the sale of town lots. The jail was built 
of logs and stood fift}'- feet from the southeast corner of the public 
square, on a line from that corner to the center of the square. 
When completed the Board of Commissioners refused to accept it 
because it was not built according to contract, and suit was ordered 
to be brought against McEweu because it was not completed at the 
time agreed upon. McEwen succeeded, however, in having the 
matter submitted to arbitration — Newton C. Jones, James Van- 
zant and Joshua McQueen — - upon whose recommendation it was 
finally received, and the County Agent was directed to enter a credit 
on McEwen's note for $112.75. Some repairs were made on it in 
1825, but it was not secure. At various times prisoners were 
guarded over night by watchmen hired for the purpose at fifty 
cents per night. In this connection it may be proper to state that 
Joseph McKinney in November, 1822, was allowed $21.25 fortaking 
a convicted criminal, M. W. Harrington, to the State prison, this be- 
ing the first allowance of the kind. In Jul}-, 1826, two men were 
allowed $6 each for taking prisoners to Jeffersonville. The allow- 
ance specifies the a;mount as being payment for six days' labor on 
the part of each. The first pair of handcuffs were bought in 
March, 1S28, for $2.50. In 1831 a contract was made with Sam- 
uel Patterson for the building of a jail for $1,188. This jail stood 
on the southwest corner of the public square, thirty feet from each 


Street, facing Jackson. The foundation, i8xiS, was made of wliite 
oak timber, one foot below the surface of the ground; this was 
crossed witli other timbers, all 12x12; between tlie timbers were 
four inches of trravel. I^he first story was ten feet hiah with 
double walls; the inside wall of 12x12 inch timbers with plank two 
inches thick, spiked on with four inch spikes not more than six 
inches apart; the outside wall of 10x12 inch timbers which contin- 
ued upward seven feet above the inside wall so as to make a room 
below 14x14x8, and abo\ c 14x14x7; the second floor of 12x12 
inch timber.^ and heavy plank spiked like the inner wall, and the 
upper room ceiled with six inch timbers. There were two sma'I 
windows and a door in each room, all grated with iron bars — the 
lower room with much heavier iron than the upper. This entire 
house was surrounded b}' a brick wall thirteen inches thick, commenc- 
ing at the base of timber foundation and running to the top of the 
inner structure. The whole was covered with a shingle roof. A 
staircase ran up the outside of the building to the door of the upper 
room. When finished it was received and the contractor paid 
$1,088, a deduction of $100 having been made because of some 
changes in the original plans. 

In 1845 a contract was made with John Craig, Joseph Pervis 
and Michael West, for the building .of a jail on lot No. 106, 
fronting on Walnut Street, and standing eight feet therefrom, and 
a Jailor's residence on the southwest corner of said lot for $2,575. 
The jail was of stone, 20x20. The first floor was of stone slabs 
three feet square and ten inches thick; the second and third floors 
were of hewn timber one foot square, covered with heavy sheet 
iron and then with oak planks and all securely spiked together. 
The Jailor's residence was of brick with stone foundation,' 25x20, 
and two stories high. Both jail and residence were under one roof. 
The building was received by the Board of Commissioners in Jan- 
uar}'', 1847, and the contractors were allowed $29 for extra work 
and materials. In March, 1870, a contract was made with Frank 
L. Farman for the building of the jail and Jailor's residence, now 
standing near the southeast corner of the public square, facing 
Washington Street, for $41,900. The plans for the building were 
prepared by I. Hodgson, architect, of Indianapolis. The building 


is veiy handsome in design, substantial, secure and commodious. 
It is two stories high, built of brick, with stone trimmings and lined 
w^th iron. After a thorough examination of all its parts it was re- 
ceived b}"^ the Board of Commissioners on February 14, 187 1. A 
bill for extra work done, aside from that specified in the contract, 
amounting to $875.45, was filed b}' the builder, endorsed as correct 
and justly due b}' the architect, and allowed by the Commission- 
ers. In round numbers, including allowances to architect and su- 
perintendent, the structure cost the count}' $45,000. 

In November, 183S, a market house, 50x20 feet, was built b}'' 
Joseph Bevis on the public square at a cost of about $200. In 
May, 1S39, it was delivered as a gift to the Trustees of the town of 
Columbus " to be dealt with or disposed of as the}' might see fit." 
It has long since passed away, and is mentioned here only because 
it was a public building erected b}' the count}-. 

Avenices of Travel. — -The highw^ay as a means of bringing men 
into social and business contact is an educator and producer of 
"wealth. The pioneers had only the blazed trail and the cleared 
out serpentine road winding its way through dense and wolf-infested 
forests from settlement to settlement. From this beginning there 
are now highways of banded steel traversing the land from ocean 
to ocean and from lake to gulf, as results of the aggressive, enter- 
prising spirit, which has brought into cultivation a rich, but once 
unappreciated, territory, and built busy towns and magnificent 
cities where not long since were unexplored forests. 

This county and other portions of the State soon after settlement, 
produced a large surplus of agricultural products, which was likely 
to become worthless for the want of a market. As early as 1822 
Governor William Hendricks in his message to the Legislature ur- 
gently called attention to the importance of internal improvement. 
The Assembly adopted a progressive policy, encouraging and aiding 
plans for the development of the country without examining closely 
as to their feasibility, or the necessities which were supposed to de- 
mand them. A favorable sentiment grew strong among the peo- 
ple, at one time amounting almost to a frenzy, commencing about 
1832 and ending in 1838. New York, Penns}'lvania and Ohio 
were successfully prosecuting internal improvements. There ap- 


peared no good reason why Indiana should not follow the example 
of these older States. Hopes of profit to land and town lot specu- 
latoi's ayd to prosjiective engineers, contractors and jobbers of all 
sorts gave an additional impetus to the demand for extensive public 
work. At the session of 1835-6 the Legislature adopted a system 
of internal improvement, which at length banki-upted the credit of 
the State. The completion of the works authorized would have 
cost $30,000,000, and probably the only thing to prevent the ex- 
penditure of this entire sum was the inability of the State to secure 
the necessary credit. Works were commenced that did not lead 
to a market, where no surplus of labor or produce existed and 
when the onl}^ interests to be benefited w^er.e those of the specula- 
tor in new lands or the promoters of insignificant towns. Notwith- 
standing the lack of prudence which permitted the overdoing and 
stranding of the work, some good was ultimately accomplished. 

For cartways and w^igon roads, provision had been made long 
before the date mentioned. When Indiana was admitted to the 
Union the statutes of the National Government provided that five 
per centum of the proceeds arising from the sale of the public lands 
should be set apart for the purpose of building roads; two per cent. 
for a State road leading to the permanent seat of government, and 
three per cent, to be used by the several counties on the roads 
within their borders. At the time of the organization of the count}^ 
her territory was already traversed by some tolerabl}- well defined 
roads. On May 15, 1821, the subject was first officially considered 
by the Commissioners. On that da}- no less than seven road peti- 
tions signed by " divers and sundry citizens " of the townships or 
locality wanting the outlet were presented to the Board of Commis- 
sioners, who, upon consideration granted the prayers of the petition- 
ers, and in each case appointed viewers to view, mark and lay out 
the proposed highwa}', if in their judgment it was of public utility. 
The routes were not well defined as is required in such petitions at 
the present day, indeed, only the designed termini were named, the 
object, as expressed, being to get from one to the other "by the 
nearest and best w^a}'-," and this was left to the good judgment of 
the viewers. The seven petitions named were for the following 
roads: first, from the public sf[uare in Columbus to intersect the 


State road to tlic scat of government; second, from the ford on l>ig" 
Sand Creek to the public square in Cohimbus; tliird, from Big- 
S<ind Creek to intersect the State road at David ^'anblaricum^s; 
fourtli, from the pul)lic square in Columbus to ]>rookville, bv 
Robertson's ford on Clifty as far as the county h'ne; iifth, from 
Cohmibus to Vernon; sixth, from the public square in Columbus 
to intersect " a road to Hensley's ferry cui. out by the citizens of 
Jackson County"; seventh, from the public square in Columbus to 
intersect the State road from Madison to Indianapolis. The roads 
described in the foregoing sentence, as the first, second, third, fourth 
and sixth petitioned for, were, upon the sworn report of the viewers, 
estabhshed and declared public highways on August 14, 1821, and 
are thus seen to be the oldest county roads in Bartholomew Count}'. 
Supervisors were appointed to keep these roads in repair, having 
power to warn out hands in the manner familiar to most men of the 
present da}-. 

The first Supervisors were David Stepp, David McCoy, Joshua 
McQueen, David Keller, Anthon}- Head, Jacob Lane, and Richard 
Wall. From that time road petitions and the roads established 
were so numerous that at the present a closeh' printed octavo volume 
of a thousand pages would hardly hold the descriptions of the 
routes traversed. Many a hot war of words has attended the 
hearing of these petitions. Remonstrances have been filed; dam- 
ages claimed and secured; neighborly friendships broken and life- 
long enmities made. In 1833, the State road from Greensburg to 
Columbus via Hartsville was established; that from Shelbyville 
via Goshen and Newbern to intersect the Madison State road ; that 
from Napoleon in Ripley Count}-, to Bloomington in Monroe 
County, passing through Bartholomew County, and many other State 
roads followed soon thereafter. In every year since the organization 
of the county and at nearly every regular meeting of the Board 
of Commissioners road petitions or papers pertaining thereto have 
been considered. Annually, Supervisors were appointed and road 
districts formed until the Commissioners were relieved by law from 
the performance of such duties. As to the " three per cent, fund " 
referred to, Commissioners were appointed from time to time who 
were charged with its safe keeping and proper disbursement. 


They gave bond nnd recei\'cd for their ser\ice.s $i for each day 
actualh' and necessiirily emjiloyed. As the sale of pubhc lands 
advanced, the money going to this fund \vas from tnne to time ap- 
propriated by tlie Legislature and piud to tlie -proper oilicers of the 
several counties. ' On the belief that a part of tlie fund was never 
distributed to the counties entitled to it, in i8Si efforts \vere made 
to obtain the same from the State officials but without avail. 

As the county grew in wealth and population the need of bet- 
ter facilities for reaching the markets began to be pressingly felt. 
In winter and spring " roads without bottom " were what the far- 
mers had to contend with. It was not deemed wise for the county 
to undertake the macadamizing of all the roads forniing the vast 
network in the county, and a field for private enterprise was opened 
in the matter by the passage of a State law authorizing the incor- 
poration of gravel road or turnpike companies. As a result turn- 
pikes have been constructed on all the principal thoroughfares 
leading out of Columbus, as well as on many of the cross roads in 
various parts of the count}'. At this time the following companies 
are operating such roads in this county, the points connected by 
them being usually designated in the title: Columbus & Hope 
Turnpike Company; Columbus & Hartsville Turnpike Company; 
Columbus & Burnsville Turnpike Company; Geeensburg, Mil- 
ford & Hope Turnpike Companj^; Junction, Hope & Hartsville 
Turnpike Company; Morristown, Hope & St. Louis Turnpike 
Company; Hope & Flat Branch Turnpike Company; Hartsville 
Junction Tui'npike Compan}-^; Hope & Clifford Turnpike Com- 
pan}'; Hope & Hartsville Turnpike Compan}-; Hope & Passing 
Glory Turnpike Company ; Edinburgh & Kansas Turnpike Com- 
pany; Legal Tender Turnpike Company (in Rock Creek Town- 
ship) ; Driftwood Valley Turnpike Compan}- (three branches); 
Haw Creek Turnpike Cumpan}-. Rates of toll and condition in 
which the road must be kept are prescribed by law. The purchase 
of all toll roads by the county, with a A'iew of making them public 
highways free to every one, was the subject of much agitation 
early in 1886, and for some time prior to that yeixr. A petition 
with that object in view was presented to the Board of Commis- 
sioners, Avho, after due consideration, ordered an election to be held 


in tlie several voting precincts in the county, on tlie 5lh da}' of 
April, iS86, for the jiurpose of taking the votes of the people in 
regard to it. A majority of the votes cast at this election were op- 
posed to the plan of purchase. The turnpike under tlie manage- 
ment and control of the Columbus c^ Flat Rock Turnpike Company 
was ^'oluntaril3' and without compensation therefor to the com- 
pan}', thrown open to the public, and made perpetuall}' free in 
March, 1S87, the directors of the enterprise declaring that after a 
ten 3'ears' trial it had proved a financial failure. In June, 1S87, 
the Board of Commissioners purchased for the sum of $6,000, the 
five miles nearest Columbus of the turnpike owned by the Colum- 
bus & Greensburgh Compan}', and the remainder of the road was 
donated by the company to the public. 

Railroads. — No sooner had the practicability of railroads been 
demonstrated to the world than there was among the most intelli- 
gent and enterprising citizens a desire to adopt and reap the benefits 
of the new mode of travel. E.xcepting, perhaps, some crude 
efforts at railroad construction in short local lines the first efforts 
in this direction — at least the first that resulted in permanent 
good — were directed toward the construction of the lines now 
forming the J., M. & I. S3^stem. On Februar}'^ 2, 1832, an act of 
the General Assembly was approved, which authorized the organi- 
zation of the Madison, Indianapolis & La Fa3'ette Railroad 
Compan}^ with a capital stock of $1,000,000, whose purpose was 
to construct a line from Madison to La Fayette by way of Indian- 
apolis, on such route as would best serve the interests of the public 
and be most beneficial to the compan}'. On February 3 of the 
same year, another act was approved authorizing the incorporation 
of the Ohio «&; Indianapolis Railroad Compan}^ with a capital 
stock of $1,000,000, whose purpose was to build a road from the 
Falls of the Ohio River to Indianapolis by way 'of Columbus. To 
keep the charter alive it was required that all the stock should be 
subscribed for within five years. The conditions were not com- 
plied with, but on January 20, 1846, another act granting similar 
privileges was approved. February i, 1834, authorit}' was given 
by legislative enactment to the first named company- to change its 
name to the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad Company and to 



reduce its capital stock to one-half tlie amount llrst autliorized. 
Indianapolis was to be tlie northern terminus, where connections 
were to be made .with anotlier road running llience to La Fa3'Ctte. 
Januar}' 27, 1836, b}-- the act providing for the general S3'stem of 
improvements througliout tlie State, there was appropriated for the 
use of the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad Company ifii, 300,000. 
Februar}'^ 6, 1839, an additional $400,000 was appropriated for 
the same purpose. 

B}' an act approved Februar}- 15, 1841, the General Assembly 
authorized the Board of Commissioners in Bartholomew and other 
counties along the hne of the proposed road to aid in the further 
construction of the road by levying a tax of five cents on each $100 
worth of taxable property in the counties named, for five 3'^ears, be- 
ginning in 1841. At its June session, 1841, the Board of Com- 
missioners of this county, pursuant to the authorit}' thus given, lev- 
ied the tax and directed that it be put on the tax duplicates for five 
years thereafter; provided, however, the other counties named in 
the act would enter a like order on their records before the follow- 
ing August, and provided further, that the Fund Commissioners 
would receive from the suspended debt or from the Morris Canal 
& Banking Company' $100,000 worth of iron to be used in the con- 
struction of the railroad from Vernon to Edinburgh. The tax du- 
plicates for the years named do not show that the tax was collected, 
but the facts mentioned prove the public spirit as it existed in this 
county at the time. 

In February, 1843, the railroad was put into possession of a 
compan}' whose principal office was at Columbus. Geo. E. Tingle 
was Secretar}'^ of the compan}', but did not long hold the office. 
From that time the State had nothing to do with the management 
of the road. 

At length the line was completed to Columbus in 1843-44, and 
a new era v :,s begun. This Madison and Indianapolis railroad 
was the first built west of Cincinnati, and though the road bed has 
been much changed and improved the general route traversed re- 
mains the same. At first the track was of flat-bar iron and the 
equipment very modest when compared with the elegant and luxur- 
ious accommodations afforded the traveler of the present da3\ The 


Jeffersonville road was completed to this point a]:iout 1S53, and sub- 
sequentlv the two main hnes were united under one management 
and witli one main stem from here to Imlianapolis, making the gen- 
eral system of the J., i\I. & I. R. R. Co. 

The Columbus & Shelby Railroad Company was in fact a 
part of the Madison & Indianapolis Company, but enjoyed a separ- 
ate charter. Of its stock, the M. & I. road held $::5,ooo, and the 
city of JMadison, $50,000. Its road from Columbus to Shelby\ille 
was constructed in 1853-54, at a cost of about $300,000. It sub- 
sequently became a part of the J., M. & I. system, and as extended, 
now forms what is called the Cambridge Cit}- Branch. The entire 
J., M. & I. system is leased to, and is under the control of, the Penn- 
S3'lvania Railroad Company. It may be interesting to the reader 
to know, as eyidencing the general improyement brougiit about 
chiefly through the agenc}' of railroads, that prior to the construc- 
tion, corn was a drug on the market at 10 cents per bushel; wheat 
brought but 35 to 40 cents; pork, $1.50 to $2 per hundred pounds, 
net; and other farm products in proportion. 

]Man\' efforts haye been made to induce capitalists to build other 
roads through this county, but without ayail except in one instance. 
In March, 18S2, a petition was presented to the Board of Commis- 
sioners asking that an election be ordered in Columbus Township 
for the purpose of taking the yotes of the people on the question 
of aiding the Columbus, Hope & Greensburgh Railroad Com- 
pany in building its road through the township, b}' donating 
$70,000. The election was held April 22, 1882; the votes were: 
for the appropriation, 813; against it, 521. A like pedtion had 
been filed in February, 18S2, by the citizens of Haw Creek Town- 
ship, who proposed that said township should take $24,000 of the 
stock of said compan3\ The election was held March 20, 1882; the 
votes cast for taking stock, 338; against it, 190. The construction 
of this road has greatly benefited the county. Since its con- 
struction the city of Columbus has almost doubled in size, and 
while this increase is by no means sought to be attributed to this 
single cause, yet it deserves credit for a ver\' large part of the gen- 
eral prosperity now enjo}'ed. The Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. 
Louis & Chicago Railroad Company are lessees of this line, mak- 







ino- it practically a branch of that trunk line connecting witli the 
main stem at the cit\- of Gi-ecnsburirh. 

In June, iS49,,the Board of Conuiaissioncrs of the county or- 
dered the votes of the people to be taken at the August election of 
that year, on the question of aiding the Jeffersonville Railroad 
Company, the Bloomington Railroad Compan}' and the Greens- 
burgh Railroad Company (each of which enjo3'ed a special char- 
ter granted by the General Assembly), b}- levying a tax of ten 
cents on each $ioo worth of taxable property in the count}'. The 
votes for or against each of the proposed works were to be cast 
independent!}^ of the otlvrs. A majorit)'- of the tax-payers were 
unwiUing to thus burden themselves, and voted against the propo- 
sition. In December, 1S49, however, the Commissioners sub- 
scribed, in behalf of the county, for 400 shares (at $50 per share 
to be paid for in bonds), to the stock of the Columbus, Nashville 
and Brownstown Railroad Compan3\ The bonds were issued in 
1850, bearing seven per cent, interest, to run for ten 3'ears, and 
Isaac S. Boardman was made proxy to vote the county's stock. 
The bonds were delivered to the company, and $400 worth 
of them went into the possession of Michael G. Bright, who 
asked the Commissioners, in 1854, ^^ P'^^y ^^^^ interest then due, 
and had his request denied. Mr. Bright brought suit against 
the count}-, and the matter finally went to the Supreme Court, 
where he recovered judgment for $924.50, principal, interest and 
damages. The Commissioners allowed the amount in June, 1862, 
and in September, 1863, allowed $30 to W. H. H. Terrell, for inci- 
dental expenses as Treasurer of the defunct railroad company, in- 
curred by him in the organization of the company and the survey 
of the road. The old bonds, which had never been sold, amount- 
ing to $19,600 were returned by Treasurer Terrell to the Com- 
missioners, and by them burned in the presence of William C. Ab- 
bett, Joseph E. Mitchell, James C. Mitchell, Isaac Helfman, John S. 
Long, and many others. 

In June, 1871, elections were ordered, to aid the Lake Erie, 
Evansville & Southwestern Railroad Compan}-, in Sand Creek and 
Rock Creek townships, by donating $10,000 and $8, 000, respect- 
ively. In the former township there were 206 votes for, and 17 


against the donation: in the latter, 70 votes for, and loi against it; 
the election was held August 5, 1871. 

, In vSepteniber, 1S71, an election was ordered to be held on No- 
vember 4, iollowing, at all voting places in the county, upon the 
question of taking stock by the county to the amount of ifi 100,000 
in the Cincinnati & Terre Haute Railroad Compau}-. The votes 
were 1,962 for, an_d 1,345 against the proposition. In January, 
1872, an election was ordered to be held in Haw Creek Township 
on Februar}-^ 10, following, when the question of taking stock to 
the amount of $S,ooo in the same company by the township was 
submitted and carried b}' a vote of 306 for, and 224 against it. In 
February-, 1880, an election was ordered in Haw Creek Township 
to be held on March 6, 1880, on the question of donating $24,000 
to the Hope & Grecnsburgh Railroad Compan}'. The votes were 
388 for, and 243 against the proposition. In March, 18S0, elections 
were ordered to be held in Clift}^, Sand Creek and Columbus town- 
ships, on April 10 in the first, and on April 3 in the two last named, 
on the question of donating to the Evansville, Seymour & Belfoun- 
taine Railroad Company $9,782.10, $12,861.98 and $69,714.90, by 
each to\Miship in the order named. The votes were as follows : In 
Clifty, 117 for, 21 against; in Sand Creek, 88 for, 209 against; in 
Columbus, 718 for, and 229 against the donation. In December, 
1886, elections were ordered to be held on February 2, 1887, in 
Jackson, Wayne, Sand Creek and Rock Creek townships, on the 
question of donating to the Evansville & Richmond Railroad Com- 
pany the sums of $3,300, $17,000, $12,700 and $9,900, respec- 
tively. The votes were : In Jackson, 102 for, 34 against; in Wa3^ne, 
185 for, 219 against; in Sand Creek, 204 for, 89 against; in Rock 
Creek, 61 for, 131 against the donation. 

In April, 1887, an election was ordered to be held June 10, fol- 
lowing, in Columbus Township, on the question of donating 
$45,000 to the St. Louis & Cincinnati Railroad Company. The 
votes were 802 for, and 704 against the appropriation. 

Ferries and Bridges. — Inasmuch as ferries and bridges are es- 
sentially a part of all good highway systems in a country traversed 
"by streams, they deserve mention in this connection. In earh' days 
at man}' points along the streams where now spanning them are 


costly bridges, not even tlic convenience of a fern' was cnjo}ed. 
At most seasons of the }ear it was not a diOicult matter to ford 
the wateV, but often frcsliets entirelv blocked travel. These ford- 
ing places became know n tln-oughout all the coiintr}- and were 
recognized land marks. It may be noticed elsewhere huw they 
were ofhcially recognized as starting points for roads or named in 
the description of a civil township's boundary lines. On the 19th 
day of March, 182 1, the Board of Commissioners established the 
first licensed ferr}' in the county by granting to John Lindsey the 
exclusive right to own and operate a ferry at his place on Drift- 
wood River on fractional Sections 24 and 25 — near the present 
site of the bridge across Driftwood River at Columbus — Lindse}^ 
appeared in court with his bondsmen and executed a bond obligat- 
ing himself to keep " one good and suflicient skiff or canoe, and 
one boat, commonl}' called a flat, with one suthcient hand to attend 
the same." For the privileges granted he paid $5 V^'^' y'^'ir 
and was permitted to charge the following rates of ferriage: 
For each horse, 6^c.; for a man, woman or child, 6j<(c. ; 
for cattle three 3-ears old and upward, 6}^c.; for all cattle under that 
age, 4J5/2C. ; for each sheep, hog or goat, ic; for a two-wheeled 
carriage or wagon, 25c.; for a four-wheeled carriage or wagon, 
50c.; and for lumber per boat load, 50c. In November, 1827, the 
privileges granted under this license were withdrawn for the reason 
that he did not compty strictl}' with the 'Stipulations contained in the 
grant, and Joseph McKinney was granted license to keep a iervy 
only a short distance from the one vacated. The ferry on Flat Rock 
Creek where it was crossed by the State road leading from Madi- 
son to Indianapolis kept by D. McEwen, and that crossing Drift- 
w^ood "at the mouth of Jackson Street" kept b}' James Parker, 
were among the earliest established. Then followed those kept 
by Thomas Hinkson over Driftwood River at his place ; by Samuel 
Patterson, over Flat Rock Creek near his house; by William Hal- 
lowell, over Clift}^ Creek, on the Madison and Indianapolis State 
road; that where the Greensbur^h and Bloomington State road 
crossed Driftwood near Columbus; and so on until ferries were 
estabhshed at almost every point on the larger streams when 
crossed by a much traveled road. The ferr}- crossing Driftwood 


at Coluinlnis passed from Josepli jMclvinncy into the liaiids of Isaac 
B^oardman, who, on Februaiy 25, 1849, '"tjlintpiislied his riglUs to 
the feny and g:ive the right of way to the hind to a slock com- 
pany that had been formed for the purpose of erecting- a loll bridge. 
Januar}' 27, 1847, the General Assembly of the Stale had ap- 
proved a law authorizing the incorporation of the Columbus Bridge 
Compan}' with a capital stock of $10,000. The chief promoters 
of the enterprise were Thomas Hays, Francis J. Crump, John B. 
Abbett and B. B. Jones, The charter was to continue thirty years 
and authorized the erection of " a bridge across the cast fork of 
White River at the end of Vernon Street in the town of Columbus." 
The toll rates fixed were about equal to ferry rates. The bridge 
was sold to the County Commissioners in 1S59, for the sum of 
$6,044.64, and thereafter it was free to the general public until 
condemned and removed in 18S4. Large sums of money have been 
expended in a vigorous prosecution of a wise policy early adopted 
respecting bridges. It is estimated that the first seven bridges of 
importance built by the county cost $107,500. In 18S6 alone the 
amount expended in the construction of bridges was $46,707.83, 
and in 1887, it was $12,415.28. The large amount of country bonds 
issued to raise funds for this purpose has been elsewhere men- 
tioned. Among the principal bridges deserving special mention 
may be named that near the town of Azalia on the east fork of 
White River built in 1878, by INIcCormack & Sweeney at a cost 
of about $22,000. It is of two spans, each 155 feet in length, with 
wrought iron trusses twenty-two feet high; .width of roadway 
eighteen feet; the structure resting upon a central pier and two 
stone abutments rising twenty-two feet above low water mark. A 
very handsome and durable bridge was built over Flat Rock Creek 
in 1880, b}^ McCormack & Sweene3^ Bids for the building of this 
bridge w^ere advertised for and several w^ere submitted, among 
them that of McCormack & Sweeney for $13,400. The contract 
was let November 20, 1879, but Commissioner Jacob Wagner pro- 
tested against the letting on the ground that the bid accepted was 
not the lowest responsible bid- The bridge was completed and ac- 
cepted December 21, 1880. The contractors claimed on contract 
and for extra work done and materials furnished $16,342.93, and 


^vcrc allowed $15,450.52. On Clift}- Creek about two and one- 
half miles from Columbus on the ]>urnsville pike there is a j^laoe 
once called Fatal Ford. There the current of the stream is swift 
and its bed deceptive and treacherous. On the morning of Novem- 
ber 15, 1879, "^ woman and her two daughters when attempting to 
cross the stream lost their lives. In Ma}-, 18S0, the Commissioners 
awarded a contract for building a bridge at this point to the King 
Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio, for $8,642, $6,000 of the sum 
named being for the foundation and the remainder for the super- 
structure. In June, 18S0, the Commissioners examined the work 
and linding that it was not being built according to contract, con- 
demned it. A necessaiy change was made in the location of the 
abutments for which $450 extra was allowed. The bridge is a 
wrought iron high truss with two spans. At the same time and to 
the same compan}' a contract was let for the construction of a 
bridge at Hendrickson's ford on Driftwood. It is a wrought iron 
high truss bridge with two spans, each 158 feet in length. The 
amount paid was, for superstructure, $9,430, and for substructure, 

Iron bridges of moderate size and cost have been built recentl}'- 
by the Wrought Iron Bridge Compan}^, of Canton, Ohio, over 
Little Sand Creek, near Elizabethtown, over Duck Creek, in Haw 
Creek Township, over the bayou in Wa3'ne Township, and over 
Haw^ Creek near Columbus. 

The finest and largest bridge in the county is that which re- 
placed the old toll bridge across Driftwood, at the foot of Vernon 
Street, in Columbus. It stands but a short distance up the stream 
from the site of the old bridge. The contracts for building it 
were let by Hemy Dipper, George W. Ely and Bluford Sutherland, 
Commissioners, to the Morse Bridge Company, of Youngstown, 
Ohio, for superstructure, at $27,000, and to Frank Snyder for sub- 
structure, for $12,586.60. The substructure consists of two mas- 
sive stone abutments and two stone piers; the superstructure, of 
three wrought iron high truss spans, each 171 feet long, 20 feet 
wide, and 26 feet high. The bridge Avas received in August, 
1884. Though this costly bridge was built by the count}-, and is free 
to till,- public, it can be approached from the west end only through 


Ihc toll gate of a turnpike company, which is located about one 
hundred "wirds from the end of the bridge. It is practically the 
f^iteway to the city of Columbus for the people who reside in the 
western paa"t of the county. 

Public Officers^. — Below is a statement of the public ollicers of 
the count}-, in the order in which they served, Representatives, 
State Senators and the Representatives in Congress for the district, 
including Bartholomew County, from the organization of the count}' 
to the present time: 

County Commissioners: Jesse Ruddick, William Ruddick, 
Solomon Stout, Newton C. Jones, James Goodwin, William Ham- 
ner, Joshua McQueen, Lewis Singleton, Hiram Wilson, Nathan 
Kyle, David Newsom, Eliakin Hamblin, Henr}- B. Roland, Will- 
iam A. Washburn, Jacob Lain, John Essex, Francis J. Crump, 
Smith D. Jones, David iNIcLain, Joseph E. Mitchell, Walter G. Pra- 
ther, Albert Carter, AVilliam A. Washburn, George G. Gabbart, 
Thomas Winkler, Thomas Essex, Joshua IMcQueen, James M. 
Perr}-, Israel Miller, A. F. Thompson, John Walker, Samuel 
Shields, John W. Welmer, James Harker, Thomas INIay, Lewis 
Essex, Josiah Watkins, John PI. Adams, John W. Welmer, John P. 
Holtz, John T. Walker, James M. Perry, Jabez D. Hammond, 
William R. Gant, Richard Carter, Abner K3'le, Henry Kreinhagen, 
Jacob AVagner, William S. Struble, Thomas Leslie, Henr}- Dipper, 
George W. Ely, B. Sutherland. 

County Auditors: David R. Wa3'land from 1841 to 185 1; 
James Ilobbs, Jr., from 1851 to 1853; Levi H. Morris from 1S53 
to 1855; John H. Long from 1855 to 1863; David F. Long from 
1863 to 1S71; James W. Wells from 1871 to 1875; Silas L. Thomp- 
son from 1875 to 1879; Lewis Donhost from 1S79 ^^ ^^^3; J. C. 
Laughlin from 1883 to 1887; John E. Sharp, present incumbent. 

County Treasurers: Luke Bonesteel from 182 1 to 1822; Will- 
iam Logan from 1822 to 1823; David Deitz from 1823 to 1824; 
A. A. Wiles from 1824 to 1825; Philip Sweetser from 1825 to 
1827; A. A. Wiles from 1827 to 1829; Samuel M. Osbourne, 
1829; William P. Kiser from 1S30 to 1833; David Deitz from 
1833 to 1841; Jesse Ruddick, Jr., from 1841 to 1844; James Herod 
from 1844 to 1845; William F. Pidgeon from 1845 to 1847; James 

COUNT V or(;an]zatiox. 349 

llen)d from April to Aunusl, 1S47; Williani F. l^idi^con from 
1847 to 1853; Jesse Riuldick, Jr., from Ma}' to June, 1853; 
George^ W. Palmer from 1853 to 1857: Jacob SiiNxler from 
1857 to 1861; Richard Carter from 1861 to 1863; Samuel 
Stucke}' from 1S63 to 1865; Samuel Shields from 1865 to 1867; 
Archibald F. Thompson from 1867 to 1869; James F. ITines 
from 1869 to 1871; J. D. McQueen from 1871 to 1874; 1°^'"'' ^• 
Schwartzkopf from 1874 ^o 1879; I-'^^'^'i''^ ^^- ^"ogler from 1879 ^^ 
1881; Joseph Andrews from 18S1 to 18S3; William Geilker from 
1883 to 1885; Auo-ust Keel from 1885 to 1887; Henry Neinaber, 
present incumbent. 

County Recorders: W. H. II. Terrell from 1850 to 1855; Will- 
iam C. Abbett from 1855 to 1863; Thomas Essex from 1S63 to 
1871; Joseph Whitten from 1871 to 1874; David Stobo from 1874 
to 18S3; Samuel M. Dennison from 1883 to 18S7; John Callahan, 
present incumbent. 

Count}' Surveyors: John Vawter was employed as surveyor in 
1821; Moses Joiner was appointed in 1831; and the records show 
that various men were engaged in the work of surveying between 
those dates, but they do not indicate whether or not those so en- 
gaged were count}- officials. Among them were William N, Mor- 
ris, Thomas Essex and Job Gardner. Jasper H. Sprague served 
from 1843 to 1S47; Nathaniel'O. liinman from 1847 to 1848; 
Benjamin F.Myers from 1848 to 1851; Burris Moore from 1851 to 
1856; John Dean from 1856 to i860; Thomas V. Ilaislup from 
i860 to 1862; John Dean from 1862 to 1864; W. A. Hayes from 
1864 to 1874; George Pence from 1874 ^o 1876; William H. Red- 
man from 1876 to 1880; John W. Dundon from 1880 to 1882; 
William A. Hayes from 1882 to present. 

Representatives : John Lindsey, 182 1 ; Charles DePauw, 1822 ; 
Benjamin Irwin, 1823 to 1825; Philip Sweetser, 1825-26. Ben- 
jamin Irwin, 1827; Newton C. Jones, elected for 1828, but died 
before the Legislature convened; PhiHp Sweetser, 1828; Williani 
Herod, 1829-30; Jesse Ruddick, 1831-32: Wilham P. Kiser, 1833; 
Jacob Cook, 1834; Thomas G. Lee, 1835; John McKinney and 
Thomas G. Lee, 1S36; T. G. Lee and Z. TannehiU, 1837; T. G. 
Lee and W. Terrell, 1838; B. F. Arnold and Eliakin Ilaml^lin, 



1S39; -W. Terrell and Tunis Quick, 1840; Tunis Quick, 1841; 
^Viu.lla Jones, 1842; Herman II. i^arbour, 1S43; Willian. llerid 
1844; Ephnun, Arnold, 1S45 and 1846; Charles Jones, 1817: 
Charles Jones and II. H. Barbour, 184S; Gideon H. Hart and 
I homas Essex, 1849; Thomas Essex and Samuel A. Moore, 18^0 
(Colin McKinney was elected in 1850, but died, and S. A. Moo;e 
was elected in his stead); Joseph Struble, 1851 to 1853; 
^ssex, 1S55; Francs P. Smith, 1857; Albert G. ColHer, 1858-0- 
Francs P. ^.nith, rS6.; Q. H. P. Abbett, 1863 and 1865; Stinson' 
X Barrett, 1867 and 1869; Robert D. Hawley, 1871; John M. 
Chne, ^^72-3; Alfred WHliams, 1874-5: J- M. Cook, X876-7; 
A..hur D. Galbraith, 1878-9; Patrick H. McCormack, x88x-3 
and 1883 4; Lewis Donhost, 18S5; James Galbraith, 1SS7. 

State Senators: William Graham, of Jackson County, 182 1 to 
1830; Wilham Herod, 1831-2; Zachariah Tannehill, 1834-S; John 
Vawter, of Jennings Cunt^^ 1836 to 1839; Zachariah Tamiehill, 
1840 to 1844; H. H. Barbour, 1845 to 1847; William Herod, 1848 
to 18,0; John L. Spann, 1853 to 1855; James E. Wilson, 1857; 
Smith Jones, 1858 to 1861; F. T. Hord, 1S63 to 1865; Thomas G. 
!i?' ^f J,^° ^^70; Oliver J. Glessner, of Shelby Countv, 1870 to 

Q« /■ ' '^^^' ^^^'^'"^'^ ^- ^°%'' ^S7S; W. C. Duncan, 

iob2 to present. 

Members of Congress: William Hendricks, 1821; Jonathan 
Jenmngsx823 to 1831; John Carr, 1831; George L. Kennard, 
1833 to 1837; Wilham Herod, 1837 to 1839; William W. Wick 
1S39; David Wallace, 1841; William J. Brown, 1843; Wilham W.' 
Wick, 1845 to 1849; William J. Brown, 1849; Thomas A. Hend- 

?«;!' w-n-' ^^'"''' ^- ^•^"^^^"^' 1852 to 1S56; James Hughes, 
1857; William McKee Dunn, 1858-1860; Henry W. Harrino-ton 
1862; Ralph Hill, 1864; Morton C. Hunter, 1S66; William s' 
Holman 1868 to 1872; Michael C. Kerr, 1874 to 1876; Nathan T." 
Carr, 1876; George A. Bicknell, 1877 to 1879; C C. Matson, from 
1079 to present. 

The Fifth Congressional District, now represented by Col C C 
Matson, is composed of Bartholomew, Brown, Johnson, Moroan' 
Hendricks, Putnam, Owen, and Monroe counties. ^ ' 

P.residcuihtl Ekctious.—Th^ increase in the number of voters 


and the political com]t1cxion of a county from time to time are of 
such general interest that a table showing the vote at all Presiden- 
tial elecfSons occurring since the organization of the county, is here 
appended : 

1824 — Ilenr^' Clay, Whig, 99 votes; Andrew Jackson, Demo- 
crat, 96; John Q. Adams, Free Soil, 20; W. II. Crawford, Demo- 
crat, — ; total vote cast, 215. 182S — Andrew Jackson, Democrat, 
445 votes; John Q. Adams, Free Soil, 235; total vote cast, 6S0. 
1832 — Andrew Jackson, Democrat, 489 votes; Henry Clay, Whig, 
372; total vote cast, 861. 1836 — ^ William 11. Harrison, Whig, 
60S; Martin Van Buren, Democrat, 412; total vote cast, 1,020. 
1840 — William H. Harrison, Whig, 982; Martin Van Buren, Dem- 
ocrat, 703; total vote cast, 1,685. 1844 — Henry Clay, Whig, 
1,035; J^mtis K. Polk, Democrat, 1,068; James G. Birney, Aboli- 
tionist, 13; total vote cast, 2,116. 184S — Zachary Taylor, Whig, 
1,011 votes; Le\vis Cass, Democrat, 1,167; Martin Van Buren, 
Free Soil, 28; total vote cast, 2,206. 1852 — Winfield Scott, Whig, 
1,245 votes; Franklin Pierce, Democrat, 1,512; John P. Hale, Free 
Soil, 26; total vote cast, 2,783. 1856 — John C. Freemont, Repub- 
lican, 1,292 votes; James Buchanan, Democrat, 1,844; Millard Fill- 
more, Native American, 142; total vote cast, 3,478. i860— 
Abraham Lincoln, Republican, 1,769 votes; Stephen A.Douglas, 
Democrat, 1,846; John Bell, Union, 34; John C. Breckenridge, 
State Rights, 66; total vote cast, 3,715. 1864 — Abraham Lincoln, 
Republican, 1,645 votes; George B. McClellan, Democrat, 2,051; 
total vote cast, 3,696; 1868 — U. S. Grant, Republican, 2,010 
votes; Horatio Seymour, Democrat, 2,510; total vote cast, 4,520. 
1872 — U. S. Grant, Republican, 2,015 votes; Horace Greeley, 
Liberal Republican, 2,442; total vote cast, 4,457. 1876 — Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes, Republican, 2,326 votes; Samuel J. Tilden, Demo- 
crat, 2,810; Peter Cooper, Greenbacker, — ; G. C. Smith, Prohi- 
bitionist, 141; total vote cast, 5,277. 1880 — James A. Garfield, 
Republican, 2,575 votes; Winfield Scott Hancock, Democrat, 2,930; 
Weaver, Independent, 59; total vote cast, 5,562. 1884 — James G. 
Blaine, Republican, 2,613 votes; Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 
2,918; Benjamin F. Butler, National, 25; John P. St. John, Prohi- 
bition, 4; total vote cast, 5,560. 

35- 15ARTIK)I-f).Mi:\V COUNTY. 

OrL^'(iiii:.cit/oii of T^oz^' i/s// //>.<.— Th>' carlv dix'ision of llic rounty 
into three voliny districts lias been elsewhere nienlionecl. On oMay 
i*j., 1821, upon the petition oi William Ilanmer and others, a new 
township, to be known as Sand Creek, was laid off out of the 
Southern District, and bounds were llxed as follows: Ijeginning' 
where the Jackson County line crosses Driftwood River, thence 
up said river to the mouth of Clifty, thence up Clifty to the line 
dividing Townships 8 and 9, thence with said line to the Jennings 
County line, thence with said line to the Jackson Count}- line, 
thence with said line to the place of beginning. James Hamner 
was appointed inspector of elections for the township, and his house 
was designated as the polling place. June 13, 1859, the last of 
several changes in the extent of this township was made, leaving it 
bounded as follows: Beginning where the Jackson County line 
crosses Driftwood River, and running in a northwesterl}'^ direction 
with said river to the northeast corner of Wayne Township, thence 
east on the section line, first south of the township line dividing 
Townships 8 and 9, to the southwest corner of vSection Nc). 6, 
Township 8 north, of Range 7 east, thence due south to the northern 
line of Jackson Count}', thence along said county line in a south- 
westerly direction to the place of beginning. 

Wayne Tozvushi^ was organized November 12, 1821, with the 
following boundary: Beginning on the Avest bank of Driftwood 
River where crossed by the Jackson County line, and running with 
said river northwesterly to where the line dividing Townships 8 
and 9 crosses the river, thence west with said line to the line divid- 
ing Ranges 4 and 5, thence south to the county line, thence east to 
the place of beginning. July 4, 1831, the line on the north end of 
the township was changed and fixed as follows: Commencing 
wdiere the line dividing Townships 8 and 9 strikes Denois Creek, 
and running east with the meanders of said creek to the bridge on 
the Mark's Ferry State road, thence on a due east line to Drift- 
wood River. September 4, 1832, the township boundary was 
again changed as follows: Commencing where the Jackson County 
line crosses Driftwood River; thence north with its meanders to the 
line dividing Sections 6 and 12; thence west to the Jackson Town- 
ship line; thence south to the Jackson County line, thence east to 

COUNTY 0R(JAMZA'J'10\. 353 

the place of l:)eg-intnn^-. jaiuiarv 3, 1837, to accord willi clian^H'S 
made in the county line the following" change in the township bound- 
ary was'inade: Commencing at the southwest corner of Section i8, 
Township 7 north, of Range 5 east, and running west to the south- 
west corner of Section 15, Township 7, of I'lange 4 east; thence 
north to the northwest corner of Section 10, Township 8, of Range 
4 east; thence east to the northeast corner of Section 12, Town- 
ship 8, of Range 4 east. This added territor\-, together with 
sixteen sections contiguous thereto on the east side, was taken from 
Wayne Township in the formation of Ohio Township. 

Driftzvood Tozuns/ii'^, organized May 10, 1824, was bounded 
as follows: Beginning where the north county hue crosses Drift- 
wood River at the point commonly known as Berry's ford and run- 
ning down with the meanders of said river, to the line dividing 
Townships 9 and 10, thence east on said lii;e to where it strikes 
Flat Rock, thence up said stream w^ith its meanders to the county 
line, thence west on said line to the place of beginning. David Mc- 
Coy's house was designated as the first place for holding elections. 
No changes have been made in the boundar}' of this township, but 
on the 9th day of August, 1824, its name was changed to German 

Nineveh Tozi'iis/iip, organized May 10, 1824, was bounded as 
follows: Beginning where the north county line crosses Driftwood 
River and running down with the meanders of said river to the line 
dividing Townships 9 and 10, thence due west to the line dividing 
Ranges 3 and 4, thence north to the count}' line, thence east with 
said line to the place of beginning. Thomas Roberts was appointed 
inspector of elections, and the house of John Macomb was desig- 
nated as the polling place. On January 3, 1837, the west line was 
changed to commence at the southw^est corner of Section 34, Town- 
ship 10, of Range 4 east, and run north to the northeast corner of 
Section 4, in the same township and range. In the formation of 
Union Township, twelve sections were taken from the south end of 
this township; 'otherwase it remains as here described. 

Flat Rock Tozvnshif^ organized May 11, 1S24, was bounded as 
follows: Beginning where the line between Townships 9 and 10 
crosses Flat Rock Creek, and running up with the meanders of said 


creek to the county line; thence east on said line to tlie nortlieast 
corner of Bartholomew County; thence south to the line dividing 
Townships 9 and 10; thence west on said line to the place of be- 
ginning. .The first jiolling place was the house of Daniel Akin; 
the first inspector of elections, Jesse Ruddick. The creation of 
Haw Creek Township diminished the territory of Flat Rock; other- 
wise it remains unchanged. 

Clifly Tozcus/iip, organized I\Iay 11, 1824, was bounded as 
follows: Beginning on the line dividing Townships 8 and 9, at the 
corner of Sections 33 and 34, in Range 6 east, and running north to 
the hne dividing Townships 9 and 10; thence east on said line to 
the county line; thence south to the line dividing Townships 8 and 
9; thence west to the place of beginning. The house of Rachel 
Robertson was designated as the first polling place; William P. 
Nelson was appointed inspector of elections. Subsequent changes 
made by the formation of Clay and Rock Creek townships are 
hereinafter set forth. 

Colniiilms Tozuuship, organized IVlay 11, 1824, was bounded as 
follows : Beginning at the northeast corner of Wayne Township 
and running Avest to the county hne; thence north on said hne to 
the hne dividing Townships 9 and 10; thence east on said line to 
the corner of Clifty Township; thence south with the west hne of 
said tow^nship to CHfty Creek; thence with its meanders to the 
mouth of said creek; thence up Driftwood River to the place of 
beginning. The territory of the township was diminished by the 
formation of the old Jackson or Salt Creek Township, and after- 
Avards when the county was diminished in size the township was 
enlarged. This change was made January 3, 1837, adding the fol- 
lowing territory : Commencing at the southeast corner of Section i, 
Township 8, of Range 4 east, and running west three miles to the 
southwest corner of Section 3, same township and range; thence 
north to the northwest corner of Section 3, Township 9, Range 4 
east; thence east to the northeast corner of Section i, township 
and range last named; thence south to the place of beginning. 
Subsequent changes in the west part of the township were made 
by the formation of Union and Harrison townships; and the line 
between Rock Creek, Sand Creek and Columbus townships was 

couxTv ()iif;AM;^ATiox. 355 

also cliangcd as slated Ix-low. At present the townslii]-) is boinuled 
as follows: Beginning at the southwest corner of Section 4, Town- 
ship 8, of^Range 5 east, and running east to the southeast corner of 
Section 2, Township 8, of Range 6 east; thence nortli two miles; 
thence west two miles to the northeast corner of Section 33, Town- 
ship 9, of Range 6 east; thence to. the northeast corner of Section 
4, same' township and range; thence west to Driftwood River; 
thence south with the meanders of said stream to wliere it is 
crossed by the section line between Sections 9 and 16, Townsliip 
9, of Range 5 east; thence west on said line to the northwest cor- 
ner of said Section 16; thence south to the place of beginning. 

Salt Creek Tozviis/iip, organized on the first iNIonday in Jul}', 
1828, included all that part of Bartholomew County west of Range 
5 east, and south of the center of Township 10 north. The house 
of John Adams was the first polling place ; Benjamin Welmans w-as 
first inspector of elections. On Januar}' 5? 1829, the name of this 
township was changed to Jackson, and on May 4, following, a part 
of its territor}' was attached to Nineveh. This Jackson Township 
is in no way identical with that now bearing the same name. It is 
true that the old Jackson Township included in its territor}' that 
now called Jackson, but Ohio Township, formed later, at first in- 
cluded the present Jackson Township; and the first Jackson or 
Salt Creek Township had gone entirely out of existence before 
the organization of the present Jackson Tow^nship. 

Ilaiu Creek Tozuiishfp, organized March 2, 1829, included all 
that part of Bartholomew County lying within Township 10 north, 
of Range 7 east, and remains unchanged. 

Rock Creek Tozuus/u'p, organized March i, 1830, was bounded 
as follows: Beginning at the count}^ line one mile north of the 
southeast corner of Clifty Township, and running west with the 
section line to the Columbus Township line; thence south to the 
State road; thence east with said road to the Jennings County line; 
thence to the place of beginning. This, it will be noticed, took one 
row of sections from Clift}' Township on the south, fixing the 
southern boundary of that township as it now is. 

The following changes affecting Sand Creek and Columbus as 
well as this township, and above referred to, were made June i, 

356 nARTiioiA^Micw count v. 

iS^6: tlie line botwccn Columbus and Rock Creek townshiits was 
made to commence at tlie northwest corner of Section 36, Town- 
&*liip 9, of Range 6 east, and run south to include A. Gibb's farm; 
thence on the line dividing Sections i, 12 and 13, Township 8, of 
Range 6 east, from Sections 6, 7 and iS, Township 8, of Range 
7 east, to the boundary hue of Rock Creek and Sand Creek 
townships at the Slate road leading from Madison to Indianapolis 
near northeast corner of Section 13, Township 8, of Range 6 east; 
thence in a northwest direction with said road to the line dividing 
Columbus and Rock Creek Townships near the southwest corner 
<.f Section 34, Township 9, of Range 6 east; thence north on the 
hne dividing Sections 33 and 34, Township 9, of Range 6 east, to 
the southwest corner of Section 27, same township and range; 
thence east on the section line to the place of beginning. In March, 
1851, the Board of Commissioners fixed the line between Columbus 
and Sand Creek townships to be the line between Sections 3 and 
4, and the center line running east and west through Sections 8 and 
9, all in Township 8 north, of Range 6 east. June 13, 1859, ^^^^ 
line between the three townships named was fixed as follows : Com- 
mencing at the northeast corner of Section 24, Township 8, of 
Range 6 east, and running north to the northeast corner of Section 
12, same township and range; thence w-est on the section hne di- 
viding Sections i, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 from 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, to 
where said line strikes Driftwood River in the township and range 
aforesaid. The territory thus cut out of Rock Creek and Sand 
Creek townships was attached to Columbus. 

VanBiiren Tozvnshif^ organized May 5, 1834, was located in 
the southwest corner of the county, with the line di\'iding To\^'n- 
ships 8 and 9 on the north, the Monroe Count}^ line on the west, 
the Jackson County line on the south, and the Wa3-ne Township 
line on the east. This township, like the original Jackson Town- 
ship, was destroyed b}- later organizations and the contraction of 
the count}' limits. 

Harrison To-u-'uship, organized December 7, 1841, was formed 
out of the west end of Columbus Township, with bounds as fol- 
lows: Beginning at the northwest corner of Section 3, Township 
9, Range 4 east, and running south with the line between Brown 


and Bartholomew counties to the southwest corner of Section 3, 
Township S, Range 4 east; thence east to tlie southeast corner of 
Section 5, Township 8, along the line of Columbus and Wa^'ne 
townships to the northeast corner of Section 5, Township 8, Range 
5 east; thence north along the section line to the northeast corner 
of Section 5, Township 9, Range 5 east; thence west to the place 
of beginning. The house of Lawson Dowel was named as tlie 
first polling place. 

Clay Toiunshi^pf organized December 7, 1841, was bounded as 
follows: Beginning at the northeast corner of Section 5, Township 

9, of Range 7 east, and running west to the northwest corner of 
Section 3, Township 9, of Range 6; thence south to the southwest 
corner of Section 27, Township 9, of Range 6 east; thence east to 
the southeast corner of Section 29, Township 9, of Range 7 east; 
thence north to the place of beginning. The house of William 
McFall was the first polling place. June 7, 1S43, the west line of 
Clifty Township was moved one-half mile west; that is, made to 
divide Sections 5, 8, 17, 20, and 29, on the half section line, thus 
fixing the present line between Clay and CHfty. 

Ohio Townships organized June 6, 1843, was formed out of 
Wayne with the following bounds : Beginning at the northeast cor- 
ner of Section 8, Township 8, of Range 5 east, and running south 
to the Jackson County line; thence west to the Brown County line; 
thence north to the northwest corner of Section 10, Township 8, of 
Range 4 east, thence east to the place of beginning. The house 
of David Lock was the first polling place. This township remains 
as here described except the southern part now embraced in Jack- 
son Township. 

Union Toiunshij), organized September 3, 1845, was formed 
out of Nineveh, Harrison and Columbus townships, with bounds as 
follows: Beginning where the section line dividing Sections 9 and 

10, Township 9, of Range 5 east, strikes the west bank of Drift- 
wood River and running north with the meanders of s^id river to 
the line dividing Sections 28 and 21, Township 10, of Range 5 east; 
thence west to the Brown County line; thence south to the line 
dividing Sections 10 and 15, Township 9, of Range 4 east; thence 
east to the place of beginning. The first polling place was Peter 
Snyder's house. 


yaclsoii TiKviisJilp, organized March 6, 1S47, was formed by 
dividing- Ohio Township on tlie lines separating Sections 25, 26 
3nd 27 from 34, 35, and 36, in I'uwnship 8, of Range 4 east, and 
Sections 29 and 30 from 31 and 32, in Township 8, Range 5 
east, and giving the new name to the southern portion thus laid 
out. The polling places were David Lock's in Jackson, and 
Samuel Thompson's in Ohio. 

Ag-ricuUural Societies. — One of the most important of man's 
occupations is that of agriculture. It in fact forms the ground work 
for all other classes of labor, and no other industrial branch holds 
to its service a larger portion of the population. In tilHng the soil, 
as in ever}'^ other vocation, action, to result in success, must be 
guided by intelligence. The best results in educating the masses 
in any particular branch of science are brought about, and always 
have been, by concerted action. The needs of organization for the 
dissemination of useful knowledge, coming together for the ex- 
change of ideas and the comparison of various results obtained 
through different modes and processes, were early recognized by 
some of the more advanced citizens, and led to attempts at the for- 
mation of societies for the promotion of agricultural, horticultural 
and industrial interests. These, however, did not-meet the degree 
of success deser- ed. It is not the purpose here to trace the rise 
and fall of the different granges and other organizations that have 
been effected among the rural populace in this county from time to 
time, but to refer briefly to those organizations in which all the peo- 
ple have been to some extent interested. As early as 1829 the 
General Assembly enacted laws for the organization and encour- 
agement of such societies. In Ma}'^, 1835, the Board of Commis- 
sioners called a meeting of the citizens of the county to be held in 
Columbus for the purpose of organizing a county agricultural soci- 
ety, and the public was notified b}^ notices posted at the usual voting 
places. Nothing permanent resulted from this meeting, and another 
was called at the same time in the next year. The encouragement 
given was not sufficient to justify organization, and the matter rested 
for a time, when in May, 1839, the Commissioners again deter- 
mined to feel the public pulse, and called a meeting of the citizens 
which was no more fruitful than its predecessors. After these fail- 


ures, about fifteen years passed without any particular effort toward 
organization. February 14, 1851, a law was enacted which afforded 
means of encouragement not contained in former laws. By its pro- 
visions a State Board of Agriculture was formed with Gov. Jo- 
seph A. Wright as President, and through the influence of this 
organization and that of tlie Governor, man}^ district and county 
societies were formed. 

The Bartholomew County Agricultural Society was among the 
first of these, organized early in 1852, with forty- four members, 
Thomas Lawton being President, S. H. Kindclbaugh, Secretary, and 
W. H. H, Terrell, Treasurer. Its first annual fair was held Oc- 
tober 14, 1852, on the ground near where, in later years, the public 
school building stood, a small plot being fenced in with rails for the 
purpose. Small cash premmms were given and diplomas awarded. 
With becoming zeal and public spirit the citizens of the county 
pushed forward their work in aid of the society and it advanced 
with rapid strides. The buiWing of the railroad had developed 
agricultural interests wonderfully. The era of flat boating was 
gone; there was a ready cash demand for all surplus grain and live 
stock. The people were becoming enlightened as to the dignity 
and importance of agricultural pursuits properly followed. 

In 1854 t^^ drouth was excessive, and much suffering resulted, 
but the hay, oat and wheat crops were excellent, though corn and 
garden vegetables turned out poorly. A creditable display in all 
departments of the fair was, however, made. The receipts were 
over $600, and premiums were offered to twenty-two classes of 
exhibits, including all sorts of live stock, fowls, dogs, products of 
the field, garden and orchard, pickles, preserves, butter, etc., agricul- 
tural implements, mechanical productions, machine woolen goods, 
domestic manufactures, needlework, plowing, horsemanship, plans 
for farm house, farm barn, cottage, model farm of 160 acres, 
essays on farming generally, hog raising, etc., etc. In the class 
" Pogs," diplomas were offered for the best farm dog for general 
purposes, best house and yard watch dog, best rat hunter, best fox 
hunter, best coon hunter, best "possum" hunter, best bird dog, best 
Newfoundland dog, and best children's play dog. Owners were 
required to have chains to their dogs and to keep them fastened. 


In the following year a great variety of silverware and other use- 
^ful articles were offered as premiums for the best of every conceiv- 
able thing that might be exhibited, from the finest and best of 
horses and cattle to a pair of socks or a "petty-coat." Only the 
exhibitors of dogs were to be rewarded with nothing more substan- 
tial than diplomas. However, the "best collection of all sorts of 
dogs " was this year added to the list, and the successful contestant 
was to receive one dog collar. To the lady over sixteen years of 
age who could best manage her horse, ride most gracefully and 
lad3-like was to be given a beautiful silver goblet valued at' $10, 
and to the second best a gold thimble worth $5. To the young 
Miss under sixteen who possessed these accomplishments in the 
most marked degree was to be given $7 worth of silver spoons, 
and to the second best under that age a silver sugar shovel 
.worth $3. At all of these early fairs speeches were made by 
learned men upon agricultural subjects and the topics of the times. 
The fair grounds were early permanently located one mile 
north of the city of Columbus where the fairs were held until 1S60, 
when, through the influential work of William McEwen, a new 
site was obtained about one mile southeast of the city. For many 
years an annual appropriation, small in amount, was made for the 
use of this society out of the county funds. Much substantial good 
was accomplished through its agency by the scattering of useful 
knowledge among the people, by directing their energies to a more 
telling activity and by pricking their ambitions. In many a house- 
hold its annual meeting, held when " the frost was on the pumpkin 
and the fodder in the shock," was looked forward to as the social 
event of the year, and what things were there heard and seen fur- 
nished themes for conversation on long winter evenings to many 
a family gathering about a wide-mouthed, cheerful fire place. Dur- 
ing the early part of the war the fair grounds were used as a camp 
of rendezvous for a company of volunteers under Isham Keith, 
commander, and later, by Col. Stansifer, Provost Marshal, for 
recruits and drafted men. The property was badly damaged in 
consequence and no fairs were held for several years. The society 
led a checkered career and its ending was unworthy the high ob- 
jects of its creation. The story of its downfall is told by Gen. 



Terrell in bis reminiscences as follows: " In 1875, stroiHT and ener- 
getic effq;-t was made to get up a county fair on a larger scale than 
had ever before been attempted. The propiietors of the Rcfnhlicau, 
with commendable enterjirise, issued a small daily commencing on 
Tuesda}- and ending with Saturday, under the tide of JJailx Fair 
Bulletin. The misfortune with this pulilicalion was that it con- 
tained ver}- little about the fair beyond a pretty free description of 
the grounds and arrangement, the principal feature being a wordy 
w-rangle with the editor of the rival newspaper, the Dcniocraf, about 
Jeff. Davis. That notorious individual had been engaged by the 
Board of Directors to deliver an address at the fair, the object be- 
ing not to dignify him or endorse his course in the rebellion of 
which he was the head, but to ' draw a crowd ' and thus add to the 
financial success of the exposition. He was engaged just as Bar- 
num would have engaged a giant, a fat woman, a six-legged calf, 
or an}' other monstrosity for his big show, solely as an attraction. 
This move, however, was ver}' ill-timed and unfortunate, and the 
indignation of the people became so great and outspoken the 
Directors were forced to cancel Mr. Davis' engagement. The news- 
papers, whose editors had both been soldiers in the late w^ar, — but 
on different sides — kept up a fight about the matter through their 
respective columns for several weeks and contributed much toward 
inflaming the public mind, and engendering a bitter party feeling 
in regard to the management of the fair. This feeling continued 
so strong that it was found impracticable to hold a fair in 1876. 
Meanwhile a mortgage which had been given on the grounds of 
the society, matured, was foreclosed, and in January, 1877, the 
property was sold by the Sheriff to pay the debt, which by prudent 
and conciliator}'^ management, could have been prevented." 

The purchasers at this sale were, however, desirous of continu- 
ing the good work of the old institution and united with other citi- 
zens in the organization, in 1881, of the second Bartholomew County 
Agricultural Societ}-, This organization was not long continued, 
and in 1883 gave way to the Bartholomew County Agricultural 
and Industrial Association, with Simeon Boaz as President; W. O. 
Hogue, Vice President; S. M. Glick, Secretar}-; John D. Crump, 
Treasurer; Joel S. Davis, General Superintendent. This Associa- 


tion holds annual meetings, but as the years advance, proportion- 
ately less attention is paid to agricultural and meclianical features, 
the attention of the management being mainly directed to the turf. 
The pnrsent oflkers are: William Brockman, President; J. G. 
Schwartzkopf, Vice President; Richard Thomas, Secretary, and 
Joseph R. Gent, General Manager. 

Medical Society. ~Oi the early history of the profession but 
little can be said. There were no early organizations, and conse- 
quently there exists no records now containing data. Dr. S. M. 
Linton is probably the oldest of the physicians, and his physical 
afflictions are such that he is no longer in the practice. ' Anion o- the 
early and more prominent physicians were: Drs. A. W. Davidson, 
John Baxter, Joseph A. Baxter, R. M. McClure, and later Drs. 
Jackson, Crary, Collier, Fenley and Grove. The only organization 
among the physicians now is the Bartholomew County Medical 
Society, which was organized July 23, 1881, with the following offi- 
cers: Dr. M. N. Elrod, of Hartsville, President; Dr. C. H^But- 
ler, of CHfford, Vice President; Dr. W. H. Lopp, of Columbus, 
Secretary; Dr. J. S. Arwine, of Columbus, Treasurer. The pres- 
ent officers of the Association are: Dr. Eugene G. Regannas, of 
Hope, President; Dr. J. S. Clark, Vice President; Dr. J. S. Ar- 
wine, Secretary, and Dr. Fred Falk, Treasurer. The present 
members are: G. O. Cosby, N. S. Winterrowd (now of Leaven- 
worth, Kas.), A. J. McLeod, E. G. Regannas, J. B. Roesgen, J. S. 
Arwine, F. D. Norton, G. T. McCoy, I. T. Clark, A. J. Banker, 
T. E. Smith, S. M. Voris, F. Falk, C. H. Butler and K. D. Hawley. 
Those physicians who have obtained license to practice in the 
county under the provisions of the acts of the Legislature of 1885, 
are as follows: John S. Arwine, David S. Armer, William H. 
Allen, John W. Arnold, Thomas E. Allen, Wilham H. Buder, 
S. W. Biddinger, A. J. Banker, Wilson T. Banker, W. H. Beck, 
Charles S. Boynton, Stinson J. Barrett, Charles H. Butler, Wilham 
H. Banks, George W. Bernard, A. B. Barker, John A. Bland, 
William T. Carmichael, Joseph B. Crisler, George O. Cosbj-, 
Isaac S. Clark, George E. Clark, Henry M. Connelly, J. W. 
Dixon, Joseph H. Davis, Frederick Dickman, Moses N. Elrod, 
Erastus Eads, Frederick Falk, Edward T. Francis, Walter jNI. 


Pord, Elias T. Fogle, C. E. Galloway, James B. Hudson, Orwin 
E. Howe, Willard M. Hart, Z. II. Ilausor, K. D. Hawley, Rich- 
ard E. Holder, Mar^"- L. Guy Hood, Thomas S. Jones, Simpson F. 
Kincaid, Cornelius V. Kent, J. B. Kirkpatrick, Samuel A. Ken- 
nedy, J. Y. Kennedy, William IL Lopp, William M. Lawrence, 
Samuel M. Linton, John Walter Lopp, Ilenr}- C. Lester, Jesse H. 
Lanam, T. J. Martin, Charles A. Moore, Overton H. Mennett, 
Samuel H. Morris, J. W. Mulvey, A. J. McLeod, George T. 
McCoy, Fletcher D. Norton, W. T. Newton, Robert N. Pfeiffer, 
Samuel Pagin, David A. Pettigrew, Samuel T. Quick, Alfred 
Rice, R. H. Roope, J. J. Riley, Frankhn B. Richards, E. G. 
Regennas, John P. Roesgen, William P. Rush, Thomas A. Shane, 
J. K. Smalley, Simeon Stapp, James M. Summers, Josephus J. 
Sadler, Theophilus E. Smith, R. Trowbridge, David A. Thompson, 
John M. Tobias, Samuel M. Voris, J. Wisenberg, N. S. Winter- 
rowd, John B. Williams, A, F, Wright, John F. Wright, James W. 
Wood, Samuel C. Wilson, Hard}'^ Wra}^, Charles E. Whitesides. 

The incidents of the early practice are similar to those of all 
new countries of the West. The most troublesome of all diseases 
was the ague. Barring this dreadful destroyer of health and hap- 
piness, the county boasted of its healthfulness. No one escaped 
the chills and fever occasioned b}^ the miasmi then common to all 
new countries in this latitude. At times entire famihes and settle- 
ments were prostrated by it. It greatly discouraged many of the 
new comers and drove some back to the lands they had left, while 
others wanted to get away from its reach but were too poor. The 
disease was not contagious, but all were so exposed to its causes that 
few escaped. The bottom lands were full of malaria which floated 
on every breeze and penetrated every system. The sufferer 
first became stupid and morose, began to turn yellow m the face 
and about the eyes, felt a pain in the side and an ache along the 
back and in the head; and then periodical shocks came, first of 
chill "hnd then of fever. When having the " shake " no cover 
could keep him warm; his teeth chattered and he felt most woe- 
begone and miserable. The fever was intense and often resulted 
in delirium; all efforts to allay it were in vain. The treatment 
resorted to by physicians was heroic indeed. When quinine came 


into use it became a necessary article of diet, but before its da}- the 
practitioner resorted to the use of lobeha and sweats. Patients 
tvere steamed until limp and almost exhausted. The "steam 
doctors" would ask the suffering patient in the sweat box: " Do 
your eyelids feel limber?" If a negative response was received 
more lobelia was given and the steaming continued. It was be- 
lieved that tea made of boneset leaves stripped downward from the 
stalk would act as a physic, and if stripped upward as an emetic. 

One day a stranger rode into the village of Columbus during 
the ague season and saw no one on the streets. At length he 
espied a solitar}' individual at work on the new court house,, 
and, riding up, asked where all the villagers were. The work- 
man somewhat of a wag, was John White, a bricklayer who had 
considerable local pride. He informed the horseman that the resi- 
dents of the town, all except himself, were attending a camp 
meeting then being held a few miles east of the town. The fact was 
all were sick with the ague. This story is told by W. H. Stader, 
who 833-8 he has known ever}* member of ever}' family in the settle- 
ment where his father lived to be " laid fiat," all at one time, b}^ this 
dread disease. The black tongue, malignant d3'senter3-, cholera 
and milk-sickness were maladies that added to the hardships of the 
pioneers. The last named disease is supposed to have prevailed 
at times between 1830 and 1840, but authentic cause of it was dif- 
ficult to discover. General Terrell has this to 833- concerning it: 

" When an emigrant from ' Nawth Kearlina ' or the mountain re- 
gions of Kaintuck3'- ventured to move his famil3' west to ' the 
Indiana ' or ' the El3'no3',' the first question upon entering a settle- 
ment north of the OhiO; was, ' Ha-aveyou an3' milk-sick h-e-3'-a-r? ' 
't'he standing answer was, 'No; but the3'' have it over that way 
(pointmg), about six miles from here.' The number of miles was 
regulated by the distance to the nearest adjoining county. No man 
probably ever lived where the terrible disease existed in his own im- 
mediate neighborhood, from whom an open acknowledgment of the 
fact could be squeezed. The question was alwa3'^s evaded in some 
wa3'^ or another. In this count3' the disease was never acknowledged 
to prevail, but was alwa3'S ' located ' in some adjoining count3'. I 
remember, during m3' bo3'hood, however, to have met two persons 


who werOi afllicted with a very peculinr and unpleasant odor, which 
it was said resulted from this disease. No cases of it have been 
heax'd of for many years, and land hunters, who in early times were 
so anxious to know where it prevailed, no longer make inquiries on 
the subject." Milk-sickness, or niorho lactco, was supposed to be 
caused [by drinking the milk or eating the meat of cattle afflicted 
with a disease of the same name, and though not nee ssaril}- fatal, 
was most disagreeable and often caused death. The first and only 
appearance of cholera, in Columbus, in epidemic form, was in the 
summer of 1849, ^vhen it was introduced by some German emi- 
grants, who reached here by the railroad from Madison, whither 
they had come from New Orleans by the river route. Some 
fifteen][or twenty of them died. The citizens of the county, though 
almost paralyzed with fear and alarm, gave the poor sufferers every 
possible care, and medical attendance was freely bestowed. The 
excitement and consternation was very great and extended through- 
out the county; the disease, however, did, not spread be3'ond the 
limits of the town. Some citizens removed their families to the 
country, and business was almost entirely suspended for about three 
weeks. Several citizens died, among whom were Dr. Isaac Fen- 
ley and a Mrs. Randolph Griffith and her child. Of late 3'ears the 
county has been particularly free from epidemics. 



Early Settlement — Character of the Pioneers — Will- 
iam Connor — First. Settlers and Where They Located 
— Early Land Sales — Hunters and Their G a:\ie — Pio- 
keer Dress — Amusements — Early Marriages — Trade 
AND Commerce — Political Campaigns, Etc. 

" Gather we from the shadow)- past 

The straggling beams that linger yet, 

E'er o'er those flickering lights are cast 

The shroud that none can penetrate." — Spencer. 

HE sturd}^ character of the pioneer al\va3'S attracts a 
peculiar interest; and a fascinating charm gathers 
about the custoins and manners of his time. The sub- 
duers of a new and wild country are of right accorded 
heroic rank. Such were the pioneers of the American 
West. They braved the terrors, suffered the privations 
and dangers of life in the woods on the outskirts of 
civilization with determined wills and brawny arms to clear and 
plant for themselves and their children homes in the unbroken wil- 
derness. They shrank not from hunger, exposure, disease or 
broken attachments of old homes and ties of kindred, but with un- 
faltering determination launched forth to meet their destiny. 

When Indiana was admitted to the sisterhood of States that por- 
tion now embraced in Bartholomew Count}^, as well as a very large 
tract in the eastern and central parts of the State, was in the pos- 
session of the Delaware Indians, whose title to the lands was not 
extinguished until October, 1818. Prior to this time but few white 
men had set foot on the soil of this count3^ It is quite probable 
that the first to cross its territory were the French traders who dealt 
with the Delawares, and those traveling from Detroit to Vincennes 
by way of old Fort Valonia in Jackson Count}^ who, it is reason- 
able to conclude, followed the White River and its tributaries. The 
first positive^ known to have entered the territor}' was William 


Connor, an Indian trader, who at that timt; had a trading post at 
the present site of Connersvillc. Earlv in 1816, he floated down 
Flat Rock River in a small boat filled with such jroods as he miefht 
exchange with the red men for their peltries.. Later he traveled 
along the course of Blue River, and to tlae bands that camped along 
its banks he became a welcome guest. William Connor, who is 
often called the father of central Indiana, was a typical frontiers- 
man, and being familiar with the customs and habits of the Indians, 
was able to render valuable service to Gen. Harrison during his 
struggle with the aborigines in the earl}' part of the century. He 
was not, however, instrumental in the development of the country, 
and had no fixed habitation within the boundaries of Bartholomew 

A few squatters had pushed their wa}- into the Indian domains 
and were there as intruders without right. A tour of inspection 
was made by a part}' into the new purchase just after the Indian 
title was ex'tinguished, when but two squatters' cabins, inhabited by 
two white men, were found in all that territory- from the crossing 
of Sand Creek at old Geneva in Jennings County to the present site 
of Indianapolis; one on Clift}- Creek and the other qn Blue River. 
But no sooner had the news of the consummation of the treat}' with 
the Delawares reached the settlements in the older parts of the 
State than stout-hearted, ambitious men were ready to start out for 
the new Eldorado. Joseph Cox, a Virginian by birth, who, at an 
early period had left the place of his nativity and settled in Cumber- 
land County, Ky., was the first settler in the county of Bartholo- 
mew — then part of a vast wilderness belonging to Delaware County. 
He came in 1819, following the Indian trail, making the first wagon 
j-pad, and settling on Haw Creek above where in later years the 
Lewis saw mill was built; when he came he was about fifty-three 
years of age and had a large family, being the father of ten boys 
and one girl. He was a man of considerable moral worth, intelli- 
gent, active, and energetic. Selecting what seemed a good locality 
he at once set to work building a small cabin and this erected, com- 
menced clearing a spot, where in 1820, the first corn crop was grown. 
The crib that held that first crop stood for many years and wa s 
never empty. Robert Wilkerson, David Stipp and George Frank 


soon after came into the Ilawpatch and settled tliere. Jacob Ilauser 
and Joseph Lochenonr, two young men, then unmarried, came from 
Nbrtli CaroHna in the same year following the wagon track made 
by Joseph Cox. They stopped at Wilkerson's, putting what few 
things the}' had in a rough shed, and went to work building a cabin. 
Each had an Indian blanket which constituted the whole of their 
possessions of that sort. During their first wmter the}' wrapped 
themselves in their blankets and slept on the ground, their dreams 
doubtless disturbed bv the never-ceasing howls of wolves. 

These men had simple ways. Their only cooking utensil was 
an iron pot, and out of it they ate their meals without the medium 
of plate or pan. The second winter they had a bed of leaves in a 
sack resting on bed cords made of hickory withes. Samuel Chap- 
pell and a Mr. Smith settled in the same year near the old Jim Gab- 
bert place on the eastern Hawpatch road. John Lindsey settled 
a little southeast of where the Lambert grave-yard was afterward 
laid out, and at his cabin an event, the first of its kind, occurred, to 
mark the spot and give it some local historic interest. There in 
1819, the first white child born in what is now Bartholomew 
County, commenced his career. General John Vawter was among 
the numerous prospectors who were then looking over the new 
country. A welcome guest, he stopped at Lindsey's cabin, to 
spend the night, during which John Tipton Lindsey was born. 
The elder Lindsey afterward moved to the settlement that grew 
up above the present site of Columbus and became prominent in 
public affairs,. first representing the new county in the State Legis- 
lature. The younger Lindsey in later years, lived at South Bend, 
Indiana, and was County Clerk for a time at that place. Judge 
William S. Jones first came here on a prospecting tour in 1819, 
about the time the lands were being surveyed. He purchased a 
tract of land at the first sale in June, 1S20, and soon after removed 
his family from Kentucky, and settled about six miles north of 
Columbus on the western side of Flat Rock. Judge Jones was born 
in Nelson County, Ky., in 1790, and from the date of his set- 
tlement in 1820, to the date of his death, led a useful and honor- 
able life in this county, holding at various times stations of honor 
and trust. He had been a soldier in the War of 181 2, and partici- 

KARLY settlkmi:nt. 36^ 

pated in the buttle of the Thames. In the same locality the Stein- 
barger^ settled in 1819. They became an influential family and 
did much to develop the w calth of the new country and improve 
the moral tone of society. Eli Pence and Benjamin Irwin came in 
1820. The fertile soil of the Hawpatch attracted the settlers and 
caused the northern part of tlie county to fill up rapidly with cabins 
and settlements. The country east of Haw Creek was rather wet,, 
there being a large pond or lake on sandy ground near where 
the Hinches settled, called Hinches' pond. But here the Coxes, Park- 
ers, Fosters, and others established their homes. West of the old 
State road another settlement was made by Mignon Boaz, Benja- 
min Crow, John Hill, and Joshua Sims, from east Tennessee, who 
came in 1820 with his boys, Russell, Lewis, Noah and Joshua, Jr. 
Judge Tunis Quick came in 1819, and afterward settled between 
the State and Hawpatch roads. He was a man of note and be- 
came conspicuously identified with the subsequent history of the 
count3^ Allen Wilson, John Connor, Jacob Gabbert, David Tay- 
lor, Jesse Ruddick the elder, Jacob Cook and Adam Cook, were 
among the early settlers in that locality. The McQueens settled 
further up the creek, nearer the Cox neighborhood. Between the 
Hawpatch and Columbus were Jonathan Bunnell, Hans Irwin, 
John Singleton, and others. Most of the first settlers came in from 
Kentuck}^, some being natives of that State, and others having 
previously emigrated from Virginia and the Carolinas. The new 
lands were rapidly occupied and it would be impossible at this time 
to state with absolute certainty what settlements were first made 
except those above referred to. ' 

In a few years immigrants came in from Ohio and Pennsylvania, 
and some who had pushed further north at first, came back and lo- 
cated within the boundaries of this county. The northeast^ corner 
of the county was settled mostly by people from North Carolina, 
though a Kentuckian, Hugh K. McKahp was among the first 
to push his way into these parts, reaching there in 1820. Benja- 
min O. Robertson came in 1822, the Plarker family in 1824, 
Joseph Holder in 1825, EH Zeigler in 1826, the Spaughs and 
Edridge Hopkins in 1827. Martin Hauser a 3'oung Moravian 
minister, burning with zeal,, came from North Carolina in 1829 


and there lived a leader among men, beloved by all, until his death, 
in 1876. Others who came in 'early days were W. II. Chitty, 
Lewis Essex, David Fuhvider, the Lamberts from Pennsylvania, 
Lewis Reed, the Romingers, Peter Rothrock, John P. Blum, Jacob 
Clouse, John Drouberger, Peter Fry, Isaiah Carter, Wiley Pow- 
ell, Robert Carter, Henry Clayton and many others. The vener- 
able Rev. Albert Carter, now of Newbern, was the first white child 
born in Haw Creek Township, and probabl}- the second was William 
Powell, now a resident of the State of Kansas. Johnson Joiner and 
Thomas Bonnell came to the county in 1S19 and are still among the 
living. Daniel Aikin, a Virginian, came in the spring of 1S19, from 
Kentucky, with four or five children, and setded a short distance 
Avest of where St. Louis crossing now is. The Yealeys and Kell- 
ers were early settlers near Cliffy Creek. In 182 1, the Millers, 
from Kentucky, came- in: there were Ephraim and I\Iina, and their 
5ons, Frank, Robert, George and Nelson. Soon after, came the 
Rolands, George and Dr. H. B., both good citizens, but with pro- 
nounced aristocratic tendencies. A settlement west of Columbus 
was early made; the Glantons and Gabberts were the more promi- 
nent people there — Francis J. Crump is said to have driven one of 
the wagons belonging to the Glantons, from Woodford County, 
K3^ He was a poor carpenter who afterward became one of the 
wealthiest men in Bartholomew County. John Day, Sr., now one 
of the oldest men in Sand Creek Township, was one of the early 
.settlers in that locality. In 1821 the Quakers settled in Sand Creek 
Township, and ever since have kept up their rehgious organization 
there. Among those who first came were David, WilUs and Joel 
Newsom, Samuel Nicholson, Isaac, Walter and Jonathan Cox, Isaac, 
William, Benjamin and Phineas Parker, John Hall, John S. and 
Chalkley A. Chawner, Solomon Stout and William Ruddick. 

Among the first to settle in Wayne Township were John and 
David Prather, sturd}' young pioneers, and their wives. Soon after 
came the Walls, Richard, Samuel and John; and then the Forgu- 
sons and Vanzandts. Two young men named Williams, and their 
brother-in-law, came into this settlement and built cabins, but be- 
came dissatisfied and pushed on to other fields. Their deserted 
cabins were immediately occupied by the families of William 


Thompson and Jacob Lane, the former coming- from Kentucky, the 
latter from New York. The size and appearance of these cabins 
may b^ imagined wlien it is known that they wfcre raised by one 
man and his wife. Peter McKinney was an old settler in those 
parts and built the first still house there — about one mile south of 
where WaynesA'ille now stands. The Whalens, a \\'idow and three 
sons, William, John and Thomas, early settled between Waynes- 
ville and Walesboro. Near the site of the latter place were the 
Wales famil}-, Samuel and Charles Dougherty and Moses Sweeney, 
who now is probably the oldest resident in the southern part of the 
count3^ The southwestern part of the count}' was not settled until 
late — probably not earlier than 1830. William Sutherland, father of 
Bluford Sutherland, was probably the first to permanently locate in 
that section. Ezekiel Sutherland, now living at a ripe old age, was 
also among the first. Most of the settlers carte direct from Europe, 
principally from Prussia, though among the pioneers here there 
were a number of Americans. Noah Cooley, Emanuel Burgett, 
William Linson, Thomas McLaughlin, Noah Wantland, George 
Borstede, John F. Kobbe, Isaiah Watkins, George Sneiveley and 
Newel Stiles were among those who afterward became prominent 
in the neighborhoods where they resided. Farther north Aaron 
Crouch, Carter Harrison, Joel A3'ers, Washington Haislop, Turner 
Haislop and Thornas Haislop were among the first. In the north- 
west the Tannehills were prominent and influential early settlers. 

The first settler on the present site of Columbus was William 
Chapman, who was living in a small log cabin near where Bunnell's 
tannery was in later years, when Judge Jones and other land hunters 
came through the county in 1819. Hauser and Lochenour helped 
to raise the cabin. The next house was that of Luke Bonesteel, a 
double log house, which stood on the bank of the river near where 
the bridge now is, and was afterward used by the county for a 
court house. Luke Bonesteel and John Lindsey had previously 
settled in the Hav/patch, but they bought the land upon which 
Columbus was afterward located and deeded a part of it to General 
John Tipton, hoping to induce him to take up his residence there. 
As soon as the seat of government was located a village com- 
menced a growth which is elsewhere desribed in the histor}' of the 


cit}- of Columbus. Tlie men of marked ability residing here who 
were instrumental in developing the county's interests, are named as 
inWy as possible in other connections. 

The public lands in Bartholomew County were surveyed in 
1819 by A. C. Looker, Bethucl F. Morris, Abraham Lee, and 
Basil Bentley, and were put on sale atBrookville and Jeffersonville. 
The land system then required the lands to be publicl}'^ sold at not 
less than $2 per acre, of which one-fourth was to be paid in hand 
and the balance in three equal annual installments. Previous to the 
first sales the count}^ had been thoroughl}' explored and examined by 
"land hunters" with the view of securing the best tracts. Among 
these were Luke Bonesteel, George Doup, Gen. John Tipton, John 
Lindsey, Charles Edwards, William S. Jones, Joseph Lochenour, 
Joseph H. Vanmeter and many others. For three months after 
the land office had been opened for the sale of the lands in. the 
new purchase, they were crowded with buyers. Those who 
entered lands in Bartholomew County in 1820 were John Mulberry, 
Pristley Peak, David Shepperd, Basil R. Prather, Richard Wall, 
John Prather, Jr., Datid J. Prather, Joel Cooper, James Bean, A. 
Johnson, John Smiley, Robert Owens, Charles Dougherty, Samuel 
Doughert}', John Brown, George Brown, Samuel Wilson, Pleasant 
Paggett, John Davis, Solomon McKinney, Wilham Ruddick, Will- 
iam Whaler, John Ruddick, James Godwin, Wilham Kirkman, 
Henr}^ Rogers, William Arnick, Wilham Davis, Thomas Conner, 
James Vanzant, William Thompson, William Morns, Samuel 
Richardson, William Packwood, Abner Conner, Allen Collins, 
Enoch Parr, John Parker, Samuel White, Joseph H. Vanmeter, 
William Gabbert, Alex Vinyard, George Doup, Jacob Hauser, 
Samuel Mounts, William Delap, Joseph Lochinour, John Rider, 
Thomas Mounts, Nathan Carter, Aaron Bevis, Joseph Fassett, 
George Cummings, Ephraim Arnold, Michael J. Myers, Daniel 
Row, Ezekiel liughes, Isaac Gale, John Carr, James McEwen, 
J. Osbourne, Jonathan Bonnell, Jacob Cook, Joseph Cox, Abraham 
Fry, Ransom Perry, Samuel Merriwether, Luke Bonesteel, John 
Fowler, John R. Shoemaker, John Tipton, Peter Troutman, Will- 
iam Maskall, John S. McEwen, James Parker, Salmon Buell, 
Nathan Cox, George Kurts, Peter Cox, George Gabbert, An- 


thony Head, Absolom Elliott, Nathan l\yltij Archibald Gordon, 
Allen Williams, Noah Wright, John Pence, David Atherton, 
James* Laslj, James Wilson, Isaac Wilson, Hampton Queen, 
Thomas Lower, Isaac Hand, Andrew Cox, Hannah Shiver, 
John Adams, William Co\, Jacob D. INIarsh, Job Gardner, 
John Berrv, Enoch Warman, William Will, John Lewis, 
Benjamin Sailors, John Fancher, James Jacobs, William 
Swisher, John Nowman, Nathan Farlow, Alexander Denman, 
Zachariah Groves, Joseph Dawson, David McCoy, Cyrus C. Tevis, 
John Conner, Samuel Lindley, John Newland, Andrew W. David- 
son, George Becker, Nathan Underwood, Thomas Harker, Labon 
Records, William P. Records, David Hall, Thomas Russell, David 
Goble, Archibald Guthrie, Powell Scott, John Young, Benjamin 
McCarth}', John D. Lutz, Henry Nichols, Edward Wilcox, Joshua 
Sims, James G. Blair, Jesse Ruddick, William Summers, Abraham 
Music, Robert Wilkerson, Alloys Backman, Thomas Cox, Joseph 
McQueen, Wight Saunders, John Lee, Obed Keller, Carlton Kent, 
Anson Bennett, George Zuvers, Elijah Sloan, Henry Saunders, 
WiUiam Maxwell, William Bonnell, John Atkinson, Elijah Atkin- 
son, Henry Sharp, John Campbell, William Kelle}", Shadrack 
Barnes, Nathan Thompson, Stephen Robinson, John L. Davidson, 
Michael Waggoner, John Vanblaricum, Sylvanus Holse}', William 
Carter, William Campbell, Allen Wilson, Abdiel Parsons, William 
Dickens, Squire D. Ensley, Benjamin Ensley, James N. Bell, 
Samuel Stovecypher, WiUiam Sparks, Charles Collett, David 
Scott, John Spotts, Henry Surveh, Nathan Bass, Isaac Pancake, 
Frederick Redenbaugh, Jacob Kizer, James Burch, James Quick, 
James H. Vanmeter, Henry Saunders, Jr., John Underwood, 
Joseph Saunders, Jacob Gabbert, Benjamin Crow, Solomon Cox, 
David Hager, William Dudley, James Gabbert, Daniel Barber, 
David Keller, Joseph Robertson, William Abbott, Samuel Phil- 
lips, James C. Tomlinson, Ranson Davis, John Henry, George 
Craig, James Henry, Frederick Ford, John Barlow, William S. 
Jones. Some of these bought extensively for speculative purposes, 
others entered only enough to constitute a home farm upon which 
they expected to hve and rear a family. These entries contin ued 
to be made with considerable activity during the first few years. 


and afterward more slowly until all the land passed from the own- 
ership of the government. Many of those named above continued 
tfieir entries and some possessed large estates. 

Others who came in 182 1 and entered land were: William 
Martin, James Rogers, Tristam C. Lambden, William Royse, 
Nicholas Criss, James Crutchfield, Samuel Hulick, Thomas Epper- 
son, Daniel Gaines, William Richards, William Wilson, Joseph 
Grantham, Samuel S. Moore, Newton C. Jones, William H. Cham- 
bers, Jonathan Peddrick, Joseph Pownal, John Fowler, Samuel 
Partheman, Felix Redman, William Bowmian, Aquilla Rogers, 
James Spurgin, William Pace, Benjamin Smith, Jacob Mclndo, 
Henry Farmer, William Robertson, John Glanton, Burwell Glan- 
ton, Giles Mitchell, James Dulaney, Jacob Gabbert, John S. Mitch- 
ell, Edwai-d Carvin, John Dr3'bnad, Andrew Richard, Peleg 
Gifford, Joseph Drybnad, Zephaniah French, Warner Heath, Henry 
Soper, Henry Boswell, Henry Steambarger, James Jacobs, Spencer 
Records, James Smith, Thomas Esra, Jacob White, John McLain, 
John Whitehead, Stephen Frank, Right Saunders, Elisha Pack- 
wood, Thomas Prather, Thilman Howard, Jacob Crezlous, Richard 
Hall, Willis H. Dollens, Baker Johnson, Henry Smith, Daniel New- 
som, John Newsom, William Chapman, Alex Donaldson, John Ep- 
pler, John McCutcheon, Alex Blackketter, Hardy Wilson, William 
Wilson, Martha Wilson, Martin Wilson, David Deitz, Morgan Parr, 
Joel Newsom, James McKinley, Samuel Packwood, John P. Wailes, 
Philip Pedro, Leonard C. Wailes, Jesse Evans, Stephen Gudgle, 
Willis Newsom, James Kindle, James Starkey, Benjamin Wailes, 
Benjamin Duncan, Evan Thomas, Oliver Hampden, Matthew Pace, 
Benjamin Bennett, William Newsom, Alex McClintic, John Ogle, 
Ephraim Miller, Samuel Nelson, Thomas Foster, Andrew Rogers, 
Joseph Heart, Daniel Delter, Samuel Bull, Samuel Warner, James H. 
Sarvin, Silas Howard, John Karns, Uriah McQueen, Isaac Ranis, 
Jesse Henderson, Thomas Robertson, John Morris, Joseph M. Ed- 
wards, John Tulle3^ Those who made their first entries in 1822 
were: John Newsom, Thomas AUoway, William Brooks, John Si- 
bert, William Christie, Fenney Cartney, William Parker, Isaac 
Parker, Phineas Parker, Ephraim Cook, William INIcFall, Jonas 
Miller, John Powner, Benjamin GrifHth, John Miller, Jacob Miller, 







George Miller, Elijah Richardson, John Cox, Robert Kenady, Mar- 
tin Way,*" John M. Gourd, Thomas Woods, Daniel Gaines, Jolin 
Wilson, Isaac Pence, John Campbell, Daniel Ilillman, Brooks Mag- 

These entries were made in all parts of the county excepting 
that portion lying contiguous to what is now Brown Count}'. The 
Hawpatch lands were favorites, but the stream of settlers pouring 
in from the south and southeast, soon occupied all of the best lands 
from Sand Creek to the north county line. Nor did they overlook 
those rich acres lying west of Driftwood, where Nineveh and the 
north part of Union Townships now are. It was not until 1832 
that the lands in the west and southwest began to be taken. In 
that 3-ear Aaron Crouch, William Brown and Thomas J. Richard 
made entries there. They were followed in 1833 and 1S34 by 
David Cody, Oliver Hammond, David Phegley, Reuben Cooley, 
Vincent C. Roberts, Isaiah Carey, Josiah Carey and Thomas 
Lenon. From then until the close of 1839, entries were made 
rapidl}' and the entire county was soon settled. 

JVativc Animals and Their Hunters. — ; Among the wild animals 
found in the county by the early settlers were the deer, wolf, bear, 
panther, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, ground hog, skunk, mink, 
weasel, muskrat, oppossum, rabbit, and squirrel. These furnished 
meat for the first settlers, the deer being used most abundantly. 
Wild turkej'S were as plentiful as the deer, and the two were the 
game mostly sought after by the hunter. All of the settlers had 
guns as a necessar}' part of their equipment, and all of the old settlers 
were good hunters. In 18 19 the Delaware Indians hunted in the 
county. They were numerous, but quite peaceable. Their guns 
could be heard constantly. They had a camp on the Highfield 
place near Flat Rock, about two miles north of Columbus, and 
from there traversed the tangled and dense forests in all directions, 
following trails, there being then no roads. There was a trading 
house at Shield's, in Jackson Count}', where they disposed of most 
of their peltries. The}' continued hunting here through the sum- 
mer of 1820, quitting about the time of the land sales and leaving 
for the Delaware towns. By bleating like a doe they would call 
up the fawns and shoot them. Frequently settlers found carcasses 


of deer in the woods with hide and tallow only taken. The pres- 
ent site of Columbus was then very much tangled with bushes and 
briers, and about there a white deer used to range. Many tried 
in vain to kill it, but at last it fell a victim to the skill of Nathan 
Cox. The wolves were at first probably the most troublesome ani- 
mals, making frequent attacks upon the settlers, small domestic 
animals, and with most incessant and terrifying bowlings, rendered 
the nights hideous. The woods seemed to be full of them. Bears 
and panthers were not numerous, but were occasionally encoun- 
tered. Later squirrels became most destructive pests, consuming 
much of the growing crops, and their slaughter became a matter of 
business. It is said that Peter Fay, an old North Carolinian who 
settled in Haw Creek Township in 1S33, being a fine rifle shot, 
killed fifteen hundred squirrels within two weeks. General Terrell 
tells of a grand squirrel hunt in Wa3'ne and Sand Creek Townships 
as follows : 

" In the autumn of 1S34, ^ rivalry sprung up between the squir- 
rel-hunters of Sand Creek and Wayne townships, which resulted 
in a challenge on the following terms and conditions: The two 
townships were to have a squirrel killing match, each township to 
be represented by fifty hunters, the match to continue for three 
days. The township killing the largest number as shown by the 
scalps produced, was to be declared winner, and the other town- 
ship was to give to the citizens of both a grand, free barbecue dinner. 
Crows were then also plenty, 'and being much more difficult to 
shoot than squirrels, it was agreed that each crow killed should 
count as two squirrels. The place at which the dinner was to be 
given was selected in a grove near Azalia village, and a day was 
appointed when the scalps were to be produced and the match de- 
cided. 'Uncle' Sammy Marsh, of Sand Creek, was employed to 
get up the barbecue — the losing township to foot the bill. Lead- 
ers were chosen on both sides, who were pledged ' 'pon honor ' 
Ito honestl}^ and fairl3^ conform to the terms of the contest. The 
match created the wildest excitement. Women and girls backed 
up the men-folks b}'' moulding bullets and keeping shot-pouches and 
powder-horns well filled. Ever}- man and boy who could get hold 
of a rifle — then the only kind of fire-arm in common use — en- 



gaged ill the sport, to the full extent of tlic 'quota' agreed u]x)ii, 
with gr^at earnestness and enthusiasni. During the three days, 
from daylight to dark, the war raged most furiousl}-; the rattling 
and popping sounded almost like a battle; the slaughter was enor- 
mous. It was no sham fight ! The air was clouded with powder- 
smoke, and loaded with the fumes of ' villainous salt-peter.' The 
day for the barbecue arri\'ed, and all the hunters, loaded down with 
scalps, accompanied b}- their wives, children and sweethearts, 
flocked to the place appointed for the big dinner. ' Tellers were 
selected to ascertain the result. An honest count gave the victory 
to Sand Creek, though Wayne had no reason to be ashamed. The 
grand aggregate of squirrels killed can not be given. One man 
from Wa3'ne brought in nearl}' 900 scalps, and said he could have 
taken 1,200, onh^ he had to often stop to cool off the barrel of his 
gun. He was declared the champion of the match. The next 
largest number was killed by Samuel Stuckey, of Sand Creek, 
who produced 783 scalps. I got these facts from W. Stuckey, 
while he was Sheriff of the count}-." 

In the spring of 1855, the whole country swarmed with pigeons. 
There was a large roost near Wa3'nesville. Great numbers were 
killed by hunters and " pigeon pie " became a ver}' common dish. 
The farmers in some places turned out and battled with them, kill- 
ing all they could, for the reason that they consumed great quanti- 
ties of the mast which they were counting on as feed for their 
hogs. Of the hunter's equipment, General Terrell, in his remi- 
niscences, sa}' s : " The guns were generally home-made, every 
village having its gunsmith, and the implements were made to suit 
the particular wishes of each patron — to run so many bullets to 
the pound of lead, that is to say, of a certain calibre ; some were 
specially adapted for squirrel hunting, others for deer, turkeys, 
shooting matches, etc. Shot-guns w^ere considered an abomination 
and derisivety called 'scatter guns,' fit only for the amusement of 
small bo3-s and old dotai'ds whose defective vision prevented them 
from taking aim through the 'sights' of a rifle. Flint locks pre- 
vailed until the introduction of percussion caps, and many a deer 
was allowed to escape and roam the woods because of a ' flash in 
the pan,' and while the hunter was ' picking his flint' before ' trying 


it again.' The breech of llie old fashioned ride conlained a small 
cavity- closed with a brass or iron lid on a hinj^'e for a bit of tallow — 
to grease the ' patching,' which was a thin piece of cloth about 
three-fourths of an inch in diameter strung" on a string and attached 
to the shot-pouch strap. The powder, guaged in a primer or buck 
horn charger holding the proper quantity, was emptied into the 
barrel of the gun, then the greased piece of patching was placed 
over the bore, the bullet placed thereon and rammed home, the 
greased cloth preventing the ball from sticking on its way or fouling 
in the rifle groove. A shot-pouch of dressed buckskin with the 
hair on contained bullets, flints, wipers, etc., which, with powder 
horn, completed the outfit. A man usuall}-^ knew just about what 
he could do with his gun, and if the implement was reliable and 
accurate, it was petted as affectionately as a favorite child, and 
often given a pet name. Off-hand aim was the general rule — to 
shoot with a rest was boyish and beneath the dignit}'^ of a hunter." 
Pioneer Dress. — The head dress of the pioneer for the male 
sex was either a coonskin cap or a home made wool hat. The feet 
were covered with moccasins made of deer skins and shoe packs 
of tanned leather, but shoes were worn by most of the pioneers of 
this count}', except in summer, when old and young, male and fe- 
male went bare-footed a considerable portion of the time. The 
blue linsey hunting shirt was almost universall}' worn by men and 
boys. It was made with wide sleeves, open before, and so ample 
in its folds as to embrace the body almost twice around. It was 
such a comfortable and healthful garment that its wearers were 
loth to part wtth it when the time came for it to be replaced b}- a 
shirt or jacket of a different style. Pantaloons were made at a very 
early day of deer skin and linse}-, but to the settlers of this county, 
cotton and jeans w^ere most common. Women's dresses were 
simple, substantial, and well made. As a rule settlers raised their 
own flax, cotton and wool, and made their own garments. Good 
weavers were then the accomplished young ladies and the spin- 
ning wheel filled the little cabin with sweet music, as it sang its 
song of thrift and industry. They raised their cotton, picked it, 
carded it, wove it and then wore it. At the proper season the flax- 
brake was brought into use, and its product was "hackled" and 


spun into skein; the wool card was tlien prepared for the filHng; 
and with different kinds of bark, various colors were given to the 
raw material and made it ready for the loom, which, with its shut- 
tle flying noisily back and forth soon brought out its yards of linsey 
striped and beautiful. 

The head dress of the women was a simple cotton handkerchief 
or sun bonnet, and they were not ashamed to walk a mile or two to 
church on Sunda}', carrying their shoes and stockings in llieir 
hands until within a few yards of the place of worship, when they 
would put them on the feet. Indeed, at early meetings it was (juite 
common for nine-tenths of the people, male and female, to be bare- 
footed. These modes of dress long prevailed in the country set- 
tlements, but in the town of Columbus the merchants who carried 
rather large and complete stocks of goods encouraged the cultiva- 
tion of what they perhaps considered higher tastes in the matter of 
dress. Some silks and satins were worn, but thc}^ were not numer- 
ous. Whatever material was used, however, was genuine, and 
there were then no "shoddy" goods. There were many social assem- 
bhes and dances then considered quite elegant, and on these occa- 
sions the dresses worn, though differing in st^de, would compare 
favorably in richness with those of a later day. The newspapers 
soon filled with advertisements headed. Prints! Prints! and calico, 
at first costly, became veiy generally used. In turn it gave way 
except for common use, through the development of extravagant 
tastes, to something richer and more attractive. With the won- 
derful increase in wealth that the years brought it is not a matter 
of surprise that the pioneers themselves soon departed from the 
ways which their necessities forced upon them, nor that their de- 
scendants have continued the progress so admirably commenced. 

Aniuscnicuts. — Pioneer social gathering usually had in view two 
objects — work and sport. The log rollings, house and barn rais- 
ings, wood choppings, corn huskings, bean pickings, wool pickings, 
quiltings and apple parings, while attended with much laboi", were 
replete with enjo3'ment. In the early settlement of this county all 
amusement was preceded b}' work — every good time was earned. 
No man undertook alone to roll his logs. All joined together and 
went from place to place rolling. All houses were raised by neigh- 


borly hands. When the crops were galliered the corn was jnit in 
a long pile and neighbors were in\ited in to husk it, usually after 
night. Log rollings and huskings were followed by a dance from 
wiich the 3'oung folks got tlieir greatest enjo^'ment. John Stader, 
a cripple, was one of the famous pioneer fiddlers, and his services 
were in demand where\'er he was known. He went all over the 
county playing at frolics. In the huskings both sexes took part, 
the buskers being divided into two parties, each with a leader. 
The lucky finder of a red ear reaped a rich harvest of kisses from 
those of the other sex; the rules governing the quantit}' of such re- 
wards, vaiying in different sections. General Terrell tells of a 
husking in Columbus, which perhaps ma}' be accepted as fairl}^ 
representative. " One autumn afternoon " he says " the news 
went forth to the villagers that John F. Jones (familiarly called 
Jack Jones) would have a husking the night ensuing. Everybody 
went, man and boy. Jack was popular, a great favorite, had been 
Squire and Sheriff, and of course not to have gone to his husking 
would have been equivalent to a downright 'miff ' or insult. He 
was partially a farmer then, and the big pile of corn was of his own 
production. It lay some hundred 3-ards from his tavern in the open 
air. The night was clear and starlight — ■ yet several lanterns were 
suspended roundabout to disseminate hght to the buskers. The 
company congregated early. Ike Graves, a ver}^ funn_y, jovial fel- 
low, was picked upon as one of the leaders — vs'ith authorit}' to 
take the bottle round; for liquor w\as a common drink those days, 
and sold b}^ the landlord himself. Songs were sung, the liquor 
drank freely and the corn husked. It was a merry time; a perfect 
reunion of the citizens then living here, and the excitement was ex- 
ceedingly enjo3'able. After all was over most of the buskers dis- 
persed for their homes. A number, however, repaired to the bar 
room where a cheerful fire was blazing on the hearth, and plent}^ 
of the ' rosy god ' behind the bar. The fat and jolly old landlord 
(we always call fat and jolly folks old) brought out his apples and 
cider — and the crowd ever and anon would call out something 

stronfjer. Thing's soon were mellowed into an interesting confu- 
te o k o 

sion — songs were sung, speeches made, and toasts drank. Being 
under the care of my elder brother, I remained; but as the clock 


struck eleven and the Avaves of niirtli and discord still tumbled on 
Ave thought a speedy retreat to our home prudent and ' cut out ' 

When the country had filled up and Columbus had become 
quite a town, and A'et before the railroad had come to divert public 
attention from local matters, and to interest the people in what was 
being done elsewhere, the forms of amusement began to degen- 
erate. Yet withal there was a health}' interest in manh' sports. 
Horse racing was indulged in to a great extent. Races were got- 
ten up hastily whenever t\\ o or more nags believed to be fast were 
brought together. Nearly every public assembly Avas fruitful of 
some game or plan of amusement. Whisky was plent}-, and it 
caused men to do often what they were doubtless ashamed of in 
sober moments. Elections were always well attended, and with 
the single exception, perhaps, of muster or training da3's, none were 
more stirring and exciting than those on which the sovereigns as- 
sembled, ostensibly to exercise the sacred rights of freemen, but 
reall}', as the designs of the majorit}'- seemed to be, to mingle to- 
gether in wild confusion, quaff poisonous draughts, swap horses, 
pitch quoits, play the braggadocia, wrestle and fight. Of all the 
products of that inventive age in this line, the one which seems 
least to accord with the ideas of to-da}' concerning manly sports is 
described b}' General Terrell in these words : 

"Probably about the year 1838, some reckless and heartless 
fellows about Columbus conceived the idea of gander ■pulUngs — 
a pastime, which if not the offspring of their own minds, was prob- 
ably invented by some barbarous band of savages, or handed down 
to posterity as one of the graces which adorned the character of 
some ancient and worn-out pugilist, no longer able to fight. It 
shoVvs how sluggish public opinion was in those da3-s which may 
truthfull}' be denominated the dark age of Columbus. On the 
corner of Walnut and Jackson streets, and opposite a retail liquor 
store, a slender, supple hickor}- pole, some thirt}' feet in length, was 
securely planted obliquely in the ground in such a manner as to 
elevate the small end about eight or nine feet in the air. This was 
the ' gander pole.' On SaturdaA's, about the middle of the after- 
noon, a crowd would collect — having previously been willing 


votaries at the shrine of Ixicclius over the way — and arrange the 
preliminaries for the 'sporl.' A tine, full grown, full feathered, 
gander was selected from <i lloek close at hand collected for the occa- 
sion; a strbno- thon<r of leather was fastened to both his feet and se- 
curel}- tied to the elevated end of the pale, leaving the poor bird 
suspended, head downwards. A gantlet or open column of by- 
standers was then formed some fift}^ or seventy-five feet in length, 
terminating a few yards be\ ond the suspended gander. A vaunt- 
ing hero would then mount a horse, and starting in at the extreme 
end of the gantlet, ride full tilt up the open column, while the by- 
standers on either side would belabor his steed with clubs, canes 
and bludgeons most unmercifull}-. Of course the horse ran as fast 
as his legs would carry him; the rider, on reaching the gander, 
elevated himself a little in his stirrups and grasped for its neck, 
endeavoring to zvring it off^ which constituted the feat. This, how- 
ever, was extremely difficult to accomplish, requiring considerable 
skill and strength owing to the go-ahead nature of the horse under 
such circumstances leaving but little time to get hold of the bird, 
and still less to give the luring. All competitors were required 
first to deposit a certain amount in the hands of a banker, which in 
the aggregate constituted a prize fund to be distributed at the con- 
clusion of the game among those whose prowess had enabled them 
to accomplish the feat. Great excitement prevailed in the crowd. 
Bets were freely made on the gallant pullers; and from the gen- 
eral excitement prevailing a looker on at a little distance would 
have supposed that the Olympian feats of Achilles and Ajax never 
caused more exultation among the throngs of ancient Greece than 
did these brutish madcaps. This disgusting and uncivihzed brutal- 
ity brought forth a scathing article in the editorial columns of the 
'■Advocate^ a newspaper which had been started a short time be- 
fore. This had the desired effect — it checked the 'puUings' 

Of horse racing, General Terrell has written : — " A few 3'ears 
after the first settlement of the count}^, probably as soon as enough 
ground was cleared to make a race track, horse racing was intro- 
duced to minister to the pleasure and excitement of the people, and 
to alienate the monotony of the fun loving pioneers. The jNIcKin- 


ne3-s were leaders in tlie inovemeiil, aided by Jesse Ruddick the 
elder, and other owners of running slock. Al lirst, scrub races 
were n5n; distance from 2CO yards to one-fourth mile, the latter 
being called a quc-yter race. The animals were such as were com- 
mon in a new country, tough, rugged, and unkempt 'critters,' inno- 
cent of blood or breeding, whose only subsistence was what they 
could pick up in the wild range and thick underbrush of the woods. 
But they were plucky, of good wind ami foi- short stretches, made 
prett}' good time. As the country impro\ cd and the outUi}- could 
be afforded, a better class of horses was brought in, notabh', some 
stallions, whose owners claimed for them pedigrees as long as one's 
arm, showing high ancestry, fine mettle, blood, bottom, and all the 
points essential to success on the turf or elsewhere. The Ameri- 
can Buck, a fine looking blood bay with black flowing mane and 
tail, a racer, belonged to Ruddick; the McKinneys owned a large, 
long bodied animal called from his color, the McKinney Roan. 
Other horses of the better class were owned by different persons, 
and racing assumed for a w^hile a higher standard, though the scrub 
races were by no means abandoned. I have in m}^ possession the 
original articles of an association called the Columbus Jockey Club, 
organized in 1833. The paper is in the handwriting of Joseph Mc- 
Kinney, then County Clerk, and as it is a venerable and interesting- 
document, I copy it in full and exactly as written. 

August 5, 1S33. 

" Resolved that the folowing be the rules of the Columbus Jockey Club the first meet- 
ing to commence on the first thursday in October next & Continue three days three 
Judges to be Chosen by a majority on Each day by those that have entered their nags for 
that day. 

" First day Any horse mare or Gelding that is in the County at this time one mile & re- 
pete. Entrance five Dollars. Second Day three year Olds & under one mile & repete. En- 
trance five Dollars. Third Day two year olds and under one single mile. Entrance three 
Dollars, description of all nags to be made known in writing by the first ^londay in Septem- 
ber next to DavidDeitz. Entrance fee to be paid to the Judges before the nags start. En- 
trance forfeited if tha fale to win axcept the nag dies or some of his bones is broken. En- 
trance forfeited to the fastist nag distance 60 yards. All nags to carry a fethers weight &c. 

"At these races entries were made by Jesse Ruddick, David 
Deitz, James Briscoe,- Isaiah H. Jackson, Joseph McKinney and 
Gen. Downing. The race course was on Joseph McKinney's farm 
in a large cleared field lying east of Washington Street as now ex- 


tended, and nortli of the Madison Railwa}- as now laid. Tlie track 
sjvirted the entire field and was just a mile in circuit. There was no 
grand stand for the judges, nor seated amphitheatre for spectators; 
nor was any admission fee charged. It is not p^robable that much 
mone}' changed hands, but it may be presumed that a big crowd 
attended, and that there was much whisky drunk and plent\- of 
fighting as was customary in those times. 

"A few years afterward a race track was built or laid out by dig- 
ging up the dog-fennel in two parallel paths a quarter of a mile 
long, commencing at the foot of Franklin Street 'under the hill,' 
then an open common, thence running west and terminating at a 
point near the old ferr^- landing just below the present Driftwood 
bridge. Here, on Saturdays, races between all sorts of old and 
young 'plugs' of the 'scrub' order took place for several seasons, 
the hill-side overlooking the track being ahNa3-s well lined with 
lookers-on. These races were free to all, and untrammelled b}' reg- 
ulations other than such as were made upon the spot for the time 
being. They were kept up until about the time gander pullings 
were abated, when they were stopped by the same influences, 
greatly to the joy of good citizens and to the credit of the town." 

From these more ^'iolent sports in w^hich the men sought diver- 
sion, it' might be interesting and instructive to look upon the picture 
of a quilting party where the good women of the neighborhood- 
came together with kind hearts and willing hands to enjo}' some 
hours of work and conversation, and departing, leave permanent and 
valuable results of their toil. There were few distinctions of birth 
or wealth or circumstance. All alike were simple in their dress 
and habits and no exacting demands were made b}'^ social form. 
At the quilting nimble fingers plied industriousl}^ until the work 
was done, when songs were sung, games played, and dancing in- 
dulged in; indeed, the merriment was co-extensive with the jovial 
natures of the 3'oung folks assembled. Spelling matches and de- 
bating societies furnished amusement w'hich some considered of a 
higher sort. Here the training of the intellect was the paramount, 
ostensible object, but bo3^s and girls not belonging to the same 
family often came riding one horse. The young folks were gen- 

EARLY si:ttlem]-:nt. 3^7 

crnllv paired, and to bring about tbis natural selection was perbaps 
as wortby an object as tliese int(!llectual entertainments could bave 
had. Hut tliej-e were vijrorous and sincere luental combats tbat did 
mucb to give the people broader ideas and intellectual strength. 

"Turning out the school-master" was a form of amusement 
indulged in by the school children, at stated times. The log school 
house with its dirt floor, greased paper windows, backless seats, 
and the master's rods were not designed especially to inspire merri- 
ment, but the natural flow of spirits and love of fun, which always 
go with healthy youth, can not be checked by unfa\-orable sur- 
roundings. Earl}' on Christmas da}' the school gathers before the 
master arrives and bars him out by pihng benches against the 
door. The children yield in all things to the dictation of the older 
boys, some of them of greater size and strength, perhaps, than the 
master himself. With anxious look and bated breath they await the 
coming of the pedagogue. At last he emerges from the woods 
and comes out on the path leading directly to the door. He pulls 
the latch and gives the door a push, but it does not yield. Gleeful, 
but somewhat tremulous, voices from within demand the Christmas 
treat as the price of admission, and refused in unmistakable 
stentorian tones. An unconditional surrender is demanded by the 
attacking force, but the big boys are not awed, and growing bolder 
repeat their demands good-naturedly, but with no sign of flinching. 
Perhaps the teacher turns and starts along the path as if for home. 
Hurriedly the benches are removed; new plans are adopted; some 
stalwart becomes a self-chosen leader; the resolute band scramble 
fourth pell mell in hot haste, overtake the retreating teacher, and 
forgetting the respect they owe his years and learning, throw him 
down upon the ground and bind him fast. The prisoner, now in- 
dignant and not yet wiUing to succumb gracefully, struggles and 
declines to accede to the reasonable demands of his captors, again 
repeated confidently. They gather him in their strong arms and 
staVt toward some neighboring pond or stream to duck him; or if 
water be not near they devise some other punishment suitable to 
the offense, and start out vigorously for its ministration. Now wisdon 
dictates a change of course; valor under the circumstances is inaf- 


fectual; a surrender under the terms stipulated is agreed upon. A 
treat follows in which a royal time is enjoyed by both victors and 

Early Marria^-es.— The pioneer wedding was one of the inter- 
esting features of pioneer life. For a long time after the lirst set- 
tlement the people married young. There was no distinction of 
rank and but little of fortune, consequently the first impression of 
love generally resulted in marriage. The marriage was generally 
celebrated at the house of the bride. In the morning of the wed- 
ding day the groom and his intimate friends would assemble at the 
house of his father, and after due preparation departed for the 
mansion of the bride. The journey was sometimes made on horse- 
back, sometimes on foot, and sometimes in a farm wagon or cart. 
It was always a merry journey. After the marriage ceremonies 
were performed, supper eaten, dancing commenced and usually lasted 
till morning. The first marriage license issued in the county was 
to Matthew Redwince and Nancy Pitcher, on March 20, 182 1. 
They were married by James Garner, minister. James McCoy 
and Lucy Berry, licensed March 27, were the next to marry. 
Then followed the marriages of Edward Davis to Esther White, in 
March; Squire D. Ensley to Olive Cutler, in April; Jacob Hauser 
to Nancy Sims, in April; David Burkhart to Kisiah Lash, in June; 
AquiUa W. Rogers to Nancy Arnold, in May; Hiram Lee to Su- 
san Dudley, in June; H. H. Lewis to Mildred Harmon, in June; 
Thomas Dudley to Jane SuUivan, in July; George Stilts to Susanna 
Carlisle, in July; H. L. Lewis to Esther Osbourne, in August; 
Christopher Cox to Margaret Pope, in August; Richard VanLand- 
ingham to Matilda Slusher, in August; Jesse Davidson to Nancy 
Durbin, in September; Thomas Scott to Eleanor Fortner, in Octo- 
ber; Isaac Pancake to Micha Lemasters, in October; Solomon 
McKinney to Rebekah Sloan, in November; Elias A. Brock to 
Polly Durbin, in December; Tristram C. Lambden to Mary Wall, 
in December, all in 1821. The ceremonies were usually solemnized 
by ministers of the gospel, but occasionally a Justice of the Peace 
was called on to render this service. March 22, 1824, a license 
was issued to Green Graham and Margaret Petro, which was re- 
turned to the proper office in due time endorsed as follows : "April 


8, 1S24. Executed on tlic >vithin named parlies. Newton C. 
Jones, J. r." 

Trade and Coiiniu-rcc. — The early crops were bountiful. The 
soil had y'arnered in its pores the ricli accumulations of years, and 
needed little cultivation to produce a rich harvest. The farmer 
could chop out a piece of new ground, plant corn and without 
plowing it, gather an abundant yield. Potatoes and other vegeta- 
bles grew to an immense size in the fresh soil. In 1S19, corn was 
worth $1 per bushel; pork $5 per hundred weight; Hour and other 
necessaries were correspondingly high in price, and had to be 
brought from Washington County, some sixt3--five miles distant. 
But this was when the first settlers came in, and before Joseph Cox 
had tested the productiveness of the rich lands. Soon, however, 
the little market was too well supplied. Almost immediately the 
surplus of corn became of very little value; it could not be dis- 
posed of at an}' price. Pork was worth but little until the roads 
were opened up, so that hogs could be driven to Madison. Sur- 
plus farm products were conveyed b}' wagon to the same market, 
and a long procession of wagons wending their wa}' on the old 
State road to the metropolis on the banks of the Ohio, was not an 
unusual sight. As the count}' became more thickly settled, and a 
larger market was desired, flat-boating was devised to supply the 
want. January 26, 1S24, Flat Rock was declared to be a naviga- 
ble stream and public highway, from its mouth to Little Flat Rock, 
and Blue River was declared navigable to the north line of Shelby 

Every spring flat-boats started out with the high water loaded 
with lumber, corn, potatoes, lard, cliickens, and every sort of country 
produce, bound for the city of New Orleans. It required about 
ten men to take an ordinary sized boat to the mouth of the INIusca- 
tatack, and from that point five were supposed to be enough to handle 
its long, sw'eeping oars. The Pitchers and Gobies were among 
those reported to be the best and most skillful pilots of these crafts. 
A great deal of lumber was shipped by this means from the mills 
of the Taiinehills and Arnolds. Frequently four or five farmers 
would join together and run a boat in partnership, carrying away 
their own produce, but more often they were owned and run by 


men wlio made it a business to bu\' the surplus produce and carry 
it to market. Prominent amoni;- the old flat-boatmen of the count}'' 
Stand the names of E. and 1^. F. Arnold, Thomas, Ivobert and Will- 
iam Pitcher, the Tannehills, the Jones, IT. C. Terry, the Thomp- 
sons, of Wayne Township, Joseph McKinney, Isaac Boardman, 
William Singleton, D. Randolph, Thomas Hays, J. II. Terrell, 
Williamson Terrell, and John JM. G\\ in. On this subject General 
Terrell says: 

" The boats were generally constructed in the fall or winter, and 
were from 60 to 125 feet in length. When the bottom or hull of 
a boat was completed, the neighbors were called upon to assist at 
the ' turning.' A boat-turning was something on the order of a 
house-raising or log-rolling, and afforded excellent opportunities 
for bullies to sho\v tlieir strength. Whisky was generall}' and 
plentifuU}^ supplied, and not infrequentl}- would the ' gatherin.g ' end 
in a fight, cr a foot race, or a jumping match, ' sports ' peculiar to 
those times. When the boat was completed and launched (the 
launch was alwa3's the subject of another assemblage of strong men, 
and frequentl}' the same scenes were re-enacted as at the turning, 
or a grudge engendered then, was settled), the owner would, as 
the sa3'ing was, ' lie on his oars ' until a rise came, when the cargo 
would be hastily put in, a crew of stalwart men collected and the 
whole placed in charge of a steersman or practical boatman. 
Neighborhoods would, on occasions like these, turn out to help 
their friends off. All was life and jollity, and when the boat was 
under way, the hearty hurrahs of the crowd on shore would be as 
heartily returned by the boatmen. Very often a volunteer force 
would accompany them for a day or two and then ' foot ' it home. 
This was done pureh' for the ' fun of the thing.' Frequentl}^ a 
fleet of boats, five or six, would leave at the same time. While in 
the River Driftwood, they only ' run ' during the day, but after 
reaching the Ohio and Mississippi, they rarely tied up except in 
case of a storm. Sometimes a boat would be ' stove ' or wrecked, 
for the streams, swollen and rapid, were full of floating trees 
and hidden snags. Such accidents alwa3's fell heavil}' on the 
owners of the boat and cargo, no indemnity being provided, the 
practice of insuring not being followed then. When the boatmen 


returned (tliey were gencralK' absent two or three months), tliey 
would brin^;- b; groceries, tropical fruits, new suits of clothes and 
cane fjsfiing poles. The last named articles were always in dc- 
mand and were rarely omitted. Flat-boating was generally iirotit- 
able, and although very laborious and attended with considerable 
danger, it was fascinating to those engaged in it. The last of the 
flat-boats, from this county, floated out of Driftwood in the spring- 
of 1844, a few months before the completion of the ' M. & I. R. R. 
to Columbus.*' 

The venerable Silas L. Thompson, now residing in Columbus, 
and bearing his years lightly, was a veteran in this service, having 
made in all eighteen trips to the Crescent City. He tells of sturdy 
pioneers, who, after disposing of cargoes and boats, walked back 
to their homes — all the wa}- from New Orleans to Columbus. In 
business transactions, at the outset, the coon skin was the most 
common medium of ex'change. It passed current in all business 
circles and was often forced upon tax collectors and postmasters in 
pa3^ment of the law's demands. It became customary to estimate 
the value of all sorts of personal property, produce and merchan- 
dise upon a coon skin basis. Money was little known and seldom 
seen among the early settlers. There was a S3-stem of barter and 
trade that enabled them to make what exchanges were necessary 
to suppl}^ all wants. Subscriptions to build churches, school houses, 
bridges, drain swamps, repair streets, emplo}'^ preachers and teach- 
ers, etc., were made payable in certain articles called "trade" at 
"the market price" or "current rates." Farmers paid in pork, 
corn or other farm produce; a shoemaker, in shoes; a tanner, in 
leather; a miller, in flour; a merchant, in goods; a doctor, jn med- 
icines and attendance ; a laborer or mechanic, in work according to 
his calling. Horses and cattle were traded for land; rifle guns for 
town lots and all sorts of " truck " for dry goods and groceries. 
WilHam H. Stader, a well-known resident of Columbus, says that 
when in 1822, with his father, h'e traveled along the primitive road 
just hacked out in the dense woods, he met but one man between 
where Walesboro now is and the then little village of Columbus. 
This man had lost all his famil}- by sickness in the bottom lands and 
offered his 120 acre farm to !Mr. Stader's father for a two-year-old 

39^ 15AKT1I01.0ME^V COUNTV. 

cok lliat was anioni;- liis ]X).ssc.ssions. Upon rcacliing C\i]uinl)us he 
was offered by "Jack" Downing- for llie same coll all those town 
lo^ts lyini:,^ between the corner on which Josejih 1. Jr\\in"s line block 
now stands and the alley next to the Odd Fellows" buiUlinL;-. and on 
tliis propert}' there then stood an unhnished small two-story frame 
liouse. Few articles were then named as ha\ing a li.xed money 

Early Uliniin^: — Not the least of the pioneer's hardships was 
the procuring of bread. The first settlers were required to seek 
suppUes from other sources than from their own lands for at least 
one year; and the first crops, though generall}- very abundant, gave 
only partial relief, there being no mills accessible to grind the grain. 
Hence the necessity of grinding by hand power, and many families 
■were poorl}- provided with means for doing even this. The 
" grater " was used by man}', and in man}- cases the horning block 
was resorted to. JNIills in older counties, sometimes fort}- miles 
away, were patronized. 

Going to mill, says one who spoke from experience, was quite 
an undertaking with the pioneers. It was, perhaps, a two or three 
da}^s' journey. Sometimes a pair of oxen attached to a two-wheel 
cart carried the farmer and his grain on his journey; but frequently 
he went on horseback seated on a bag of grain. This was a tedious 
journey, and his return was anxiously awaited by mother and chil- 

There are some recollections of ' sroina: to mill' thatbrino- with 
them pictures of weary watchful nights when father did not return 
as promised and expected, being delayed by the number of " grists " 
before him, or the impassable condition of the roads or traces. 
Those were dismal phases of pioneer hfe, when the darkness closed 
in upon the anxious mother and crying children, when the v>inds 
beat upon the rude cabin, bringing to their ears unwelcome sounds, 
laden with howls of starving wolves, when hunger pressed heavily 
upon the helpless inmates. 

Soon enterprising citizens of the county began to embark in the 
milling business. A desired location along a stream being found, 
an application was made to the authorities for a writ of ad guoa 
damnum. This would enable millers to have adjoining land ofli- 


cialh' cxainintid and llu' amount of dania^t.', bv making a dam, 
named. ^Mills ^ve^e such a greal public convenience that objections 
were seldom made to their location, and in many instances they 
Avere bu^lt and operated for months before a wiit was applied for. 
"Tiie llrst hand-mill bri'Uglu to the county was owned by Daniel 
Branham, residing some three miles northeast of Columbus. This 
mill was kept running constantly, da}- and night, customers being 
permitted to grind but a half bushel of grain at one time. The 
liberal, neighborh' spirit of die times i< .^hown by the fact that at 
first this mill was kept for accommodation, each one grinding his 
own grain and paying no toll. So tedious a process soon proved in- 
adequate to suppl}^ the growing demands of the communit}', which 
were promptl}- met b}' the starting of two mills in which horses 
supplied the motive power. One was located on Clift}' Creek, in 
the McFall settlement; the other near the site of Depper's mill, in 
Harrison Tow nship. These improved mills greatly facilitated the 
means of providing the communit}- with the ' staff of life.' Soon 
so much was required of them that the waiting for 'our turn' 
became an irksome task. Following the horse-mills, came the era 
of water-mills. Probably the first mill of this kind in Bartholo- 
mew Count}', was built by Joseph and Thomas Cox. It was located 
on Haw Creek, about three miles northeast of Columbus, that 
stream being then of more capacity and furnishing more ample 
power for a mill than now. The mill ground both corn and wheal 
for a tenth part, and, though rude and imperfect, was looked upon 
as a wonder of mechanical skill and was very largely patronized. 
At first the bolting was done on a hand-reel, but later improve- 
ments relieved the customers of this labor and rendered the mill 
automatic in its operation. About the year 1831, Mr. Cox, in view 
of the failing supply of water in Haw Creek and the larger 
capacity of Flat Rock, decided to build a new mill on the latter 
stream; whereupon he put the saw-mill then attached to his mill to 
work to saw out lumber for the new building, and in a few months, es- 
tablished his mill on Flat Rock, two miles north of Columbus. The 
old mill then became the property of Mr. Samuel Spurgeon, who 
continued to run it for a period of two years. 

When the volume of water became so small as to render the 


mill unprofitable, it was abandoned, soon falling into deca}-, until 
in^a few 3'ears nothing remained to mark the site but some stra}'' 
fragments of the decayed frame. 

"The Flat Rock mill engaged a large trade for fifteen years or 
more, till other mills, more modern ;ind more easy of access, drew 
off its patronage, wlien it was alxuidoned, and 'the water gradually 
shifted its course till the old mil! \v;is left some 200 yards to the west 
of the river. 

"In 1822, Judge Pence built, near Taylorsville, on Driftwood, a 
flouring-mill, which, owing to its superior power, was enabled to 
run constantl})-, and drew a large patronage from adjoining counties. 
It was purchased a few years after its erection by Maj. Tannehill, 
in whose family it remained till 1876, when Daniel Miller became 
its proprietor. 

" On Driftwood, at Lowell, Napoleon Arnold founded the cele- 
brated Lowell Mill, and did custom business for more than twelve 
3^ears, when, in 1848, Amos Crane, from Gorman Town, became 
the proprietor. Under his management it developed into a mer- 
chant mill, and made the only flour at that time shipped from the 
county. In 1853 oi" 1S54, Crane built a new mill, added some im- 
pro^'ements and greatly improved his brands of flour, which ranked 
high in the local and eastern markets. In 1856, Crane sold the 
propert}^, and it passed through the hands of several j roprietors, 
until, in 1858, it was purchased by Messrs. T. & J. W. Gaff. These 
gentlemen increased its capacity, extended its trade, and placed it 
in the front rank of merchant mills. It was subsequently aban- 
doned. There was also a custom flouring-mill on the west bank of 
the river at Lowell, for a period of twenty-five years, owned and 
operated by Anthony & Son, but has been abandoned. 

"Next came the mill located in the eastern part of the county 
on Clifty, and then Brown's mill on the fall fork of Clifty, built as 
early as 1839, and running for thirty-two years. The next mill 
was owned and operated near Newbern, by Mr. Critser, whose 
father built a mill on the same site between 1836 and 1838. The 
Anderson mill was located three and one-half miles north of New- 
bern, and was one of the first water-mills on the creek, and early 
became ver}' popular. The Bush mill was built in 1829, by David 

EARLY S]-:TTL1^,MEXT. 395 

Keller, and was later owned by Ezra Bush; the mill earl\' enjo\ed 
a large patronage. 

In 1S35, Isaac Patterson built a custom flouring-mill on Flat 
Rock, just north of the old Madison road-bed, near Columbus. The 
location was a good one and the mill commanded a large trade, but 
the foundation of the dam being sand}', was constantI\- giving way, 
causing trouble and expense; the property changed hands once or 
twice and finall}' went down, about 1S47, probably owing to the 
want of water power. In 1S47 and 184S, Messrs. Bantill and 
Gritlith extended the old mill-race to the south side of the town to 
a point within 100 ^-ards of the bed of Driftwood, where the}' 
erected a flouring-mill fitted for merchant and custom work. The 
firm sold the property to Capt. Whitesides, who continued to run 
the mill until the fall of 1S5S, when it was destroyed by fire. A 
temporary custom-mill was kept up for a few years afterward at 
this point, when the water-power was transferred to William Carter, 
who founded the Hydraulic Woolen Mills near the site of the old 
mill. The destruction of the Whiteside mill closed the water-mill 
era in the immediate vicinity of Columbus. As early as 1823, Mr. 
Isaac Rains founded a rude mill on Flat Rock, six miles north of 
Columbus, at a point afterward known as Corman Town. 

" At that time there was an island in the river, and between it 
and the east bank there was a narrow channel through which the 
water ran with much force and velocity. Taking two logs of suit- 
able size, he placed one on the island and the other on the bank 
parallel to the first and the current, notching them to make bear- 
ings for a wooden shaft, which was laid from bank to bank at right 
angles to the stream, and resting in the notches made in the logs. 
To this shaft he attached flights or paddles reaching down into the 
water, and moved by its flow. Simple wooden gear connected this 
flood-wheel with a hand-mill (the one previously mentioned as be- 
ing the first in the county). Rude as this mill was in its construc- 
tion, it did a great amount of work, and saved the neighboring set- 
tlers many a tiresome trip. Later it was replaced by better ap- 
pliances; the property fell into the hands of the Crane family, who 
further improved it, adding a saw-mill and wool-working machinery. 

In 1846, Amos Crane employed a steam engine in grinding 

39^ nARTnoLo:\ii:w countv. 

grain, ami claimed the honor of ha\iiii( tlie first, steam flourinLi^-mill 
in 4he county. In 184S, the properly passed into tlie possession of 
Mr. James Corman, who operated it lor several years, when it was 
abandoned. Other mills, and esjvcially those of later years, are 
elsewhere mentioned in connection with the history of the localities 
in which the}- stand. 

Poli/ical Can/J)(r/i:/is. — An extended political histor\- of th^^ 
county, containing- a narration, in detail, of the important events 
growing out of political opinion, and a sketch of the growth and 
development, the change and decay of parties, could not be ad- 
visedly undertaken in the limits necessarily fixed to the treatment 
of the subject in this connection. It is designed here onl}- to pre- 
sent an idea of the methods emploNcd b}'' the earl}' settlers in their 
political work. The turbulent state of society common to a new 
country is fruitful of many deplorable practices; and perhaps no- 
where are these more manifest than in the warml}- contested cam- 
paigns. Here the demoralizing effects of a too free use of whisky 
are most apparent. On the other hand, the patriotic zeal and the 
sturdy independence of character evinced in the maintenance of the 
sovereigns' most sacred rights challenge admiration, and are worthy 
of perpetuation. To show the political cast of the county and the 
increase of the vote, a statement embracing facts relative to every 
Presidential campaign from the formation of the county to the 
present, is elsewhere given. In the first campaign after the organi- 
zation of the county, that of 1824, when the county was still new 
and local industrial interests were paramount, there were no party 
divisions except on local issues; but in 1828, when the canvass of 
Jackson and Adams was well commenced, party lines began to be 
drawn, though not so earnestly and closely as in after years. In 
that year one of the leading questions was that of a tariff for pro- 
tection against free trade ; but this issue did not greatly disturb the 
voters of Bartholomew County; they then knew little and cared 
less about it. Jackson's fine record being in his favor and his 
general style suiting the rough and tumble people of the new States 
of the West, he was victorious. 

As the campaign advanced the excitement grew intense, the en- 
thusiasm showing itself in public gatherings, pole raisings and dem- 


onstrations of a similar character, at all of which the ever-ready 
barrel of liquor played an important part. Dr. Lawson Abbett, 
who cyiie to the counl\- in the summer of 1828, from Henry 
County, Ky., riding all tlu; way on horseback behind his brother, 
John B. Abbett, a tailor to whom he was apprenticed, once 
told to Gen. Terrell an anecdote connected with this campaign, and 
from the latter's notes the story is here told. Willis Miles, a young 
man about twenty years of age, a cousin to Dr. Abbett, was also 
apprenticed to John B. Abbett. The Abbetts were ardent Demo- 
crats. Miles and the Terrells were Whigs — Cla}- men. At the 
Presidential election John Tsl. Gwin gave a barrel of whisky to 
treat the Jacksonites. Lawson was selected to deal it out to the 
faithful only. It was drawn out of the barrel in a bucket and then 
dispensed to the thirsty in tin cups. No Adams or Cla}' man could 
get a drop of it, but their friends provided for them also, and as a 
result all got drunk, even including young Abbett himself. A 
Jackson flag pole was erected in the public square; the flag, nailed 
to the pole, was of white muslin, sewed together at Abbett's tailor 
shop by Lawson, and bore the name of Andrew Jackson painted in 
large black letters. It was rumored during the day that the Adams 
men had determined to cut the pole down and destroy the flag that 
night. Indeed, during the day, as a precautionary measure, guards 
were stationed about the pole and the whisky barrel to keep the 
opposition from carrying out their plan of destroying the pole and 
flag and capturing the whisk^^ 

To make assurance doubly sure (the Jackson men feeling in- 
capacitated for night guard duty) thought it prudent to lower the 
pole and preserve the flag from any possibility of capture. With 
the aid of poles and ropes, and the strong arms of the stalwart 
Democrats, the pole was gradually lowered to the ground. It was 
■ then twilight, and in the excitement and confusion incident to the 
work, young Willis Miles slipped in and snatching the flag, stripped 
it from the pole and ran away with it with all his speed. The 
Democrats flew after him, and would have killed him undoubtedly 
if he had been caught. John McKinney was in the lead of the 
pursuing part}^, and while he could not catch the fleeing culprit, he 
managed to grasp a flipping corner of the flag, and recovered it 

39^ BAUTn01.0>rFAV cou.xty. 

amid tlic upi-oarious cliecrs of liis inftniatcd friends. Miles escaiicd 
and liid. The enraged Democrats Iniiiled for him '-high and low,"' 
bu^ fortunate]}' for his scalp, did not iind him. 

Dr. Abbett said the events of that day, and the humiliation and 
degradation he felt for the part he took, and especially his own in- 
toxication, disgusted him witji the Democracy', and (also influenced 
by the arguments and persuasions of ^^iles, who was a brilliant 
young fellow) he made up his mind to quit the intemperate and 
rowdy party, as he believed it then to be. He joined the Whigs 
and stuck, and became a life -long temperance man. 

The fights between politicians over differences of opinion were 
often quite serious. Perhaps none more bloody ever occurred than 
that between Newton C. Jones and Joseph McKinney in 1S28. 
The former was the Adams candidate for Representative to the 
Legislature; the latter the Jackson candidate for County Clerk. 
Newton Jones was the keeper of a tavern and so w\as his brother 
Jack Jones. At the former's house the latter had some dispute 
with Tamp McKinney, and knocked him down. Jo McKinney 
heard a highl}- colored account of the affair from some bystander 
and at once proceeded to the Jones tavern and commenced heapinf 
abuse on its landlord. Several who had witnessed the previous affray 
called out that it was Jack Jones who had knocked Tamp McKinney 
down, but the irate braggart declared that Newt Jones was the 
bully of the house and the man he was after. Whereupon the 
fight commenced between the two stab . ^rts, both powerful men of 
faultless courage, and skilled in pugilism. Soon the floor was 
stained \vith blood; the walls and even the ceiling were blotched 
with it. They fought desperatel}- for fortj'-five minutes and were 
not separated until they were so exhausted that they la}^ on the 
floor facing one another and occasionally striking out, but neither 
being able to mount the prostrate form of his foe. Jones received 
the greater damage. The}' were both elected to the offices for 
which they were candidates, but Jones died before the Legislature 
assembled. It was thought by many that his death was occasioned 
by the dreadful pounding he had suffered; and many years later 
McKinney said that he had received permanent injuries in the fight. 

Subsequent campaigns up to that of 18^0, though quite spirited, 


were without remarkable characteristics. There was a general 
political awakening, however, in 1840, party lines were more, 
closely drawn than ever before, and that campaign was memorable 
in all parts of the countr}-. Its history, as connected with this 
locality, is gleaned from the notes of General Terrell. None who 
witnessed tliem ever forgot the log cabin raisings, the mass conven- 
tions, the hard cider jubilees, the Tippecanoe clubs, the banners 
and canoes, the caricatures of the Van ]>uren d3'nast3^ and all the 
paraphenalia of that eventful period. Glee clubs chanted the histor};- 
of General Harrison's life, and multitudes joined in the chorus and 
hooted at his opponent. The one was sung into ofiice — the 
other laughed out of it. Log cabins were erected, for political 
purposes solcty, out of buckeye — a soft, white wood, plentiful and 
easily cut. If the sap was " up " the logs would sprout after be- 
ing laid in the walls and thus gave quite a romantic and picturesque 
appearance to the domicile. Clubs were started in ever}^ town, 
mass meetings were held everywhere, and everybody for miles 
awa}' attended them, with traveling workshops, banners, canoes, 
stump-speakers, and satirical caricatures witliout number. Ever}'- 
thing was Tippecanoe — -handkerchiefs, badges, medals, song 
books, almanacs, bands of music, and shaving soap. The election 
was paramount to all other interests. The welkin rang with shouts 
for " Harrison and Reform," politicial sermons were preached in 
ever}"- neighborhood dail}^; processions were formed by night to 
arouse some weary candidate to make a speech to them. People 
thought it a little matter to go from Columbus to Madison, Indian- 
apolis, and even to the Tippecanoe battle ground, on horseback or 
in wagons, to attend political gatherings. Such was their enthusi- 
asm. The same spirit was ever3^where manifest. A mass con- 
vention was held at Columbus, addressed by Joseph L. White, 
then a candidate for Congress, to which delegations with banners, 
glee clubs and bands of music came from Madison, Vernon, Rock- 
ford and elsewhere. At one time 40,000 people gathered on the 
historic battle ground of Tippecanoe, and then the enthusiasm 
grew to- white heat. Many went from Columbus. Col. John 
Vawter, of Jennings County, said that to the immense throng, eat- 
ables of ever}^ description were as free as air. The day was 


beautiful; only a fleck of cloud in ihe sky, representing, as the 
Colonel said, New Hampshire. Solon Robinson had a small print- 
ing press then on wheels and busied himself printing songs and dis- 
ti'ilbuting them to the people. Canoes, full-rigged schooners, and 
e\ery device suggestive of the sentinu'its over which , ibhc opinion 
enthused, were there in great numbers. Stirring addresses were 
made, and the patriotic fire in every breast was fanned into an al- 
most consuming flame. 

One afternoon, a short time before the election. Col. R. B. 
White, then keeping the tavern on the corner of Walnut and Jack- 
son streets, announced to the good citizens of the Tippecanoe and 
Tyler stamp, that an informal meeting of the "Tippecanoe Club" 
would be held at his hotel instantcr. In a short time a crowd was 
collected; the Colonel presided at his bar and served his friends 
• with a collation of his best liquors, all free and for the love of vic- 
tory and Whiggery. Sam Smith was then always on hand, and 
always ready to make a speech. He mounted the stairway and made 
a few remarks pertinent to the occasion. WilHamson Terrell, then 
in political life, happened along at this juncture, dropped in, and be- 
ing solicited, in his usual felicitous style spoke for a short time upon 
the policy of the Whigs, and the advantages which would accrue 
to the country by placing a Whig administration in power. He 
concluded by calling on R. L. Howell, who was present, to take 
the stand. Mr. Howell, who was a staunch Whig, editor of the 
Advocate, full of humor, energetic and always battling manfully 
for the cause, commenced by announcing that he would merely give 
an exhortation, the gentlemen who had preceded him having sufh- 
cientl}' explained the policy and advantages of the Whigs. He 
spoke a short time and concluded by giving the following invitation : 

" If there is any person here who has been groping his way 
in times past through the dark and murky mazes of Locofocoism — 
who is conscious of his being a stranger to the true faith, who de- 
sires to associate himself with the true friends of his country, let 
him arise and shake off the shackles that bind him as a hanger-on 
to the Locofoco regiment, come forward, give us his hand, and 
join the glorious Whig army, regenerate himself and behold for 
once the light of truth as it is in Whiggery. The doors of the party 

EARt.v s):ttli:m i:\t. 


arc now oldened/' Coii(i-ar\' to the (.'NiHTtalions of all present, Iiis 
exhortation induced one George Bo\-ard to come forward and ac- 
cept the ^iroffered redemption by (j^ivini; his hand to tlie speaker. 
The applause which followetl was deafiniiig, and lasted for se\eral 
minutes. When it subsided Ilowell, who had meanwhile been 
shaking his convert cordial!}' b}" the hand, bid him be seated, and 
slapping him familiarl}' on the shoulder, pronounced the following: 
" In the name of Whiggery, I now pronounce 30U free and clear 
from all stain or taint of Locofocoism, and henceforth a member of 
the true, great and glorious Whig part}-^ of the United States of 
America." Then turning to the audience: "Brothers, give him 
thy right hand of fellowship." This was done with a right hearty 
good will — when the meeting adjourned with nine deafening 
cheers. Thus, here is an instance of a man regularly changing his 
political creed. 

The doctrine that to the victors belong the spoils w^as then in 
vogue, and upon the inauguration of President Harrison, the rush 
for office at Washington was something hitherto unseen. Horace 
Greeley spoke of it as " the great scramble of the swell mob of 
coon minstrels and cider-suckers." At Columbus, John C. Hub- 
bard was the life and soul of the Whig party. The speeches were 
made by Jonathan JNIcCarty, R. L. Howell, S. W. Smith, W. Ter- 
rell, Joseph L. White, Governor Bigger and others, but Hubbard 
gave the use of his room to the Tippecanoe Club, furnished 
whisky, bought a drum, was the leader in getting up the great 
demonstrations, and inducinjj the attendance of deletr^tions from 
other remote towns, and in many ways helped along the cause. 
With a canoe, such as was always seen at those assemblies, and 
wdth drums and fiddles, he headed a delegation that went to Edin- 
burgh to hear Herod and Peaslee debate. There was a sudden 
rise in Flat Rock; Hubbard's carriage was swamped, and he nar- 
rowl}' escaped drowning. When the part3''s success became gen- 
erall}^ known, ever3^one supposed that Hubbard's zealous efforts 
would be rewarded by an appointment as Postmaster, the office be- 
ing chiefly desirable to draw trade to his store. William Mounts 
was, however, appointed, and the disappointment of Hubbard was 
ill-concealed. In 1844, he joined the Democrats, and acted as 


Marslial al many df llu-ir bi^" liarbccucs and political parades. In 
1843, there was a Democratic triumji!-, in the election of James 
WJiilcomb as Governor, on party grounds; since which lime the 
county has given Democratic maiurities at all Presidential elections. 

The Democrats prolited by tlu- brilliant Whig campaign of 1840, 
and ^^■orked up much enthusiasm in 1S44 bv the use of appropriate 
songs, roosters, polk stalks, farmers' barbecues, processions, and 
speakings. The Whigs continued the winning polic}' of their last 
struggle and prepared for a sharp conflict. They depended largelv 
on coons to arouse enthusiasm. Both parties felt confident of 
carrying the covuit^-, and the vote, when counted, showed it to be 
ver3' close. Thorough count}' and township organization was 
effected by both parties; by the Democrats on Christmas dav, of 
1843, and by the Whigs on the following New Yeai's day. From 
that time on until the polls were closed the clash of the contending 
arms was seldom silenced. The Whigs announced their unabated 
hostilit}'^ to Van Buren's " Sub Treasury system" and " Standing 
Army project," and their steadfast and abiding adherence to the 
policy of a protective tariff and a sound currenc}'. The Democrats 
declared the " self-st^ded 'Modern Whig' part}-" to be identical 
with the old Hartford Convention Federalists, and referred to 
*' Federal Whig humbugger}'," charging Whigs with voting for the 
"pageant of coon skins, hard cider, and banners" in the previous 
campaign instead of for Harrison and his principles. Both parties 
planned huge barbecues. William S. Pitcher, of Loiaisville, was 
the Democratic orator, and in the procession a Dorr banner painted 
b}'- W. W. Frybarger, of Connersville, was borne aloft by the en- 
thusiastic Dick Carter, who kept turning it about that all e3'es 
might behold it. At the Whig barbecue there was a large and 
enthusiastic crowd, but their ardor was a little cooled by the dis- 
appointment due to the non-arrival of expected speakers. Hon. 
William Herod became the orator of the day, and with that power 
which characterized all his public speeches, addressed the people. 
Hickor}' and ash poles, some as much as 150 feet in length, were 
raised by the different enthusiasts. But at length the election came 
and resulted in dejection to the Whigs. 

The nucleus of a new party had begun to form. About 1840, 


tlie first anti-slavery documents were circulated in the county. Jo- 
seph Cramer, a Pennsylvanian and a Democrat, and Jasper II, 
SpraguCj^a New Englander and a Whit;, were the only pronounced 
abolitionists at that time, though the Quakers of Sand Creek Town- 
ship, all of whom except a Mr. Peaslce, were Whigs, were op- 
posed to slaver}-, but had taken no part hitherto in a^'ititating the 
question of its abolition. Many other Whigs in the county were 
opposed to slavery in the abstract but were equally opposed to any 
interference with it when it existed under the authorit}' of law, fear- 
ing to disturb the harmony and good feeling between the two sec- 
tions of the countr)'. In 1843, the abolition candidate for Governor 
received nine votes in the count}', and in the following year thirteen 
citizens voted for James G. Birne}^ abolition candidate, in prefer- 
ence to rienr}- Clay or James K. Polk. Those votes were cast by 
the Quakers. The growth of the anti-slaver)- vote is elsewhere 

The campaign of 184S was spirited but not as brilliant as those 
which had preceded it; that of 1852 was heated and exciting; and 
those following, wherein were discussed those great questions 
which for decision were at length referred to the fierce arbitrament 
of war, stirred pubUc opinion to its ver}- depths. It is not the pur- 
pose to consider further these political struggles. 

* * * •* * ** * 

Some have lived to note the changes and improvement made 
since the first white settler pitched his tent on the fertile lands of 
the Hawpatch, now seventy years ago. They have seen the 
*' wilderness rejoice and blossom as the rose," savages and wild 
beasts disappear, the log cabins replaced by comfortable and 
even luxurious homes, schools and churches erected in every' com- 
munity; and thus in the great transformation presented, have wit- 
nessed what seems to be the culmination of civilization and refine- 
ment. Most of the pioneers have passed away, and with them the 
land marks they erected. Because of this, and the frailt}^ of aged 
memories, much of the early history- is buried in eternal oblivion. 
What has been rescued shows that a great debt, which can not be 
reckoned in dollars and cents, is due from the present generation to 
the authors of the rich inheritance which they enjoy. To the liv- 



ing pioneers the consciousness of heroism in tliL'ir Hves, and of ^ood 
deeds \Yrou_t;ht for their onward subseijuent j^^'neralion is an addi- 
^tional compensation »and reward for the trying struggles manfully 





Indian Hisiorv — Situation Unfavorable for the Red INIan 

— Indian Land Titles — The Di:laware Nation A 

Doomed Race— Pigeon Roost Massacre — Battle at 
Tii'ton's Island — Treaty at St. M \rys. 

^^^^ ARTHOLOMEW COUNTY is so situated that m 
^pearl}- times the Indians found but little encouran-ement to 
p^ make it their permanent home. The most of it is low 
and level and is traversed by sluggish streams that then 
for a large portion of the 3-ear, overflowed their banks, 
rendering the adjacent countr)- uninhabitable. These 
very streams, however, were the highway's traversed b}^ 
the red man in his light canoe in going from one portion of the 
country to another. That part of Indiana lying between the White 
and Ohio rivers and comprising nearly all the eastern and central 
portion of the State, was occupied b}?- what are known as the Dela- 
ware Indians at the time the earliest permanent white settlements 
were made here. A few other tribes ^vere, however, located with- 
in this tract, the most noted of which was, perhaps, the Shawnee. 
It was to this latter tribe that those two famous Indians, Tecumseh 
and the Sliawnee Prophet, belonged. A remnant of this tribe oc- 
cupied that portion of Indiana, lying to the southeast of Bartholo- 
mew Count}^, while the Delawares were situated farther to the 
north. Thus it will be seen that Bartholomew was rather neutral 
ground on the border between two tribes and was probabl}' visited 
more often when the impetus of the chase carried the red man be- 
yond his usual boundaries, than through an}' other motive. 

The title to the land was, at the period of the settlement in 
southern Indiana, vested in the Delaware Indians, who had moved 
to this State in the latter part of the eighteenth centur}', from the 
eastern part of Ohio. This tribe was at one time one of the most pow- 
erful that inhabited the New World, and its fate has been more sor- 
rowful and calculated to excite more sympathy than almost any 


Other ill the history of American Indians. Their original h.ome was 
upon the banks of tlic Dehiware and Sus(|ueliani'ia rivers, from 
^which tlie pacific aggression, if so it may be termed, of William 
Penn and his followers, soon excluded them. In the early jxirt of 
the^ eighteenth century, they endeavored to abandon the haunts of 
white men and they took up that westward march which tlie \an of 
civilization has compelled them to continue to their graves. Their 
first halt was in Ohio on the banks of the Muskingum and Mahon- 
ing rivers, but scarcely had the}- f.imiliarized themselves with the 
forests of their new tenting ground ere they were again obliged to 
take up their journey. This last was about the close of the Revo- 
lution, at which time they located in Indiana along the White River 
and Its tributaries. In this region they were at first only tenants by. 
permission of the Miami Indians, but after a few years' occupation 
they were acknowledged to be the ostensible owners of the soil. In 
fact all the tribes that occupied Indiana, excepting the Miamis, 
were what were known as "permitted" tribes, though in a few 
years after coming here it was deemed necessary in all treaties 
pertaining to the ownership, or title of the land, to have the assent 
and signature of these " permitted " tribes. 

The original name of the Delaware tribe of Indians was Lenni- 
Lennepe, which was substituted for the name by which they are 
more generally kno\\'n. As a tribe they were more friendly to the 
whites than many that surrounded them, although they were often 
found in arms against the early settlers. Their cause for hostility 
had much more of justice than injustice in most cases, for they were 
being pushed almost from the face of the earth in order to give 
room for a more aggressive and enlightened race. 

There seems to have been some sort of agreement or under- 
standing between the Delawares and Miamis as to the exchange of 
territory, for not long after the pioneer had come to Indiana the 
Miamis abandoned the whole White River country and the lower 
Wabash Valley, and moved to Ohio, whence the Delawares had 
come. It is probable that this was done in order to allow the 
Miamis to reside nearer the British in Canada, whose allies they 
had been in "the War of the Revolution. In the State history in 
the forepart of this volume, there can be found much interestinrr 


matter pertaining to the general Indian liistory of Uie Stale and 
also of tlfese leading tribes. 

As stated at the outset of this chapter, Bartliolomew County 
occupied a rather neutral position, and the surface features Avere 
such as to render its occupation by a savage race undesirable if not 
precarious. For these reasons there seems to be but little liistorv 
that is pureh' local relating to this county. Tlie principal cause for 
this is, of course, to be found in the fact that comparatively few 
white people settled in the boundaries of Bartliolomew County 
prior to the time when the battle of Tippecanoe, together with the 
termination of the War of 181 2, brought a cessation of open hos- 
tilities throughout most of the northwest territor}-. To be sure 
there were occasional depredations committed by some of the law- 
less Indians as well as by some of the whites. But nothing of that 
character seems ever to have occurred in this county of sufficient 
importance either to excite tradition or to attract the attention of 
the historian. 

One of the outrages of this character, nearest to what is now 
Bartholomew County, was the " Pigeon Roost " massacre, which 
occurred September 3, 181 2, within what is now Scott Count3^ 
There were three men, five women and sixteen children killed at 
that time, and it spread more terror and alarm throughout the set- 
tlements of southern Indiana than all other events that happened 
during the early history of the State. This bloody tragedy was 
committed b}' a band of some ten or twelve warriors, most of whom 
were Shawnees. Dillon, in his " History of Indiana," gives the 
following: " On the afternoon of the 4th of September, about 150 
mounted riflemen, under the command of Major John McCoy, fol- 
lowed the trail of the Indians about twenty miles, when ' the dark- 
ness of the night ' compelled them to give up the pursuit. A small 
scouting part}', under the command of Captain Devault, discovered 
and made an attack on the retreating, who, after kilHng one of 
Captain Devault's men, continued their flight through the woods 
and eluded the pursuit of the scouting party." In order to give 
some idea of the state of the constant excitement and alarm which 
attended the early settlers in this vicinit}' about that time, the fol- 
lowing account of Mr. Zebulun Collings, who lived but a few miles 

40S BARTn01.0ME\\' COUNTY. 

from "Pij^'con l^oost,'' is <^ivcn: •' The manner in whicli I used to 
work in those perilous times was as follows: On all occasions I 
♦carried my rifle, toiuahawk and butcher knife, with a loaded pistol, 
in mv belt. When I went to plow, 1 laid my o-un on the pl:)wed 
ground and stuck up a stick by it for a murk so that I could i;et it 
quick in case it was wanted. I had two good dogs. I took one 
into the house, leax'ing the other out. The one out was expected 
to gi\e the alarm which would cause the one inside to bark, by 
which I would be awakened, having my arms alwa\'S loaded. I 
kept my horses in a stable close to tiie house, having a port hole 
so that I could shoot to the stable door. During two years I 
never went from home with any certainty of returning — not know- 
ing the minute I might receive a ball from an unknown hand; but 
in the midst of all these dangers, that God who never sleeps nor 
slumbers has kept me." Such were the hazzards of pioneer life 
in southern Indiana. 

In March, 1S13, one man was killed near Vallonia and three 
wounded. Major John Tipton was then commanding the militia in 
this part of the State, and in his report to Governor Gibeon he 
says : " At that time I was not here. On my arrival I took twent}'- 
nine men and went up Driftwood River, twent3'-five miles. I met a 
party of Indians on an island in the river. A small skirmish took 
place and in twenty minutes defeated them, killing one dead on the 
ground and saw some sink in the river, and I believe all that made 
their escape by swimming the river, if any did so, lost their guns." 
This skirmish took place on a small island in the river just south of 
the Bartholomew Count}' line in what is now Jackson County. It 
has ever since been known as Tipton's Island. 

The treaty b}'^ which the Delawares relinquished all claim to 
their lands in Indiana was concluded at St. Marys, October 3, 181S. 
Nearl}' all of it is here given : 

Articles of a treat}' with the Delawares at St. Marys, in the 
State of Ohio, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass and Ben- 
jamin Parke, Commissioners of the United States, and the Dela- 
ware Indians. 

Article i. The Delaware Nation of Indians cede to the 
United States, all their claims to land in the State of Indiana. 







Article 2. In considcralionof tlie aforcsaidccs.sion, the United 
States ai^ree to provide for the Uelawares a country to reside in 
upon theswest side of the r\Iississippi, and to guarantee to them tlie 
peaceable possession of tlie same. 

Articlk 3. The United States also agree to pay to the Dela- 
■\vares the full value of their improvements in the country hereby 
ceded, whicli \alualiou shall be made by persons to be ap]iointed 
for that purpose by the President of the United States, and to fur- 
nish the l^ehuvarcs with 120 horses not to exceed in value $40 each, 
and a suflicient of pirogues to aid in transporting them to the west 
side of the Mississippi, and a quantity of provisions proportioned to 
their numbers, and the extent of their journey. 

Article 4. The Delawares shall be allowed the use and occu- 
pation of their improvements for the term of three 3'ears from the 
date of this treaty if they so long require it. 

Article 5. The United States agree to pay to the Delawares 
a p'erpetual annuit}' of $4,000, which, together with all annuities 
which the United States by former treaty agreed to pay them, shall 
be paid in silver at any place to which the Delawares ma}^ remove. 

Article 6. ^ The United States agree to provide and support 
a blacksmith for the Delawares, after their removal to the west side 
of the Mississippi. 

Article 8. A sum not exceeding $13,312.25, shall be paid b}'- 
the United States, to satisfy certain claims against the Delaware 
Nation. * * * 

Article 9. This treaty after it shall be ratified by the Presi- 
dent and Senate, shall be binding on the contracting parties. 

In testimon}' the said Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass and Ben- 
jamin Parke aforesaid, and the chiefs and warriors of the Dela- 
ware Nation of Indians, have hereunto set their hands at St. Marys, 
in the State of Ohio, this 23d day of October, 181 8. 

"Jonathan Jennings, . 
Signed. " Lewis Cass, 

" Benjamin Parke." 

In accordance with this treaty the Indians were allowed the 
term of three years in which to prepare for departure, but they 
did not avail themselves of the full time. The whites began com- 


ing in rapidly after lliis aiul there was much rivah-v among them in 
trying to obtain the choice of lands. Ere the three vears had ex- 
pired, all .that remained of the once powerful, proud and brave 
Delaware Nation, resumed its journev toward the setting sun. 
Even beyond the mighty Fatlicr of Waters they ha\e found no 
permanent resting place. The resisdess tide of American prog- 
ress has still pursued them. The comniand to further west has 
again and again sounded in their ears, and the last lone warrior of 
the Delawares will probabl}' sing his death-song to the wild music 
of the winds and waves of the Pacilic Ocean. It is sad to contem- 
plate the extinction of a brave though savage and untutored race, 
but that result is sure and inevitable when it stands in the way of a 
highly civilized people. Nor can we reall}' regret it when we con- 
sider how vastly the amount of happiness in the world is increased. 
An Indian requires thousands of acres to support his family; on 
the same territory a hundred happy families of the Caucasian race 
will find their homes. 

From the time when the white men of Europe first landed on 
the soil of the Western Hemisphere, there has been but little 
variety in the fate of the Red men. Being an inferior race they 
have but followed that inevitable law of nature, the survival of the 
fittest. In the conflict with a foeman race they have succumbed to 
a civilization they could not attain and to a progress the}"- could not 




Ben'ch and Bar — First Courts — Adoption oi" Skal — 
Early Ca!>1'-s — Misci^llaneous Items — Judges of Circuit 
AND Common Pleas Courts — Associate Judges — Prose- 
cuting Attorneys — Clerks— Sheriffs — Roll of At- 

HE importance of courts of law cannot well be over es- 
timated. To sa}' that without law anarchy would 
reign, is trite. The law without courts would be a 
dead letter. The church, notwithstanding its high and 
hoi}' mission, but for human law, would be powerless, 
and the claim that such laws are, or ought to be, inspired 
by Divine Law, is not disputed; but whether so inspired 
or not, they must be executed by the courts. The judge, the clerk, 
the sheriff and attorneys are each and all officers and integrals of 
the court, and in order that justice may be administered, the officers 
from the highest to the lowest ought to be men of known integrit}', 
and peculiar fitness for their positions. 

In this State the Circuit Court has always been a court of gen- 
eral jurisdiction, and other courts were aids or rehefsfor that court; 
therefore this chapter will be devoted mainly to the Circuit Court. 
From the time of its first organization to the adoption of the Code 
of 1852, the Circuit Court was presided over by a President Judge, 
a man "learned in the law," and two Associate Judges in each 
county elected b}^ the people. The Associate Judges presided in 
the absence of the President Judge and with him when present, 
with the power, but rarely exercised, to overrule the President 
Judge. By the Acts of 1852, Associate Judges were dispensed 
with, and the Court of Common Pleas w^as created, with exclusive 
jurisdiction over estates and guardianships, and largely concurrent 
jurisdiction with the Circuit Court, except cases involving title to 
real estate, actions for slander, libel and breach of promise to many. 


Tlic Circuit Court retained exclusive jiu-isdiction over felonies, ex- 
ctqit enumerated cases for the benellt of defendants, in order to 
secure a speed}' trial; exclusive jiu'isdiclion over misdemeanors 
Avas g"i\'en to the Court of Common Pleas, except the cases over 
Avhich Justice's coiu'ts had exclusixe jurisdiction. liv the Act of 
March 6, 1873, the Court of Common Pleas \vas abolished and 
all matters confided to it restored to the Circuit Court. Bv the 
Act of June 11, 1852, a Court of Conciliation was created providing 
that any person claiming to have a cause of action against another 
for libel, slander, mahcious prosecution, assault and batteiy or false 
imprisonment, might serve on him a written notice briefly stating 
the cause of action, and requiring him to appear at a time and place 
named before the Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. None 
but the parties, guardians of infants, husbands of wives, parties 
plaintiff or defendant, were permitted to appear at the hearing. It 
was the dutv of the court to affect a reconciliation if it could rea- 
sonably be done, and if settled the entry thereof ended the matter. 
Without such notice and appearance of the plaintiff before the 
Court of Concihation, he could not recover costs in the action, and 
if the defendant failed to appear, then if he defeated the action, 
lie could not recover costs. In theory the law was a good one, but 
in practice it was a failure, for the parties appeared, but refused to 
be conciliated. The law was soon repealed. 

Before the adoption of the code of 1852, the common law prac- 
tice prohibited actions at law and suits in chancery; actions at law 
being sub-divided and classified, assumpsit, debt, trespass, trover, 
ejectment, etc. B}' the code, the distinction between actions at 
law and suits in equit}' and all forms of action, were abolished, and 
one form for all actions provided, a complaint stating the facts con- 
stituting the cause of action. This radical change, notwithstanding 
its tendenc}- to obscure the salutaiy principles that obtained in 
chancery courts, and to encourage loose pleading, has on the whole, 
worked well, under the new order of things, whilst before, chancery 
cases were tried by the court, all cases at the election of either 
party were tried b}' a juiy, and in cases that would have been 
chancery causes, suits for the settlement of long and intricate part- 
nerships, there was frequentl}' a miscarriage of justice, for jurors 

BEN'CH AM) BAR. .J.15 

were not allowed even to take notes of tlie evidence. This condi- 
tion of alfairs \vas remedied by the code of iSSi, which provides 
that all ca<t's, ^vhich before the code of 1852, were of exclusive 
chancery jurisdiction, shall be tried by the court. 

The iirsl Order Book of the Circuit Court, unnamed and un- 
numbered, (^the next being Order Book A), is unpag'cd and unin- 
dexed; containing about fifty pages, dimly and in many parts almost 
illegiblv written. It was evidently made up of loose sheets of paper 
afterward fastened together in a paper cover as it now is. The 
first da3''s preceeding read as follows: — 

" At a circuit court begun and held at the house of Luke Bone- 
steel, on Monday the twelfth da}' of March, 1821, in and for the 
County of Bartholomew, in the 2nd Circuit of the State of Indiana, 
Being the 2nd Monday in March aforesaid. Thereupon comes the 
Honoroble John Pence and Ephraim Arnold Esqrs., who produc- 
ing their commissions severally from under the hand and seal of 
His Excellency Jonathan Jennings Governor of the State of 
Indiana as Associate Judges of Bartholomew County, together with 
an indorsement on the back of each from under the hand of Joseph 
McKinne}'^ Sheriff of said County of their having taking the nec- 
essar}' and lawful oath of office as Associate Judges aforesaid, and 
took their suats accordingly. Thereupon comes Edward Balinger 
Esqr. and produces to the court a commission from under the 
hand and seal of His Excellency, Jonathan Jennings Governor, of 
the State of Indiana, as Clerk of the County of Bartholomew, to- 
gether with an indorsement on the back thereof, from under the 
hand and seal of the Honorable Ephraim Arnold Esqr. one of 
the Associate Judges of the Count}- aforesaid, of his having taken 
the necessary and legal oath of office as Clerk aforesaid, and com- 
menced to discharge the duties of said office. Thereupon the court 
proceeded to appoint John F. Ross, Esqr. prosecuting attorney 
during the present term of this court who was duly sworn into 
office as such. Thereupon came Joseph McKinney, Esqr. Sheriff 
of said County, with a panel of a grand jury, towit: Ebenezer 
Ward, I ; John Lindsey, 2; Abdiel Parsons, 3; William Carter, 4; 
Elijah Sloan, 5 ; Joseph Cox, 6; Samuel Downing, 7; Jacob Gab- 
bard, 8; M. Boaz, 9; Robert Wilkinson, 10; James Goodwin, 11; 

4i6 nAUTiioLOMi:\\' county. 

James Quick, 12; Daniel Akens, 13; Nathan Thompson, 14. 
Good and lawful men and houseliolders of his bailiwick, win- be- 
ing empanelled sworn, and Ebenezer Ward, being appointed and 
sworn as |foreman, retired from the bar of the coiu't, to consult of 
their presentments and indictments. On motion of John F. Ross, 
Es(|r., Alexander Ilolton, Reuben Nelson, Daniel Grant, and James 
Melaney, are admitted as counsellors and attorneys at law in this 
court, they having produced satisfactor}- evidence of having been 
licensed as such. Oa motion of 1^. W. Nelson, Esip-., James 
Braman, John F. Thompson and Isaac Naylor, are admitted as 
counsellors and attornies at law, in this court, the}' having pro- 
duced satisfactor}' evidence of their ha\'ing been licensed as such. 

" The Grand Jury now return into court, the following bill of 
indictment: The State of Indiana vs. Henr}- Harmon and Michael 
Van Blaricum, for an affray. Dul}' signed b}' Ebenezer Ward, 
their Foreman, and having further business, retired out of court. 
Ordered that the court stand adjourned until to-morrow morning- 
nine o'clock. 

"John Pence, A.J. B. C. 

"Ei'iiRAiM Arnold, A.J. B. C." 

On the second da}- it was " ordered that the clerk of this court 
be authorized and he is hereby empowered to use his own private 
seal until the seal of this court can be procured." The grand jury 
returned the following indictments: The State of Indiana vs. Joseph 
McKinney, assault and battery. The State of Indiana vs. William 
McFall, assault and battery. When the indictment against INIcKin- 
ney was returned he entered a plea of guilty — " Wherefore it is 
considered by the court now here that the Defendant Joseph Mc- 
Kinney do make his fine to the State of Indiana tor the use of 
count}' seminaries for the Count}- of Bartholomew in the sum of 
five dollars together with the costs of suit and the defendant in 
mercy, etc." So that the second indictment and first trial or con- 
viction was against the sheriff. On the same day (the second of 
the term) the following proceedings were had in the State of Ind- 
iana vs. William McFall — " And now at this time came the prose- 
cuting attorney and the defendant in his proper person who being 
arraigned says that he is in no wise guilty as charged in said in- 


dictniciil and for his trial puts liimsflf upon the country and the at- 
torney proseculino- doeth the hke and on motion and by consent, 
this causH? is hud over for trial until tomorrow morning and the de- 
fendant is ordered- into the custody of the sheriff." 

No other business was transacted on tlie second day exxepl the 
return of indictments against Cotton Kent, James Burns and Wiley 
Powell, each for assault and battery. The hrst entry in the third 
day's proceedings is as follows: 

"The State of Indiana vs. William r^IcFall — Indictment for 
assault and batter}-." 

This day comes the Prosecuting Attorney and the defendant 
also appeared at the bar of the court in custody of the Sheriff and 
puts himself upon his trial upon the issue heretofore joined, and 
thereupon comes a jury, to-wit: Peter Frank, Woodson D. Parker, 
Daniel Sublet, Samuel White, Peter Shull, William Storm, Menry 
Farmer, Jesse Smith, Lewis Neel, Stephen Spencer, David Parker 
and John McEwen, twelve good and lawful men, three of which 
the Sheriff summoned of the bystanders to make up the deficiency, 
the names of which are as follows, to-wit: Lewis Neel, Stephen 
Spencer and David Parker,- who being elected, tried and sworn, 
well and truly to tr}- the issue joined, retired from the bar to con- 
sult of their verdict, and after some time spent therein, came and 
returned into court the following verdict, to-wit: "We the jur}- do 
find the defendant guilty and assess his fine at fifty cents." Then 
follows judgment for the use of the county seminaries of the 
county. The next entry is the approval of the bond of Edward 
Balinger as Clerk in the sum of $2,500 with John Parker and 
Jesse Ruddick as sureties. The next entr}- is a plea of guilty by 
Henry Harmon on the first indictment returned into court against 
himself and Van Blaricum. He was fined $2 and the case con- 
tinued as to Van Blaricum. The next entry is as follows: " Ordered, 
that the prison bounds of the Count}' of Bartholomew be co-exten- 
sive to the out line of the town of Tiptona, agreeably to the bonds 
the Count}' Commissioners hold for deeds from Tipton and Bone- 

At that day a capias ad satisfaciendum could be issued against 
a defendant on a judgment against him, which required the impris- 


onnienl of the dcfciKlanl in the couiiU' jail iiiUil iho pavincnt was 
made; tliis, unless he gave bond to remain within the prison bounds 
■ynder tlie above order; a prisoner g'iving such bond, liaJ tlie 
freedom of tlie town. Tlie origiiKil name of Cohnubus was "^Fip- 
tona, and Luke Bonesteel and General John Tipton executed title 
bonds each for thirt}- acres, to John Farquar, trustee, constituting 
the territory of the original town of Tiptona, afterward Columbus; 
the change of the name was made by the County Commissioners, 
March 21, 1S21. 

The first civil causes appearing (June Term, 1S21) are James 
Pendergrast, plaintiff, vs. Peter and Stephen Frank, defendant — In 
debt. William A. Beatt}', Plaintiff, ^'s. William Stowers, Lewis 
Ritter and Alexander C. Craig, defendants — In debt. John H. 
Spurgin, plaintiff, vs. John I^.erry, defendant — In case. 

At the October term, 182 1, Davis Floyd, the President Judge 
for the first time presided. Sheriff JMcKinney was fined $20 for 
contempt of court, the nature of the contempt not being disclosed. 
At a later day of the term (October, 1821) the fine was remitted. 
At that day the retail liquor traffic was licensed b}' the Circuit 
Court and the first license was granted on the 13th da}'- of October, 
1821, to John Young. 

At the April term, 182 1, the first divorce suit, Polly Piatt vs. 
James Piatt, was instituted, and it appearing that the defendant was 
a non-resident, it was ordered that publication of the pendency of 
the suit be made four weeks " in some newspaper printed in the 
the state." At the October term the divorce was granted. 

At the April term, 1S22, the first indictment. State vs. Harmon 
and Van Blaricum, was finally disposed of by the conviction of Van 
Blaricum and a fine of " 6y^ cents." At the same term, David 
Stipp was " licensed to keep a tavern and retail spirituous liqiiors 
i;, the town of Columbus," and George Zowers was indicted " for 
challenge to fight a duel." At the following July term he was 
tried by a juiy and acquitted. At the April term, 1823, it was 
" ordered that the seal, the impression whereof is here made on the 
margin, procured by the Clerk in pursuance of an order made here- 
tofore, be and the same is hereb}'' deemed, adopted and recognized 
to be the seal of the court and that it be used, kept and preserved 

]?E\C1I AXn BAR. 419 

by the Clerk as sucl-i."" No impression of the seal appears, and no 
previous order can be found. 

At the April .term of court, 1822, tlie llrst rules of court, 
thirteen in number, wore adopted, all in line witli tlie present prac- 
tice except perhaps the lOLh, nth, 12th, and 13th; tliey are as fol- 

"loth. The punctual attendance of counsel will not be dis- 
pensed with after appearance, and no suit dismissed will be re- 
instated or interlocutory judgment entered, will be set aside, when 
the same has happened b}- reason of a w-ant of sucb punctual at- 
tendance, but upon proper aflidavit and at the cost of the delini[uent. 
"nth. The clerk will in no case permit papers to be taken 
from his office except by a member of the court from whom, except 
in term time, he Avill take a receipt. He will furnish parties apply- 
ing with copies they paying his fees therefor. 

"1 2th. Rules to plead shall be entered nisi and may be dis- 
charged or made absolute. 

" 13th. No person will be permitted to appear in this court 
out of favor, unless he has first obtained the signature of the Presi- 
dent Judge of the court to his license, or unless he produces a well 
authenticated license from some court of another state in whose 
courts attorneys of this state are permitted to appear and practice." 

At the April term, 1823, another rule of court was adopted read- 
ing as follows: 

" It is ordered as a standing rule of this court, that if an}- part}'- 
withdraw a plea, replication or other pleading in fact, and demur 
to the pleading to which his former pleading professed to be an 
answer, judgment upon such demurrer will be rendered and he will 
not be permitted to withdraw such demurrer. Further that after 
opinion intimated upon demurrer and joinder to any pleading, the 
party pleading such plea may amend, after which if demurrer and 
joinder be filed to such pleading, such plea may be amended; after 
which if demurrer and joinder be filed to such pleading so amended, 
judgment will be rendered and no further leave to amend will be 
given, but such part}', if plaintiff, may dismiss his action without 
prejudice, or suffer a discontinuance, after opinion intimated as 
aforesaid the party demurring may withdraw his demurrer by 


pleading issuablv to tb.f counlry instanlcr." This, wliich to some 
extent modilied the cununon law rule of jiractice, may seem liarsh 
ahd calculated to defeat justice; still on the other hand, re(iuiring 
as it did, close thought and thorough preparation, cases were 
pronipth- put at issue, clearly- and well delined. So thoroughly up 
were attorneys generally in the science of pleading, that the penal- 
ties of the rule were but seldom incurred. The first court was in 
an old log house, owned by Luke Bonesteel, on lot 119, and near 
■where the old county bridge afterward was; and until the court 
house on the public square was erected, courts were held at a room 
fitted up by Philip Sweetser and at the "taverns" of Thomas 
Hinkstoii and Newton Jones. 

But two persons have suffered the death penalty in Bartholo- 
mew County, John Jones for the murder of John Ray on Saturday, 
June II, 1831, and Kader Herring for the murder of John 
Comer. They were both executed at the same time on Friday, the 
nth day of June, 1833, then on the outskirts of Columbus and 
near where the Elm (now Farley) House stands. They were exe- 
cuted by Sheriff John INIcKinne}', sm-rounded by a squad of militia 
detailed by Col. Thomas G. Lee, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph IMcFall 
and Major Samuel Beck, in command of JNLijor Beck. The militia 
escorted the condemned from the jail with drum and fife, to the 
gallows. Jones was haggard and weak, seeming fully to realize 
his situation; Herring was stolidly indifferent. On the scaffold 
prayer was offered by Rev. Joshua McQueen, and also a local 
Methodist preacher, who addressed a few remarks to the pris- 
oners, to which Jones responded with much emotion, but Herring 
said nothing. Jones and Ra)' were good citizens and fast friends, 
and probabh' would have remained so but for whisky. They had 
been treating each other, and, on their way home on horseback, 
Jones accused Ra}' of lying to Jesse Ruddick, when Ray struck 
Jones a powerful blow in the mouth, nearly unseating him. Jones 
feeling for his knife, Ray struck him again on the side of his head, 
and seized him by the back of the collar of his coat in such a way 
that Jones' first thrust with his knife struck his own mare in the 
neck, and striking at random again, he stabbed Ray through the 
heart. Jones was tried three times, each resulting in a conviction 

BKN'CH AN1> 1!\K. 421 

for murder in llic llrst deg'rec. There were two reversals hy the 
Supreme Court; the last conviction was not appealed from. With 
the law administered as it now is, Jones would cither have escaped 
or been convicted for manslaughter only. It is reasonalily certain 
that the law was administered with too much hardship. Jones' son, 
Robert, impoverished, bankrupted himself in the defense of his 
father. He lived to be an old man, respected and honored by all, 
dying but a few years ago. Herring and Comer were good citi- 
zens and neighbors, and related by marriage, Comer's wife being 
Herring's niece. They were visiting Herring. Herring exhibited 
a cow bell, which he said he found. Comer claimed the bell, at 
which Herring took offense, and used such abusive language that 
Comer and wife started to leave, and Herring taking down his gun, 
Comer ran, but before he reached the yard fence, Herring shot him 
down. Herring reloaded his g-un and stood guard over the corpse, 
refusing to permit an}' one to come near for hours, and fmalh' left 
of his own accord. His defense was insanit}-, and his conduct on 
that occasion and evidence at the trial of frequent indications of in- 
sanit}-, as also of insanit}^ in his faniily, together with his conduct, 
when executed, led man}- to belie^•e that his plea was well taken. 
The behef soon became general that he was insane. 

Judges of tlic Circuit Couii. — Davis Flo^d, a soldier in the 
War for Independence, was the first Judge. He had been tried 
for complicity in the Burr conspiracy and sent to jail for one hoiu", 
but restoring himself to public confidence by gallant service in the 
War of 1812, he was appointed Judge. He presided but one term 
(October, 1821), the Associate Judges presiding in his absence, until 
the 15th day of July, 1822, when William W. Wick, of Indianapolis, 
succeeded Judge Floyd as President Judge. 

Judge Wick was a man of fine literary and legal attainments, 
and notwithstanding the fact that he was a politician, made an ac- 
ceptable Judge. He was twice Judge, a member of Congress, and 
filled many other ofiices with honor to himself and satisfaction to 
the people. He died, at Franklin but a few years ago. At the 
March term, 1825, he was succeeded by B. F. Morris, of Indian- 
apolis. Judge Morris was a ripe scholar, well grounded in the 
elementary principles of the law and served with much satisfaction 

42 2 ^.ART^OLOMI^^V C'Ol'NTV. 

to the Ixir and litigants until his term cx]iiri'd, wlieii he was suc- 
ceeded by Judge Wick, who, at the exjiiralion of his term, was 
vsucceeded b}- James iMorrison, of Indianapolis. Judge >Forrison 
Avas pre-eminently (pialified for the ]v>sition. After he I'etired from 
the bench, and even from the actual practice of his profession, so 
higlilv was he esteemed as a judge of law and for his unswerving 
integrit)-, that imjiortant ([uestioii: of law involving large interests, 
were frequently submitted to him bv both sides, and his ojiinions 
cheerfully acquiesced in, thus avoiding the bitterness, delay and 
uncertainty of litigation. He always declined to investigate for an 
opinion favorable to the applicant, when applied to but by one side, 
but contracted in advance for an investigation, the fee being the 
same whether the opinion should be favorable or unfavorable. 

William J. Peaslee, of Shelb}ville, succeeded Judge IMorrison. 
Judge Peaslee was not "learned in the law%" and gave indifferent 
satisfaction. He was succeeded by Courtland Gushing — a good 
lawyer, but overbearing and arbitraiy on the bench. Alexander C. 
Downey succeeded Judge Gushing. For a young lawyer. Judge 
Downey was admirably equipped in all respects for the position. 
Owing to inadequacy of salary he resigned. He has since served 
on the bench of the Supreme Gourt with distinguished ability, and 
is now engaged in the active practice of his profession. To fill 
the vacancy caused b}' the resignation of Judge Downe}'-, Governor 
Willard appointed John W. Spencer. Judge Spencer was not a 
good lawyer; he was stolid, without sensibility. The celebrated 
Mewherter case was tried before him. Execution against Mew- 
herter for a large amount had been returned " no property found," 
and the plaintiff proceeded against him for execution against his 
body, charging that he had a large sum of money which he refused 
to apply in payment. Under the law, if the jury found that he had 
money, giving the amount, it was the duty of the court to imprison 
him until he disgorged. There is but little doubt that jNIewherter 
had a large sum of money, but he was a bad, desperate man, and 
before and during the trial he assured his attorneys and others that 
the plaintiff would not gain anything but a deackbody by a verdict 
against him. The jury found that he had some $13,000. Imme- 
diately upon reading the verdict Mewherter drew a pistol and shot 

m'.xcn AX!) ];.\K. 423 

liimsrlf (lead. Of course there was llie most intense exeilriiu'iil 
and confusion in court: not so, liow e\er, Avith Judge wSpencer; lie 
calmly di^ected the Sheriff to ri'nif)ve the bod\', and called the next 
case for trial. It was not tried that day. Josi'ph "W. Chajmian, of 
Madison, was the next Jud_i;e. lie was an able lawyer, but too 
technical for a Judge, and at times testy. On the whole, however, 
he is kindly renlembered bv the bar. 

John G. ] Berkshire of Versailes, succeeded Judge Chapman. 
When elected, Judge Berkshire was just starting out as a lawyer, 
and being an almost entire stranger to the Columbus bar, then one 
of the ablest in the State, it was greatly feared that he would not 
give satisfaction. In this, however, the bar was most agreeably 
surprised, for no Judge ever before or since gave more general sat- 
isfaction. Judge Berkshire was well-grounded in the elementary 
principles of the law; had a well-balanced, discriminating, legal 
mind, and above all he was eminentlv fair and impartial. B3' a 
change, Bartholomew County was made one of anew circuit neces- 
sitating the appointment of a Judge which was received from Gov. 
Baker b}^ Samuel P. 03'ler, of Franklin. Judge Oyler made an 
acceptable Judge and was succeeded b}^ David Banta, of Franklin, 
who during the short time he was on the bench in this county was 
in ver}?^ poor health and for that reason did not appear to good ad- 
vantage, although a ripe scholar and good lawyer. He is now with 
restored health engaged in an active, lucrative practice. During 
Judge Banta's term bj' another change, Bartholomew and Brown 
were made a circuit, and Gov. Hendricks appointed James S. Hes- 
ter of Brown, Judge, who served under the appointment until the 
next election and was elected. Judge Hester was a trained law^-er, 
and until his health failed was one of the best Judges in 'the State. 
He died before his term expired. 

Nathan T. Carr, of Columbus, was appointed, and at the next 
election was elected for a full term. Judge Carr was not a well-read 
law3'er; he was a man of bright, but not well-trained or balanced 
intellect. Because of his mental make-up and disposition he was 
arbitrary- and apt to take sides. Judge Carr was pre-eminently a 
jur}' lawyer. In politics he was bold, daring and aggressive, but 
too arbitrary and self-\villed for a successful politician. He was 

4-4 ]5ART110L0Mi:\\' COU.NTV. 

elected to Congress to liU the vacancy caused bv the death of 
^M. C. Kerr, and the memorable Ilayes-Tilden c()ntr()\L-rsv was ad- 
justed during the time he served. Almost alone he stood out 
against a compromise, lighting it with great ability and bitterness; 
and predicting the result which in fact followed. But when 
adopted, and when it seemed to him that undue obstructions to its con- 
summation were interposed, he ren.iinded his party colleagues that 
the compromise was the creature of their own folly, as he tei-med 
it, and insisted that it be faithfully carried out. His objection to 
the plan of adjustment afterward gave him high standing in his 
party, and but for his domineering disposition, he would have been 
a successful leader. Dying before his term expired, Governor 
Porter, on the unanimous request of the bar of both counties, aj)- 
pointed Nelson R. Keyes, of Columbus, and although a Democrat 
in politics, so highl}^ was he esteemed, both parties endorsed him 
for election, and he was elected without opposition, and is now 
serving with great satisfaction not only to the bar but to the peo- 
ple. He is a well-trained lawyer, fair and impartial. Judge 
Keyes came from Kentucky to Columbus, when quite 3'oung, al- 
most a stranger, and by his abilit}^ and gentlemanly deportment 
soon built up a large practice. Pecuniarily he made quite a sacri- 
fice in abandoning the practice for the bench. 

Associate yudgcs. — John Pence, Thomas Hinkston, Ephriam 
Arnold, Samuel Downing, Nathan Davis, Jesse Spurgeon, David 
Hager, James Taggart, Hiram Wilson, Aaron Farmer, James W. 
Love, S. B. jNIcKehan, A. A. Wiles, Joseph Hiner, Thomas Law- 
ton, George B. McQueen, Jacob Lain, James Hobbs, Sr., William 

yiidgrs of the Court of Coniiuon Picas. — Zachariah Tannehill 
was the first Judge. He was a farmer-politician, not a lawyer, 
never having read law. He had a cop}^ of Greenleaf on Evidence; 
how or why he came by it no one ever knew certainly. It was 
suspected, however, that a certain attorne}' gave it to him, for on 
all occasions he read extracts from " Your Honors own book," 
which nine times out of ten, were wholly irrele^■ant, and insisted al- 
most invariably, to the satisfaction of the court, that the law as 
"laid down " \)y Greenleaf, covered the case under consideration. 



Tlie comedy case of the Slate of Indiana vs. Artliur Mukloon, ^vas 
tried wlfvn Judge Tannt- liill was on tlie bench. ?^Iuldoon getting tlie 
best of the fight with Terry INIurpliy, IMurpln', before his anger 
cooled, went to Samuel Kriddlebaugh, the prosecuting atlorne\-, " a 
constitutional" lawyer, and made aflulavit charging Muldoon witli 
assault and battter}-. Thc}' soon made friends and asked the prose- 
cutor to dismiss. He indignantly refused to " compound a felony." 
They then employed an attorney to defend. Terry Murphy had a 
twin brother, Patrick jNIurph^y, and it was yery dillicult to distin- 
guish the one from the other, except that Pat wore goggles. 
When the case was called for trial, Muldoon and Murphy with 
goggles on, took seats at the desk of the attorney for the defendant. 
The prosecutor with much feeling informed the court of the cor- 
rupt attempt as above indicated, commanded Murphy to take his 
seat where " in the eye of the law " he belonged, which he 
promptl}' did, and on the stand denied that he ever had a fight 
with Muldoon, insiting that he was a " good men and pacible 
gintleman." Showing him the affidavit, the prosecutor asked 
triumphantly: "Did 3'ou not make that affidavit?" "No sor." 
"Then who did?" "Me brother Terry, and it was no foight 
at al, at al, it W'as only a froiendly trial of strength." " Pray, sir^ 
inform the court who you are? " "Patrick Murph}', twin brother 
of me brother Terry." " Then what are you doing here? " " You 
called me sor, and besides me brother had to go to the State of 
ininois and his eyes being bether and mine sore, he loaned me his 
goggles, and gave me a power of attorne}' to schwear for him, 
which you can see for yourself," showing the prosecutor a crumpled 

Judge Tannehill was succeeded by N. T. Hauser, an attorney 
of Columbus, who made an acceptable Judge. Ralph Applewhite, 
an attorney of Brownstown, was the next Judge. He was an edu- 
cated lawyer and made a most excellent Judge. Beatty McClel- 
land, an attorne}' of Columbus, was the next Judge. He was well 
read in the elementary principles of the law, and made an amiable, 
courteous Judge, giving good satisfaction. Japtha D. New, an at- 
torney of Vernon, succeeded Judge McClelland. He was a well 
equipped lawer, painstaking and conscientious. He afterward 

42<5 B.\HTlK)LC).Mi:\\' COUNTV. 

served in Congress and is now Judg\: of an adjoining circuit. Frank 
Emerson, an attorne}- of J5ro\vnsto\',n, was the last Judge. He 
\vas a man of strong convictions and somewhat arhitrarv. On the 
Avliole, howe\er, he is kindly remembcri'd by tlic bar. 

Circuit Court Proscrutors.~-]o\\\\ V. Jloss, James Dulancy, 
Samuel T. Woolfolk, Ilarve}- Gregg, Calvin Fletcher, W. W. Wick, 
Hiram Brown, William Herod, A. A. Hammond, W. J. Peaslee, 
H. O'Neal, John Dumont, li. F. Myers, J. J. AlHson, Daniel Kelso, 
Frank Atkinson, George W. Richardson, K. M. Hord, I). W. 
Howe, N. T. Carr, W. W. Browning, Amos Burns, W. C. Duncan, 
Webster Dixon, Anderson Percilleld. 

Common Picas Prosecuting Attorneys in. the Order of Tlieir 
6V;-Z7r^.— Samuel H. Kriddlebaugh, N. T. Hauser, Ralpli Hill, 
Geo. W. Yocum, Wm. Singleton, F. T. Hord, B. L. Smitli, L. 
Gwin, J. D. New, W. L. Bane, J. N. Kerr, Marion Mooney, 
N. Crook, W. S. Swengel, Geo. W. Cooper. 

Clerks. — Edward Ballinger, Joseph McKinne}^, Isaac S. Board- 
man, N. Tomkins, William Herod, Albert Jones, S. Webber Smith, 
G. E. Miller, Z. H. Hauser, T. C. Burgess, G. E. Miller. 

S/ierifs. — Joseph McKinney, Daniel Zeigler, Gideon B. Hart, 
J. Hubbard, John F. Jones, John McKinney, William Brown, James 
Herod, William Hobbs, N. O. Hinman, W. B. Horn, Samuel 
Sluckey, Richard Carter, Thomas J. Kennedy, M. McGrayel, 
D. Lynch, Frank Whittington, W. B. Davis, T. F. Everroad, Will- 
iam R. Spurgin, M. L. Thompson, T, C. Burgess, James S. Brown. 
T//e Bar. — In early times and until about i860, la w3'-ers "trav- 
eled the circuit"; that is attended the courts of their circuit reo-u- 
larly, and even beyond the circuit. About the time above indicated, 
this practice commenced falling off, and has almost ceased, local 
attqrne3'S doing largely the business of the county, where they are 
well supplied with hbraries and otherwise better equipped for their 
work than attorneys from a distance are likely to be. In early 
times good lawyers were thoroughly conversant with elementary 
principles; knew almost by heart, Blackstone, Chitty, Coke upon 
Littleton, Selwins, Nisi Prius, etc., and reasoned by analog}^ 
The}' were not case lawyers, because there were but few reports, 
and they diflicult to get. They were intellectual giants. 

Ur.NCII AXJ) J!.\K. 


It is proji(;s(.'(l to tlrsl give llie names of aUorncws, not of llic 
count}-, \\]\o jiracticL'd at the Columbus hdv at different times, and 
many diislinguislied names, not only as hi\v\ers, but ])oliticians, 
statesmen and judges will 

Jobn F. J<.oss, Alexander Ilolten, R. W. Nelson, Daniel Grant, 
James IJraman, John II. Thompson, Calvin Fletcher, Jeremiah Rol- 
land, John Kingsberry, Henry P. Thornton, William llaird, A. C. 
Griffiths, Daniel Bell, Jeremiah Sulli\an, Thomas Douglass, Jo- 
seph A Hopkins, James Sloll, William Bullock, Patrick G. Good, 
M. G. Bright, Joseph G. Marshall, C. E. Walker, Stev.en C. Stev- 
ens, William M. Dunn, A. W. Hendricks, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Harvey Gregg, George F. Waterman, Isaac Hawk, JNIilton Stapp, 
William Carpenter, W. W. AVick,John B. Scott, Henry Hurst, Hi- 
ram Brown, James Whitcomb, Andrew Davidson, George L3-on, 
James T. Brown, James Forsee, Charles Dewey, William J. Brown, 
Amos Lane, James B. Ray, William Brown, James Scott, Hugh 
O'Neal, Martin M. Ray, Humphrey Robinson, B. P. Taylor, Will- 
iam Quarles, Peter Rymen, W. J. Peaslee, A. T. Myer, F. Carvin, 

C. Cushing, H. M. Woodzard, C. P. Hester, Harry Brown, Daniel 
Kelso, O. S. Pitcher, Simeon Yandes, William T. Otto, W. B. 
Cook, W. H. Brumfield, Bo3-d JMahew, Joseph W. Chapman, L. 
Brougham, Isaac Nafler, S. H. Woolfolk. 

Colunibus Bar. — Such as are dead or have left the county will 
first appear, followed by the present bar : 

James Dulanev", Philip Sweetser, R. S. Wheatley, William 
Herod, George E. Tingle, L. F, Coppersmith, Heman Barbour, 

D. B. Farminglon, Thomas F. Thompson, John Lingston, Robert 
Wingate, A. A. Hammond, AVilliam F. Pidgeon, William Sino-le- 
ton, N. T. Hauser, William Mack, Ralph Hill, W. W. Herod, 
Ferdinand Winter, Crocket Ricketts, Jeff C. Reeves, Charles E. 
Clark, Amos Burns, G. E. Richardson, George W. Richardson, 
Lafayette Pence, John N. Wheatley, George W. Arnold, S. Dry- 
bread, T. C. Woodburn, W. W. Browning. 

Philip Sweetser was born in New Hampshire, where he re- 
ceived a collegiate education. He taught school in Marvland and 
at the same time read law. In 182 1 he came West, locating in Col- 
umbus, where he soon took liigh rank as a lawyer. He was with- 


out ihe gift of oraiory, but calm, clclibcrativc and earnest, ami in 
this way a most clTeclivc udvocafc. lie possessed the happ\- fac- 
ulty of seeming to ])e not the attorne}- for his client, but, on the 
contrary, the especial friend and adviser of the jury. Indianapolis 
offering a wider held, he located there in 1S37, and soon ranked 
amongst the foremost of the bar at that place. lie died in 1843 in 
the fifty-fourth year of his life. 

The high and honorable position occupied b}' William Herod, 
demands a more extended summary of his life and career. He was 
born in Bourbon County, Ky., and with his parents in his early 
youth moved to Boone County, in the same State. His parents 
■were ver}'- poor in worldly possessions. The schools of that day 
were indifferent " winter schools," and consequentl}' his education 
was limited. He taught school and at the same time read law with 
Edward Armstrong, of Burlington, Kentucky. In 1S24, under the 
laws of Kentucky, he passed examination and was licensed to practice 
law, and in November of that 3'ear located in Columbus penniless 
and without friends. He was not long without friends, however, 
for by his engaging manners, high order of intellect, honesty and 
devotion to his profession, he soon acquired valued, life-long 
acquaintances and adherents, even if in after 3'ears he differed with 
them in politics. jMr. Herod was possessed of a strong, discrimi- 
nating legal mind, well-versed in the foundation principles of his 
profession, but was not a good case law3'er. He knew what the 
law oui'ht to be, and was persuasively strong before the court, and 
usually convincingly so, unless the court was familiar ^vith, or the 
attorney on the other side produced, a decision the other way. As 
a jury lawyer he had but few equals. He discouraged litigation; 
never brought a suit luitil he was satisfied that his client was in the 
right. In order to arrive at a correct conclusion in this respect, he 
invariably put his client through a searching cross-examination, to 
discover the weak points in hi.'- .ase, if any. If his client persisted 
in what he suspected to be but one side of the case, he would ask 
him what the other side had to say about the matter, wh}^ he re- 
sisted, and this would ordinaril}^ disclose the weak point, if there 
was one. For the defense he pursued the same course, and if he 
found that there was no defense he would say so and refuse to de- 

BK.NCIl AM> r.AK. 429 

fend, and if doubtful lie wuuUl advise a e()ni])r()niise. Although in 
the minority as a Whig and Republican, he was frequently elected 
to the legislature, both branches, and twice to Congress, and was 
elected and served one term as Clerk. In December, 1851, Mr. 
Herod formed a partnership with S. Stansilier, his nejihew, which 
continued until he was elected Clerk; at the close of his term he 
formed a partnership with his son, W. W. 1 lerod, which terminated 
■with his death. 

A A. Hammond commenced the practice at Coluiubus, and 
soon rose to eminence and distinction in the profession. Seeking a 
wider field he went to Indianapolis, hut retained his practice at 
Columbus in partnership with Williani F. Pidgeon. In 1852, Mr. 
Hammond was elected Lieutenant Governor, with A. P. Willard, 
Governor, who died before the expiration of his term, Mr. Ham- 
mond succeeding to the office. Mr. Pidgeon continued the prac- 
tice for man}" years with much success, when he located at Vin- 
cennes, and died there a short time since. 

In 1852, Ralph Hill and AVilliam Mack, young men from Ohio, 
located at Columbus, forming a partnership. Mr. Mack did not 
remain long; went to Green County and then to Terre Plaute. He 
has risen to distinction, both as a jurist and politician. He is now 
on the Circuit Court bench. Mr. Hill soon acquired, and deservedly 
so, a large practice, which he retained until he went to Indianapolis 
a few years ago, where he is now engaged in an extensive prac- 
tice. In 1864 he was elected to Congress. 

Not long after Mr. Hill and Mr. Mack, Francis T. Hord, from 
Maysville, Kentucky, and just beginning the practice, came to 
Columbus. By his ability and untiring energy he soon built up 
and retained an extensive practice. He was elected to the State 
Senate in 1882, and in 1884 he was elected Attorney Gen- 
eral, serving with distinguished abilit}'. At the close of his second 
term of oflice, he returned to Columbus, where he is engaged in 
the active practice of his profession. 

On the death of his father, W. W. Herod, who, in man}'- re- 
spects, and especially so as a jury lawyer, was like his father, 
formed a partnership with Ferdinand Winter, then a promising- 
young lawyer. Soon after the}' abandoned an extensive business 


i;artiiolom]:\v count v. 

and ^\•c^t to Indiimapulis, where ihey no\v are enga^'ed in success- 
ful ]-iractice, Mr. IIen)d alone, and Mr. Winter a member of the 
firm of Baker, llord «S: Hendricks. 

Present bar, in the order of seniorly, as nearly as recollected: 
S. Stansifer, F. T. Hord, John A. Keith, Realty McClelland, 
S. Webber Smith, John W. Morgan, M. D. Emig, John C. Orr, 
George W. Cooper, W. F. Norton, W. S. Swengel, Marshall 
Hacker, C. N. Spencei-, Webster Dixon, W. W. Lambert. W. T. 
Strickland, C. S. Baker, J. F. Matson, C. B. Cooper, C. J. Koll- 
myer, W. J. Beck, W. H. Everroad, Thomas C. Ahern, J. W. Don- 
aker, II. Valentine, Thomas E. Davidson. 

The writer of this chapter is under obligations to Dr. J. C. Beck, 
of Cincinnati, for valuable aid. Born and reared in Columbus, and 
possessing a wonderfull}' retentive memory. Dr. Beck possesses a mine 
of valuable statistics, not only in memory, but also in manuscript. 





Military IfjsTOUv — Earta' iNIiLiTiA — ATexican War Com- 
PANiKS — Condition" Prior to the Civie War — Begixnixg 


Troops — Lati:r Pur.eic Senti.ment — jMorgan Raid — 
— Drafts — Men FuiiNisiiED by tiiic County — Bounty 
AND Relief — Roll of Honor. 

HAT constitutes the leading feature of the current his- 
toid of all governments is their militar}- experiences. It 
is through the instrumentalit}' of war that civilization 
has been established in many portions of the Avorld. 
Indeed, it is claimed by not a few reputable histori- 
ans, that war is the necessary forerunner of civiliza- 
tion, the cannon an embelm of progress, indicating that 
barbarism has been supplanted, and a higher order of things estab- 
lished. If this be true the military conflicts must form the most 
interesting chapter of a nation's history. 

While the histoiy of Bartholomew County has to do directl}'' 
with but the Mexican and Civil wars, yet, here were man}' of the 
survivors of the second war with Great Britain, or the War of 181 2, 
who se'. tied in this count}' and deserve notice in this connection. 
The names of these sur^•ivors with States they mustered from are 
taken from a list prepared b}- Gen. Terrell, and are as follows : 
Ezekiel Carter, Va.; Timothy Howard, N. Y.; Philip Clark, Md.; 
Harris Rogers, Ky. ; James Carter, l^y.; Robert Wooffendale, 
N. J.; John Sward, John Wright, N. Y.; Josiah'JxAkin, Ky.; Michael 
Do3de, N. Y. ; John Sloughton, Ohio; WiUiam Deiwert, Ohio; 
John Smith, N. Y.; George Taylor, Z. Tannehill, Robert Brown, 
Va.; John Hall, Pa.; David Carter, Pa.; George May, M. Boaz, 
John Young, Va. ; William L. Jones, Ky. ; Stephen Baker, Ky. ; 
Henr}^ Blassgame, Ky.; Wiley Powell, Ind.; Edward Hall, Va.; 
Samuel Barber, Ohio; Michael McAlliter, Ohio; Samuel Beck, K}-. ; 
Ed Jurd, N. C; E. White, Ky.; J. T. Robertson, Isaac Burton, 


Adam Cook,.Tenn.; N. Kyle, Isaac l*anctikc, Ohio; Lsaac IVmcc, 
Va.; Hugh Terry, Va.; Daniel Bisliop, J. B. Lockman, Ky.: Ben- 
j«min McQueen, Ed Mitchell, William Stader, D. Singer, Ijeverly 
Herron, A. Cox, John Gilliland, N. C. ; John Snyder, Pa.; Lewis 
Lawless, Va.; Benjamin Jones, Va.; George Laforce, Ky.; Will- 
iam Christy, Mo.; John Tean}', Va. ; William West, Ohio; A. T. 
Green, Ohio; C. Edee, N. Y. ; Isaiah Tuttle, Ohio; Henry Bryant, 
Va.; Philip Hogan, Ky.; D. Mackc}', John Maple, N. Y.; Thomas 
Tearcefield, Tenn.; Russell Gardner, Ind.; Lot Foster, Ky. ; Ed 
Hegber, N. J.; J. Ruddick, Ohio; John Horn, K}-. ; James Peatt, 
Va.; Isaac Trotter, Tenn.; Samuel Richardson, Ohio; Samuel 
Bishop, Ky.; Robert Elkins, N. C; Moses Jones, Tenn.; James 
McAchran, Ky.; W. W. Poff, Ky.; John Waddell, Ky.; Bazil 
Owen, Kv. ; Thomas Pach, K}-.; Jacob Good, K3-.; John Cham- 
bers, Ohio; J. R. P. Garrigan, N. J.; Hezekiel Cheathan, Ky.; 
Robert Pitcher, Ky.; Daniel Glick, Ohio; Harvey Chandler, Va.; 
Henry Critzer, Ohio; George W. Re3-nolds, John Harve}-, Miles 
Bunnell, Jacob Rhoads, Edward Wallen, Ephraim Miller, J. R. 

It is probable that a few of the above named did not live in this 
county, and there were perhaps others whose names are not given. 

In his reminiscences Gen. Terrell sa3's: From the time the State 
was admitted into the Union till about 1834, *^^*^ mihtia in Indiana 
was in high repute. Regiments were organized in all parts of the 
State. Militia officers were the most important personages of the 
time. A popular man who \vas so fortunate - as to secure a com- 
mission of General, Colonel, or even Lieutenant Colonel or Major, was 
prett}' sure to get a civil office if his aspirations led him that way. 
In a large militia compan}^ organized in Columbus, it is said that at 
the end of the first year John White, a shoemaker, was the onl}^ 
private in the compan}', all the others were wearing titles. 

The most exciting militia election was for General. The candi- 
dates were Samuel Downing and Elias Bedford. Downing was 
elected, but Bedford being dissatislied contested his right to the 
office. A new election was held with the same result. Downing 
lived two miles east of Columbus, and the night following his elec- 
tion he was escorted to town b}' his friends, and his success duly 


cek'bralcd. A ]\-irt of a band of wliisky was j-jrocurcd for the 
occasion, but fears being entertained lliat it \vould not liold out, it 
was poured into a well on the public square, after which " grog " 
was drawn up and dispensed bv tlie bucket full. 

Earh' in 1846, the premonitory symptoms of a war with IMexico 
aroused the niilitary spirit of a portion of our citizens, and a cav- 
alry company was formed. Thomas Hays was elected Captain 
with a full corps of subordinates and assistaiits. vSteps wore taken 
to procure arms and e(|uipmcnts, and uniforms were ordered. 
When matters had progressed 1' as far war was actuall\- declared 
and the countr}^ was called to arms, but the " Cavalry Company " 
responded not, and from that moment ceased to be. 

The " Hoss Company " or Columbus Cavahy of which so much 
Avas said and written, in ridicule, was organized in the summer of 
1845, with Thomas Bombbragg, Captain, and Napoleon Jackson 
Carter, First Lieutenant. 

Mexican IVar.^ — On the fourth da}' of Jul}', 1845, Texas, 
through her State Convention, accepted the terms of annexation 
proffered by the government of the United States. Soon after this 
the Mexican Go\'ernment in order to maintain her rights to the 
territory, established a military post on the east side of the Rio 
Grande River. Gtn. Taylor, then commanding the Department of 
the South, was ordered to report for duty in the immediate vicinity. 
A conflict of arms soon ensued, the Mexicans being considered the 
aggressors. President Polk, by proclamation dated May 11, 1S46, 
announced that a state of war existed between this country and 
Mexico. Immediately Congress authorized the reception of 50,000 
volunteers, one-half to be mustered into service at once, and the 
other to be used as a reserve. The President issued his call May 
13, 1846. In response to this call James Whitcomb, Governor of 
the State of Indiana, issued a proclamation on the 2 2d of the same 
month calling for three regiments. But few counties responded 
with more alacrity than did Bartholomew. Immediately after the 
call of the Governor, Isaac N. Boardman, assisted by Hardin 
Ferry, raised a company, and on the 13th of June left for New 
Albany, the place of rendezvous, and on the 24th of said month 

* Facts taken from the Ten-ell papers. 


BAK'riioi,o>u:\v covsry 

Ik' rciiiipany 

was inusfcrL'd into Uir service by Samuel C'lmivliill. 
was assi-iu'tl to tlir jH).silion of Fmihc Tliial Reninienl, comniaiuled 
by Col. J. II. Lane. The conipain- was olllcered as follows: Isaac 
N. pM.artlman, Captain; Herman 11. ]]arbour, ist JJcmlenant; 
G. W. llan-ingtoii, 2(1 Lieutenant; Jacob Clark, ist Ser-eanti 
John M. Meyers, 2d Sergeant; Ed Sau-hton, 3d Seroeant; Thilip 
Lane, ^th Sergeant; Josiah Wilson, ist Corporal: John Mewerton, 
2d Corporal; ].]). Wilson, 3d Corporal; Henry Lc'hvards, 4th Cor- 
poral; John Mitler, musician. 

Aiisdcn, C;cc)igc W. 
Arnold, William. 
Anthony, Zcph.innah. 
BuineU, ISond. 
Beatv, TJionias. 
BcaUv, David. 
Brice,' William R. 
Brown, \\'illiam. 
Barnliart, Amos. 
Bnrton, John C. 
Berry, Andrew. 
Cook, Jacob. 
Cox, Jesse. 
Couglienour, David. 
Conrad, Joliu M. 
Dyer, Or\ille. 
Emig Michael. 
Eads, Alex. 
Fulton, Lorenzo. 
Fisher, William. 
Gross, John. 
Gabbert, George W. 
Gilman, Nicholas. ' 
Good, William C. 
Green, Henry H. 
Gilniore, John B. 


Hunter, Daniel. 
Hill, Henry. 
I lamner, Edward. 
Huddleston, .Solomon. 
Hail, John. 
Hcderick, Peter. 
Hudson, John. 
Harper, Koliert. 
Inskeip, James. 
Jones, J. Johnson. 
Jones, luioch. 
kelley, Richard M. 
Kimball, Thomas V. 
Landl'are, William. 
Lucas, Francis. 
Laforce, John. 
Leeson, Oliver H. 
Lane, Reuben. 
Miller, Jacob. 
Miller, George. 
Mahoney, Ixichard B. 
Major, Thomas. 
Matlock, Da\id. 
Munnian, Franklin. 
Moore, Willis. 

McKinney, Lcander B. 
Owens, Daniel. 
Pence, George. 
Phipps, John. 
Patterson, William. 
Pratt, Admiral. 
Ports, Philip H. 
Pruitt, Archibald. 
Patterson, John. 
Riker, Henry C. 
Ruddleljaugh, .Samuel, 
Real!', I'^lias. 
Raridon, Theodore F. 
Sowers, Jonathan. 
Sandcfer, Samuel. 
Smith, Henry N. 
Saintclair, William. 
Tolen, William. 
Wilkinson, John C. 
WalTord, Hamilton. 
Wiles, Samuel G, 
Webb, David E. 
^^\)o^l, fohn B. 
Wa)-, John M. 

Samuel Churchill, Mustering Officer. 

Company F was in the service about twelve and a half months. 
The company was mustered in at New Albany with eightj'-eight 
men, and mustered out at New Orleans with sixty-four men. They 
came home by way of ?yfadison, reaching Columbus, July 4, 1847. 

Coiuj^any F—Fourlh Regiment. ~\n May, 1S47, a second call 
for volunteers w^as made, and in response an 'infantry company was 
raised by Michael Fitz Gibbon. The following officers were com- 
missioned May 27: Michael Fitz Gibbon, Captain; Isaac Truly, 
First Lieutenant; D. R. Wayland, Second Lieutenant; G. W. 
Amsden, Second Lieutenant; Robert McGill, Second Lieutenant; 



AV. K. McCanc, Scodiid Lieuteiiau!. Non-Cominissioncd Otllccrs: 
Joseph Craine, First Sergeant; I. F. Little, Second Sergeant; 
>?imrod Lander, Second Sergeant; Fred. Spelker, Third Sergeant; 
Math. Gaffney, Foiirth Sergeant; Nathan Lewis, First Corporal; 
Henry Quillen, Second Corporal; C. J. Kiskv, Tliird Corporal; 
John Kay, Fourth Corporal; Morrison M. Smith, Fifer, and IL C. 
Wilson, Drummer. 

Early in June the company assembled at the court house in 
Columbus, preparatory- to leaving for Canip Clark. The town 
was filled with people, who came from all parts of the countv to 
give the gallant boys a farewell greeting and to witness the pres- 
entation of a beautiful fiag by the ladies of Columbus, which bore 
the patriotic and tender motto on its silken folds: " None but the 
Brave deserve the Fair." The presentation address was delivered 
by Mrs. Miranda Frances Comstock (now jNIrs. Hinman), daughter 
of John F. Jones. The address was appropriately and feelingly 
responded to b}' Capt. Fitz Gibbon. 

The company was mustered into the service June 12, 1847, and 
designated Company F, Fourth Regiment, commanded by Col. 
WilHs A. Gorman. The regiment immediatel}'^ embarked for the 
scene of conflict, and was assigned to the command of Gen. Joseph 
Lane, and with his brigade participated in all the contests in which 
the brigade was engaged. The company was mustered out at 
Madisun, Lid., July 16, 1848,' 

The following is a partial list of the privates of Company F, 
Fourth Regiment: James Andrews, Henry Alton, William F. Bu- 
ford, John Da}-, Brice Ferguson, John M. G. Franklin, Daniel 
Grimstead, Charles Gwj-n, John Harriott, James Johnson, William 
Jones, George Lumbarger, Charles McMellen, Joseph Morgason, 
James Newton, John Ott, L. D. Parker, James Plummer, James 
Proudfit, William K. Robbins, Jacob Siddle, OHver Stanley, John 
Suter, Lewis Weaver, John White, Enoch Worrell, John L. Young, 
David Ames, John Beeb}-, A. T. Charles, Moses Devon, William 
Gilbreath, Thomas Grimstead, George Gullion, Harvey Hardin, 
Ephraim Jeffreys, Isaac Jones, Allen W. Lewis, Samuel McFall, L-- 
vin Miller, Ira Mullen, Oscar Nicholson, Antone Papernaux, Will- 
iam Philbert, John Probasco, Thomas H. Reeves, Elisha Scott, 

43^ j!AiiTJioT-()Mi:\\' corxTv. 

J^cwis Sjiarks, John \V. Stout, josiah Scott, vSijuire \\\-sl, Levy 
Wilson, Wasliington Wilson, (liiinton li,. ]<.ust, James Anthony, 
JNIoses B.urk, Samuul I3urk, Tlionias II. Cahin, John Hawkins, 
Cooper McQuality, William Ward. 

For several years j->rior to r'^'a, the countr\- had been diafting 
surely toward civil war. The two sections, the North and the 
South, had different interests to serve in the administration of na- 
tional affair.s. The Republican ]i<'u-ty was then in its infancy, but 
it contained some elements that foretold destruction to the greatest 
institution of the Southern States — slaver}'. It is true that the party 
had not then taken any direct stand upon the question of slaver}', 
but its leaders were among the avowed opponents of that institution, 
and many had been identified with the movement for its abolition. 
Abraham Lincoln had publicallv declared that it was his deliberate 
conviction that the gOA'ernment could not exist half slave and half 
free. His election to the Presidency, was, therefore, by the Southern 
States, accepted as a menace to their institution, which had long 
been sanctioned bv the laws, and as the}' thought, with apparent 
right. In that section of the Union, the doctrine of State rights as 
paramount to National rights, had long been taught under the leader- 
ship of John C. Calhoun. Accordingly they did not long hesitate 
to secede from the Union, when it was known that Lincoln had been 
elected President. South Carolinia took the first active steps, and 
passed an ordinance of secession December 20, i860. In this 
movement she was followed in quick succession by Mississippi, 
January ^ 1861; Alabama and Florida, January 11; Georgia, 
January 19; Louisiana, January 26; Texas, Februaiy i; Virginia, 
April 17; Arkansas and Tennessee, May 6; North Carolina, May 
21. No President ever assumed the high office under such trying 
circumstances. In February succeeding the inauguration of Lincoln, 
a peace convention was held at Baltimore. This was attended by 
representatives from nearly all the States, but it utterly failed in its 
purpose: excitement was at the greatest tension throughout the 
country and the public spirit ran high. Mass meetings were held 
in all parts of the North. In Bartholomew County, a union meet- 
ing was called in which people of all shades of political opinion 
W'cre expected to meet and express their sentiments. The meeting 


w;is held at llu' couri house aliout two weeks before the fall of Ft. 
Sumter, and was addressed b}' Mari a Mooney, Col. Stansifer, and 
Ralph Mill. At this time a majority of the Confederate States liad 
already jassed ordinances of secession. Here the sentiment was 
divided, not a few, with Col. Stansifer as spokesman, claimed that 
since they had already withdrawn, they should be permitted to _i;o 
in peace, rather than drench the country in blood in an effort to 
coerce. A very large majorit\' at this meeting led by Ralph Hill, 
favored subjugation and believed that the States should be brought 
back into the Union by ph\'sical force if not otherwise. 

While the countr}' was in this strained condition. Fort Sumter 
was fired upon. That deed, more than all others, united the loyal 
hearts of the North in defense of the national flag that had been 
fired upon b}- those in rebellion. They welcomed it perhaps 
as the onh' solution of the question, and gladl}^ responded to the 
call to arms. The news of the fall of Fort Sumter was re- 
ceived at Indianapolis on Sunda}' morning the 14th of April, 1861, 
and at Columbus on the evening of the same da}-; President Lin- 
coln issued a call on the 15th for 75,000 troops. This was followed 
on the i6th b}- a proclamation from Gov. Morton calling for the 
six regiments, the quota for Indiana, as fixed b}- the Secretary of 
War. In this count}' the wildest enthusiasm was manifested, and 
the most intense excitement prevailed; a mass meeting was held at 
the court house in Columbus on Monday. All pohtical parties 
were represented. There was no division of sentiment at this time 
as to the proper course to pursue. All were in favor of protecting 
the flag. Speeches were made by Col. S. Stansifer and others, 
which did much to facilitate the formation of a company. In less 
than one week after the fall of Fort Sumter a compan}- was or- 
ganized in Bartholomew County. Many more were eager to go to 
the front in defense of the flag, but the quota was filled and they 
were not accepted. 

The first company from Bartholomew County to offer its serv- 
ices was raised b}'^ Augustus H. Abbett, and was oflicered as fol- 
lows: A. H. Abbett, Captain; Allen W. Prather, First Lieutenant; 
William C. Wheeler, Second Lieu'.enant. The commissions bore 
date of April 23, 1S61. The company left Columbus for Indianap- 


olis witli seven{\--fonr men. Soon aflcr its organization, ii was as- 
^ signed to the jiosilion of ]>, in tlie Sixth Regiment, wiiich was 
mustered into service on the 2 5l]i c>f April. 'J'lie eoni]ian\' re- 
entered tlie service, at the expiration of tlirce montlis, the time of 
first enlistment. The Sixth Regiment was organized and mus- 
tered into the ser\ice for thi-ee months at Jndiana]iolis, A]->ril 25, 
1861, with Thomas T. Crittenden, of Madison, as Colonel. On the 
30th of jMay, the regiment left for the scene of conflict in \\'est 
Virginia; arriving at Webster on the 2nd of June, it marched with 
other troops, the same night, through a drenching rain a distance 
of fourteen miles, and on the following day took part in the first 
battle of the war at Phillippi. It then joined Gen. ]Morris' 13rigade 
and participated in the march to Laurel Hill and the engagement 
with Garnett's Rebel command at Garrick's Ford, on the 12th of 
July. It returned to Indianapolis, and was discharged August 2, 
1S61. The Sixth was re-organized for three 3-ears' service, at 
Madison, September 20th, of the same 3'ear. In the re-organiza- 
tion Bartholomew Count}- was represented in seven of the ten 
companies, viz. : C, D, E, F, G, H, and K. Of these, two com- 
panies, C and G, were made up almost exclusively of Bartholo- 
mew County men, while the others contained only a few recruits from 
said count}'. This company was oflicered as follows: Captains — 
Augustus H. Abbett, April 23, 1S61; Allen W. Prather, October 
31, 1861 ; WiUiam A. Cummings (killed at Dallas, Georgia, May 27, 
1864). First Lieutenants — Allen W. Prather, April 23, 1861; 
James A. Willets, October 21, 1S61; William II. Cummings, Au- 
gust I, 1862; Charles Ma}', May i, 1864. Second Lieutenants — 
J. A. Willets, Jacob Hoover, October 21, 1S61; Charles A. May, 
Ma}' 30, 1 861. Captain Abbett left for the field with ninety-seven 
men, which was increased to loS. Of this number, twenty-three 
died and four deserted. October 10, 1S61, Captain Abbett was 
promoted Major, and in September, of the same year, was pro- 
moted Lieutenant Colonel of One Hundred and Twenlieth Regi- 

The officers of Company G, with dates of commissions, were : 
Captains — James Moffat, September 20, 1861; Samuel T. Finney, 
May 30, 1S62. First Lieutenants — S. T. Finney, September 20, 



i86r ; W. W. Wil!iams,May 29, 1862. w'^crond l.icuU'nanls - -Jcisiah 
Fut/, and Gerome P. Ilalcomb ( kilk-d at Mu;fi\'csl)oro, Ti-nn., May 
12, 1863) May 30, 1862. Of ihc original n!nc:ty-cii;iiUhaU'nler(."d llie 
serx'ice, twenty-one died, seven deserted, and one was unaccounted 
for. The total number in conijian\" du.riuL;" its term of service was 
102. The day after the re-organization, the regiment left Madison 
under the command of Col. C'rittenden, and entered Kentuckx- at 
Louisville, being the lu-st body of troojis to enter Kentucky from a 
northern State. The regiment stopped near Elizabethtown. Here 
it was joined by 300 recruits in charge of Lieut. Col. Hiram Prather. 
It was assigned to Rausseau's Brigade, and with this jiortion 
of Buell's armv participated in the second day's fight at Shiloh, 
where b}' its bravery it won the favor of the whole arm}-. It 
camped on the field at Shiloh until the siege of Corinth, in which it 
participated; thence with Buell's army through Kentucky, and 
back to Tennessee, where it participated in Rosecran's march upon 
Murfreesboro, and in the battle of Stone Ri\'er, December 31, 1862, 
and January i, 1863. The spring and summer of 1863 were spent 
in campaigning around Chattanooga. In the fall it participated in 
the battle of Chickamauga and skirmishes at Brown's Ferr}-, Ten- 
nessee, and Mission Ridge. In the march upon Atlanta the regi- 
ment participated in all the battles incident to that memorable cam- 
paign, in all of which it bore an honorable part. The non-veterans 
were mustered out at Chattanooga, September 22, 1864. The 
yeterans were transferred to other regiments; Compan}^ H, of the 
Twelfth Regiment, was raised by George M. Trotter, from Colum- 
bus and vicinit}^, and Woodbur)-, Hancock County. This was under 
the President's third call, which was issued August 4, 1862. The 
officers were commissioned as follows: Captains — George M. 
Trotter, August 16, 1862; Gideon B. Hart, May i, 1865. First 
Lieutenants — J. E. Hart, August 16, 1862; G. B. Hart, February' 12, 
1864; Richard Jones, Ma}" i, 1865. Second Lieutenants — Josephus 
Bills, August 16, 1S62; Richard Jones, February 16, 1864; Logan 
P. Herrod, May i, 1865. There were in the beginning eighty- 
eight enlisted men. The company was recruited by fort}'-four, 
making a total enrollment of 132 men. There were twent}-three 
dropped from the roll on account of death, and one deserted. 

44^ BAK'i'llOl.OMr.W COU-NTV. 

Captain Trotter was pronioled Major, Scpteinlicr 17, tS6.|, and 
May I, 1865, tf) the ])()sition of Lieutenant Colonel. Jesse 1 F. Coch- 
ran was eonmiissioncd Quarteiinaster, I'Vhruare 20, 1865. 

Tlie-Twelfth Re<^nnient was re-organized for three years' ser- 
vice at Indianapolis, August 17, 1862, with William II. Link, its 
old conunanding oHieer, as Colonel. It left for Krntuckv to resist 
the threatened invasion of Kirby vSniith, and on the 30th of August 
participated in the battle of Richmond, losing 173 killed and 
wounded, including the gallant Col. Link. The most of the rrgi- 
ment were taken prisoner and afterward paroled. Lieut. Col. 
Reuben Williams was promoted Colonel, November 7, and being- 
exchanged as prisoner of war, was ordered to report to Gen. 
Grant, at Memphis. In June, 1863, it was assigned to Logan's 
Fifteenth Corps of the Army of Tennessee, in which it served for 
more than two 3'ears, participating in all the battles, mai-ches and 
skirmishes. Took part in the siege of Vicksburg, and in Sherman's 
march from Memphis to Chattanooga. In the battle of Mission 
Ridge the regiment, November 25, lost no men and officers. It 
followed in pursuit of Bragg into Georgia, and thence to the relief 
of Burnside, at Knoxville. It participated in all the principal bat- 
tles and skirmishes of the Atlanta Campaign, losing in killed and 
\^ ounded 240 men between Dalton and Atlanta. After pursuing 
Hood through Georgia and Alabama, marched with Sherman to 
the sea, and through South Carolina and North Carolina, on 
to Ric'Miiond and Washington, where it was mustered out, June 
8, 1865, reaching Indianapolis the 14th of the same month. 

Company K, of the Thirteenth Regiment, was composed en- 
tirely of Bartholomew County men. In the first election of officers 
George W. Harrington was elected Captain; Joseph Hunter, First 
Lieutenant, and Daniel Stryker, Second Lieutenant. The com- 
missions were issued April 22, 1861. Later, officers with date of 
commissions were: Captains — J. B. Hunter, Ma}' 31, 1862; Samuel 
M. Ze-- , June 20, 1864. First Lieutenant — Samuel M. Zent, April 
20, 1862. Second Lieutenants — J. P. Jones, December 7, 1861; 
David Newson, February 6, 1862. In the re-organization of the 
Thirteenth, several of the companies contained a few Bartholomew 
County men. Of a total enrollment of loi in Compan}- K, sev- 
enteen deserted and four died. 

Min'j-.MJV nisToRV. 441 

The Tliirlcciith Reg"iniciU. — Tin's was one of the four i"et;M- 
ments lliat lirsl entered the service from hidiaiia for the term of 
three 3ears, and was mustered in at hidiauajioHs on the 19th day 
of June, i86j, witli Jerry C. Sullivan as Colonel. On the 4th of 
July, it left for the field, and on the mornin!,;- of the lOth joined 
Gen. McClellan's forces at the foot of K\ch Mountain, West 
Vir<^'-inia. On the next da\- it participated in the battle of Rich 
^Mountain, under Gen. Rosecrans, losing eight killed and nine 
wounded. It moved next to Cheat jNIountain, and took part in the 
engagement at that place. It marched to Alleghany under Gen. 
Milro}', and on the 13th of December participated in a battle at 
that place. On the 22nd of March, 1S63, was engaged at Win- 
chester Heights; after which it pursued Stonewall Jackson as 
far as New Market. It participated in the battle of the Deserted 
Farm, and the defeat of Longstreet at Suffolk. At the siege of 
Forts Waggoner and Gregg took a conspicuous part. It was en- 
gaged in nearl}-^ all the operations of Gen. Butler's Arm}- south of 
Richmond, in all of which it lost about 200. The regiment was 
transferred to the Arni}^ of the Potomac, June 13, 1864, after 
Avhich it participated in the battle of Cold Harbor, assault of Rebel 
works in front of Petersburg, the battle of Strawberr}- Plains, and 
operations against Richmond, December 6, 1S64; was re-organized 
into a battalion of five companies. Was mustered out September 
5, 1S65, with twenty-nine olHcers and 550 enlisted men. 

In the Fourteenth Regiment, Edward Brasher, of Columbus, 
was commissioned First Lieutenant of Company F, September 16, 
1861, and on Ma}' 13, of the following year, promoted Captain. In 
December of 1862, he resigned, but re-entered the service as Cap- 
tain of Compan}- A, One Hundred and Twentieth Regiment, and 
is credited to Terre Haute; was promoted Major, December 8, 1S63. 
In the Seventeenth Regiment, Thomas Murray was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant, Compan)- A, January 24, 1863. Francis P. 
Hauser was a private in Compan}^ B, same regiment. 

When the first call for six regiments was made by Governor 
Morton, man}^ move than were necessar}' to fill the quota for this 
count}', volunteered their services. Among those who were not 
received on the first call were a few from Elizabethtown and vicin- 

442 lJ.\KTII01-0Mi:\V COUNTY. 

it\". I'luk'r the J'TcsidciiTs sccdiul call (jcor^'c 10. Fiiiiu'V iniiiu'd- 
ialely began to recruit a company, InilfailiiiL;- to get the rcijuii-cd num- 
ber, joined with a jxirtially recruited companv from Johnson County 
and organized with Kichard Jvc]le\-. of ICdinburg, Captain. Those 
from ]5art]iolome\v County who receivedcommissions were.Cn'orge 
E.Finney, April 7, 186:2: and William 11. Wilson, December i, 1S62, 
Second Lieutenant. The former was promoted First Lieutenant, 
December i, 1862, and the latter, January i, 1863. This company, 
of which thirty-one \\ere from Ijartholomew County, was assigned 
to the ])Osition of IT, Nineteenth Regimeiit. Of those from this 
county, George E. Finney rose to the rank of Adjutant, his com- 
mission bearing date of January 10, 1863. He was mustered out 
March 12, 1S65, as paroled prisoner of war. 

The Nineteenth Regiment was mustered into the seryice at In- 
dianapolis on the 20th of July, 1S61, wiih Solomon Meredith as Colo- 
nel. It joined the Army of the Potomac, on the 9th of August. 
It was first engaged at Lewinsyille; it went into quarters at Arling- 
ton Heights, and in March, 1S63, it marched under McDowell to 
Fredericksburg and Spottsylyania Court House, thence to Cedar 
INIountains, and on the 2Sth of August, was engaged at Gainesyille, 
losing 187 killed and 33 missing. On the 30th it was again en- 
gaged at Manassas Junction, and at South Mountain on the 14th of 
September, losing fort}- killed and wounded and seven missing; on 
the 17th it entered the battle of Antietam with 200 men and came 
out with but 37. It was next engaged at Fredericksburg, then at 
Fitzhugh's Crossing, and on the morning of the ist of Jul}' reached 
the battle field of Gett3-sburgh, and with the First Armj^ Corps was 
the first infantry force to engage the enemy. On the first day the 
regiment lost 210 out of 28S men that went into battle. During 
the winter of 1864 a portion of the regiment re-enlisted, and with 
Grant's Army participated in the battles of the Wilderness, Laurel 
Hill, North Anna, Cold Harbor and the siege of Petersburg, los- 
ing in all about 210 men and officers. The non-yeterans were 
mustered out in August, 1864, and the veterans at Louisville, 
July 12, 1865. 

In the re-organization of the Twentieth Regiment it was consoli- 
dated with the Nineteenth, among whom were several Bartholo- 

'^- f 



inew County men. .In the new organization the\- cnli.sled in 
Conipan}- G, which was ollieered as follo^v.s: William B. WilstMi, 
Klizabethtown, commissioned Captain, December 2, xS6.\. On the 
same day Eldridge Anderson ^vas commissioned First Lieutenant, 
but was promoted Captain of said company, December i6, 1864. 
The TwentN'-lirst Regiment Heavy Artillery, was organized at 
Indianapolis, July 24, 1861, as an infantry regiment, with James W. 
]\IcMillen, CoIducI. After doing infantry duty until Februar}-, 
1S63, it \\'as changed to heav}' artillery service, and Lieut. Col. 
John A. Keith, of Columbus, placed in command. He remained 
in command of the regiment until Februar}' 2, 1S65, when he was 
honorably discharged. His commission as Lieutenant Colonel bore 
date of July 23, 1S61. Colonel Keith was a man of fine literar}^ 
attainments, a lawyer of fair abilit}', and a soldier brave and daring. 
He is the only one of the soldiers of Bartholomew Count}^ who 
rose to the high rank of Colonel. In several of the companies of 
the Twenty-first Regiment, there were a few men from Bartholo- 
mew Count}'. 

For Jefferson C. Davis' Regiment there were two companies 
recruited in Bartholomew County; one from the southern part of 
the count}', assigned to the position of Compan}' E, was composed 
exclusiA'cl}^ of men from this count}', while in Company G, a\ hich 
was recruited by Squire Isham Keith, there were sixt}'-t\\'o men 
from Bartholomew County, a large portion of the remainder being 
assigned to Louisville, Ky. The oUicers of Company E were 
commissioned as follows : Captains — Josiah Wilson, July 15, 1S61 ; 
William II. Snodgrass, July 11, 1S62; Alvin C. Graves, January 
20, 1865. First Lieutenants — William H. Snodgrass, July 15, 
1861; S. H. McBride, July 11, 1862, died Decei iber 5, 1862; Al- 
vin C. Graves, December 6, 1862; James E. Benton, Januar}' 2, 
1865. The original number of enlisted men Avas 99; recruits, 124; 
lost by death, 49; deserted, 5. The officers of Company G were: 
Captains — Isham Keith, July 15, 1861; William M. Wiles, July 
9, 1862: Alonzo J. Mass, May 27, 1863; Nicholas Moser, January 2, 
1865; George W. Hopkins, ALirch 20, 1865. First Lieutenants — 
WilHam M. Wiles, July 15, 1861; James McGrayel, July 9, 1S62; 
Alonzo J. Mass, February 23, 1863, killed July i, 1S64; Nicholas 

^.\6 BAirriioLOMi:w countv, 

Moscr, April 25, iSC\Y, Dow E. l)c)\vnin<;-, March 20, i86v Sec- 
ond Lieutenants— Janifs McGrayel, July 15, 1S61; Alex Grillith, 
July 9, 1862; N. Moser, February 23, 1863, killed :\rarch, 1865; 
S. C. Trig---, April 25, 1863; W. W. Matthews, May i, 1S65. 
Of an original enrollment of ninety-seven about sixtv-two were 
assigned to Bartholomew County. Capt. Keith, who had risen to 
the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, was killed at Chaplain Hills, Octo- 
ber 8, 1S62. 

Few regiments saw more hard and active service than the 
Twentj'-second. It was organized at Madison, and mustered in at 
Indianapolis; from there it moved to St. Louis and joined the army 
of Gen. Fremont. It was engaged in the battle of Pea Ridge, the 
siege of Corinth, Perry ville (where it lost 50 per cent, of the men 
engaged), Stone River, Mis. ion Ridge, and in the campaign of 
1S64, bore a conspicuous part. It left Chattanooga in Mav, with 
Sherman's Army, and was engaged at Tunnel Hill, Rocky Face 
Ridge, battle of Rasacca, Rome, Dallas, Big Shanty, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Chattahooche River, Peach Tree Creek, and at Atlanta 
from the 28th of July to August 7th, Red Oak Station, Jonesboro, 
and in December, at the siege of Savannah, and then joined in the 
forward movement through the Carolinas. On the i6th of June, 
1865, it was discharged at Indianapolis. 

In the Twenty-fourth re-organized, which was a consolidation 
of the veterans of the original Twenty-fourth and Sixty-seventh 
regiments, Bartholomew Count}' was represented in Companies 
I and K. In the former, William H. Aikin, of Hope, was com- 
missioned Captain, December 21, 1864; and George W. Friedle}-, 
of Company K, March 21, 1863. Horace L. Brown, of Moore's 
Vineyard, became First Lieutenant, December 21, 1864. Charles 
S. BoA-nton, of Hope, became Surgeon of the Regiment, March 5, 

In the Twent^'-seventh, Jacob Lee, of Taylorsville, held a com- 
mission of First Lieutenant in Company^ C. Emil Aichelc, of Col- 
umbus, war commissioned Assistant Surgeon of the Thirty-second, 
April 26, ] 02. In both the Thirtieth and Thirty-first there were 
a few men from Bartholomew County. In the Thirty-third there 
\vere two full companies from the county. Companv G was raised 



by Israel C. Dillc, wlio was at the lime cdilor of a paper in Col- 
umbus. vThe uincers of the company, Avitli dates of commission were : 
Captains — I. C. Dille, September 5, iS6r ; S. I). 1 Telman, May 4, 1865 ; 
First Lieutenants —William l^arrcll, vScptember 6, 1861; Plina Mc- 
Knight, January 6, 1863; S. 1). I lelman, January i, 1S65; I. J. Belts, 
Ma}' 4, 1S65. Second Lieutenants — -Plina IMcKm'ght, Septem- 
ber 6, 1861; William ]?one, January' 6, 1863; A. C. Ilorton, May 4, 
1S65. This company had a total enrollment of 169 men, twenty of 
whom died and sixteen deserted. The Captain was killed by guer- 
rillas July 17, 1863, and W^ilham Farrell on the steamer Sultana, 
April 28, 1S65. Company I was raised b}- William A. W. Ilauser 
from Hope and vicinity. Its officers were : Captains — William A. W. 
Ilauser, Sejitembcr 6, 1861; George L. Scott, February 19, 1863; 
Enos Halbert, October 5, 1864. First Lieutenants- — G. L. Scott, 
September 6, 1861 ; Ed J. Bachman, February 19, 1863; Henry L, 
Fislier, Januar}' i, 1865. Second Lieutenants — E. J. Bachman, 
September 6, 1S61; J. L. Chrisler, Februar}- 19, 1S63; Charles IL 
Porter, Januar}' i, 1864; Enos Halbert, April 28, 1864; John A. 
Miller, May i, 1865. In this company there was an enrollment of 
185 men, twent3'-eight died and thirteen deserted. Captain George 
L. Scott was killed July 22, 1S64. 

The Thirty-third Regiment was engaged in Kentuck}^ untl 
April, 1862, most of the time doing garrison duty. At that time it 
joined Gen. IMorgan's forces against Cumberland Gap, and after 
the evacuation of that place it returned as escort to the ammunition 
convo}' to Kentuck}-, in which State it remained, doing but little 
hard service until January, 1863, when it was transferred to Nash- 
ville. From that time on the regiment saw much hard service, at 
Columbia, Thompson's Station and Franklin. Earl3^ in 1864, ^^^^ 
regiment re-enli.-ied and came home on veteran furlough. On its 
return to the field, it joined in the Atlanta campaign, and was en- 
gaged at the following places: Resacca, Cassville, New Hope 
Church, Golgotha, Gulp's Farm, Kenesaw, Marietta, Peach Tree 
Creek, and the siege of Atlanta. On September 2, Atlanta wrs 
surrendered to Col. Coburn, of this regiment. In this campaign 
the regiment lost more than 300 killed and wounded. It remained 
in camp at Atlanta until November 15th, when it started in the 


cclehralod "March to llic Sea," in wliicli it took a disUii_i;'iii.slicd 
♦.part. After that it started north lhr()ui;"h the CaroHnas, and was 
several times enjj;ai^ed witli the enem\'. l^he Tliirty-tliird was one 
of the strongest i^eginienls engaged in the war, and was always 
well recruited and kept together. It was mustered out at Ivouis- 
ville, Kentucky, Jul\- 21, 1865. 

In the Thirt^'-seventh there were a few men f)"oni Bartholomew 
Count}', among whom was Augustus II. Tevis, commissioned 
First Lieutenant of Company II, July 19, 1864. Up to this time 
the three calls made by the Pi-esident aggregated more than 
315,000 men. Volunteering went on rapidly, and recruiting 
stations were established in all parts of the count}-. At Jones- 
ville, Button G. Cody and others began recruiting a company-, 
and in a short time ninct^'-six men had enlisted. The com- 
pany was organized and its officers commissioned as follows: But- 
ton G. Cody, September 2, 1861; Joseph Potts, April 22, 1S63; 
Thomas N. Baker, October i, 1863; WiUiam H. Ockerman, March 
I, 1865. At the organization Joseph C. Potts was commissioned 
Pirst .Lieutenant, and Thomas Baker was commissioned Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. Joseph C. Potts died of wounds September 
20, 1863; Thomas N. Baker was promoted Major of the regiment, 
February, 1865. In Company B, Henry C. Snyder was made 
Captain, Januar}^ i, 1865. In Compan}^ M, fourteen were enrolled 
from Bartholomew County. They were originally organized as 
sharpshooters, but were afterward mounted as cavahy, and desig- 
nated as the Eighth Cavahy, Thirt}'-ninth Regiment. Soon after 
organization it went to Kentuck}', and remained in the Green River 
countr}', until the following spring. The regiment was engaged at 
Ihe battle of Shiloh, at Corinth, and then moved through northern 
Alabama to Nashville. From there it went through Kentuck}', in 
pursuit of Gen. Bragg. It took part in the battle of Stone River 
with a severe loss. In April, 1S63, it was mounted and served in that 
capacity through the campaign. It was engaged in many skir- 
mishes in various portions of the South, and many of the important 
"battles. It saw service in the Sherman campaign against Atlanta 
iind Savannah, and later through the Carolinas. It was discharged 
at Indianapolis during the last week of Jul\-, 1065. Few regiments 
did more effective service. 



Compaii}' II, of the ]"ifl\ -lliird Ri'i^'iincnt, was recruited 
larn-el^- <froin llic iinrtli jxirt of I his counlv, in Deceinbcr, i86r. 
The inumber of enlisted men and recruits was i8S. The comjiany 
org'anized witli eiglity-one men, and elected the following otllcers: 
George I). jNIcQueen, December i6, 1861; O. II. Huston, April 
10, 1862: John Garratt, July 1, 1863; Clinton Lewis, March 29, 
1S65, Captains. Nathaniel iMartin, Decemhei- 16, 1861; E. I). 
Pudney, November 17, 1863; John Garratt, May 26, 1863; James: 
B.lMiller, March 28, 1865, First T^ieutenants. S. S. Sims, December 
16, i86i;E. D. Pudney, June 21, 1862; Adam Lorts, March 25, 
1865, Second Lieutenants. Twent3'-three of the company died, and 
fourteen deserted. 

The Fift3--third Regiment was partially organized at New 
Alban\ , January, 1862, but the organization was not perfected until 
February, when Walter Q. Gresham, was put in command. It was 
on guard duty at Camp IMorton, until March 15, when it was trans- 
ported to St. Louis, and later to Savannah, Tenn. It was engaged 
during its term of service as follows: West Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi, 1862-3; Siege of Corinth, 1862; against Vicksburg, 1863; 
Sherman's raid through Mississijipi, 1864; against Atlanta, 1864; 
pursuit of Hood, 1864; Sherman's march to the sea, 1864; through 
the Carolinas in 1865, and was mustered out at Louisville, July 21, 

Companies D and I, of the Sixty-seventh Regiment, were raised 
in the most part from Bartholomew Count}'; Augustus H. Abbett, 
who was Captain of the first company raised from the count}', re- 
cruited Company D, and was elected its first Captain, his cpmmis- 
sion bearing date of August 19, 1862. Other Captains were: 
George Sims, September 6, 1S62, and B. L. Smith, Juty i, 1S64. 
First Lieutenants — George R, Sims, August 19, 1862 ;B. L.Smith, 
September 6, 1S62; 11. L. Brown, July i, 1864. Second Lieuten- 
ants — B. L. Smith, August 19, 1862; II. L. Brown, September 16, 
1862. Among the names of Bartholomew soldiers conspicuous for 
militar}'^ service, none deserves more proipinent mention than that 
of Aufjustus H. Abbett. In less than a week after the firinfj of Fort 
Sumter, he, at the head of 100 men, was ready to go to the front 
in defense of his country. After serving less than one month he 


Avas promoted IMajor of regiment, September 5, 1S62. At the 
^battle of Miinfordsville, Kentuck\-, the first action in Avliieh the 
i-egiment was engaged, taking an exposed position in order to en- 
courage his men, he \vas killed September 14, 1862. 

Compan3^ I, same regiment, was recruited at Hope, and was 
mustered in with eighty-four men and was recruited with fourteen 
men. The olhcers, with dates of commissions, were: Captains — 
Shepherd F. Eaton, August 20, 1S62 ; George AV. Friedlc}-, March 21, 
1863. First Lieutenants — -George W. Friedlc}-, August 20, 1:862; 
WiUiam H. Aiken, March 21, 1863. Second Lieutenants — W. H. 
Aiken, August 20, 1862 ; W. M. Friedle}-, April 30, 1863. 

The Sixt}'-seventh Regiment was organized in the Third 
Congressional District, and mustered into service Au:>;ust 20, 1862, 
^vith Frank Emerson as Colonel, and was at once ordered to Louis- 
ville. From there it marched to Munfordsville, where it took part 
in the engagement with the advance of Bragg's Army on the 14th 
of September, and was surrendered at that place with other forces, 
but being paroled by the enemy returned home and remained till 
December, when it proceded to Memphis and joined Sherman's 
expedition against Vicksburg. The principal actions in which the 
regiment was engaged, were: Battles Arkansas Post, Port Gib- 
son, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicksburg, Grand 
Coteau, Mansfield, Alexandria, Sieges of Fort Gaines and Morgan, 
etc. The regiment was consolidated with the Twentj'-fourth Reg- 
iment in December, 1864, and was mustered out July 19, 1865. 
During its term of service the Sixty-seventh participated in eighteen 
regular engagements, was under fire 147 days and traveled 17,000 

Company L, of Fourth Cavalry (Seventy-seventh) Regiment, 
was organized with ninety-eight men ; tvvent3'-five of that number 
were from Bartholomew County. The men had been thoroughly 
drilled by WilHam Winkler, a man of scholarly attainments, an en- 
thusiastic patriot who had served with credit in the German Arm3\ 
He was well versed in military tactics, and, after its organization, 
was the principal drill master of the regiment, besides perforniing 
the duties of Adjutant much of the time during his term of service. 
He was commissioned Second Lieutenant of the company, June i, 


1S65, but was nil' -Icred (nit as StTgcant. Jasper X. Vanskike, of 
Columbus, was commissioned First Lieutenant at the organiza- 
tion, Auo-ust 15, 1S62, and February ly, 11^63, lie was promoted 
Captain, Josiah Ilartly hax'ing been dislionorably discharged. The 
Seventy-seventh was organized at Indianapolis, August 22, 1S62, 
with Colonel Isaac P. Gray in command. The regiment was en- 
gaged in the following actions during its term of service: ]Mount 
Washington, Kentucky; Madisonville, near Munfordsville; Ruth- 
erford's Creek, near Murfrcesboro, Chickamauga, Fayetteville, 
Tennessee, IMossv Creek, Talbot's, and Dandritlge, Fair Garden. 
The regiment was also with Sherman at Atlanta, and under Gen. 
Wilson participated in the campaign of Alabama and Georgia. 
One of the most conspicuous actions in which the regiment partici- 
pated was a sabre charge on a Rebel batteiy. The charge was led 
by Lieut. Col. Leslie, and resulted in the capture of the batteiy, 
one battle flag, and more prisoners than the charging part}- had 
men engaged. Herod D. Garrison, of Hope, was appointed As- 
sistant Surgeon, INIarch i, 1864. The regiment was mustered out 
June 29, 1865. 

In the fall of 1862, in response to the President's call for 300,000 
troops for nine months, recruiting was renewed, and in a few weeks 
two full companies were raised in this county. The Ninet3'-third 
Regiment was at the time being recruited in the Third Congres- 
sional District, with Madison as place of rendezvous. One of the 
companies, of which Charles Hubbard was Captain, was assigned 
to the position of A, and during its term of service had the follow- 
ing officers: Captains — C. A. Hubbard, August i, 1862; W. H. 
Stevens, March 5, 1865. First Lieutenants — C. H. Maxwell, 
August I, 1862; W. B. Stevens, April 29, 1863; Eli Stringer, 
July I, 1865. Second Lieutenants — John G. Hunter, August i, 
1862; William Goforth, July i, 1865. During its term it had on its 
roll 112 men, twenty-seven of whom died and eleven deserted. The 
other company was assigned to the position of E, same regiment, 
and the officers bore commissions as follows: Captain — Michael 
McGrayel, August 20, 1862. First Lieutenant — Marion Mooney, 
August 20, 1862. Second Lieutenants — Alonzo Hubbard, August 
20, 1862; Edward P. Foster, January 16, 1S63. The company 


enlisted uilh ciglity-scNcn men and was recruilcil w ith lift \--nInc. 
Tlicrc were thirt^y-two wlio dietl and six deserted. In the same 
re;.;imcnt there were seven 13artholomew County men in Company 
C, se\eii in Compan\ V and six in Company I. In tlic last named 
company, William 1>. 1'. llebbard was commissioned P'irst T^ieuten- 
ant, August 20, 1862. 

The Ninet3--third was mustered into the service, in October, 
1S62. It was almost constantly on the march until May, 1S63, 
when it joined General Sherman's Corps and participated in the 
movement against Vicksbm-g. It was next engaged in the siege 
of Jackson, Mississippi. Other actions in which it was engaged, 
were at Brownsville, Mississippi, Brice's Cross Roads, Harrisburg, 
IMississippi, Battle of Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely. 
The regiment was mustered out of service at Memphis, Tennessee, 
August ro, 1S65. The regiment left for the field with 923 men, 
and returned with iS officers and 200 men. It traveled during 
its term of service 1,060 miles by rail and 3,972 miles by river, and 
marched 2,400 miles. Of those from the county who received 
commissions as regimental oflicers, were: Charles Hubbard, Major, 
March 5, 1S65; Abraham L. Whitesides, Quartermaster, .Septem- 
ber 5, 1862; John H. Ford, Surgeon, April 25, 1863; George E. 
Ir\^■in, Assistant Surgeon, March 20, iS63;Lee M. Sockett, Assist- 
ant Surgeon, Jul}" 5, 1S65. 

During the month of September, 1863, Gov. Morton received 
authority from the War Department to raise eleven regiments of 
three years' volunteers. Of these the One Hundred and Twentieth, 
was raised in the First, Third and Eighth Ci : gressional Districts, 
with Columbus as place of rendezvous, the fair grounds being 
used for the purpose. In recruiting this regiment, Allen W. Prather, 
who had already distinguished himself in the service for his pat- 
riotism and braver}-, took a prominent part, a